Thursday, March 14, 2019
Water Resource Should Be Nationalized
pissing agreement RESOURCES SHOULD BE NATIONALIZED INTRODUCTION Water visions be sources of urine strategy that are useful. The world is fast running out of usable pissing. anthropogenetic activities are depleting and polluting this finite well spring of contendertime at a startling rate. The present ineffective worry of irrigate ignores the potential of conservation and embraces the chimeric alternative of increasing run. Degraded irrigate supplysheds, drying local pond systems, shrivel canal networks, and wetland degradation as a result of anthropogenic activeness and climate change relegate piddle to the status of scarce commodity. The ever-increasing distort ca apply by population growth and concomitant increased cultivation and industrial demands for weewee has created an apparent scenario of urine shortage that requires augmentation. The assessed requires could be met with more(prenominal) efficient utilization of intra-basin resources, except in case of Cauvery and Vaigai basins where limited wet transfers could take place by transferring wet from Godavari River. Despite this report, plans were floated to combat pee deficits by conveying surpluses to water deficient locations.Various political leave-takingies and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) members in Tamil Nadu felt that linking river water resources could enhance the realization of water needs. These political pressures pushed the marriage offer forward, ternioning to Supreme Court direction to the goerning of India demanding that the government take steps to coverlink certain study rivers of the country by the year 2012, spelling the beginning of the Interlinking of Rivers Project. WHAT IS NATIONALIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES?The rivers f petty(a)ing from the north to second are not hundred per cent utilised by the individual claims efficiently. Be start some state whitethorn need water and some may not need depending upon the geographical location, requirement, a griculture etc. So the unused water from these rivers are directed to the sea. So what the government has planned is to matterize the rivers by constructing a water billet from north to south , standardised how the national highways are in that location in our country , we for imbibe have the water highway routes in the normal of the channels. link up OF RIVERSAll ancient complaisantizations over world were born, bred, flourished and advanced by the river banks. Rivers are, therefore, an integral part not still of man existence merely the very existence of life on our planet The Earth. Indian culture owes its supremacy to the rivers which are the life and blood of the nation. That is why they are worshiped as goddesses all over the country. Role of rivers in human life and now in national development, progress and prosperity, development of agriculture, science, technology or industry is beyond description.In olden days when there was no hassle of overpopulation water re sources provided by these rivers were sufficient for the population living by the banks. exclusively with the ever increasing burden of population and multiplicity of demand for water for various purposes ranging from agricultural needs to industrial needs and for generation of causality judicious utilization of this innate(p) resource has experience an absolute necessity. India is a country with vast population with extremes of climate, different topography, varied types of soils, annual rainwater ranging from 5 cm to more than 1000 cm. ome parts lining the massacre of floods and other parts thirsty for rain drops. Hence a stratagem for effective and efficient management of water resources was prepared which envisages interlinking of 37 national rivers through and through 30 links across 9600 km with 32 connecting dams. The apex court of India has issued a directive to the government of India to interlink these rivers within a period of 10 years. The government on its par t has decline up a task force nether former top executive minister, Suresh Prabhu to build national consensus, work out detailed plans and to see that the stallion work is completed by the year 2016.In view of the director worldwide of National Water Development Agency (NWDA) the interlinking of rivers should be establish upon- INTER-BASIN TRANSFER Inter-basin transfer is an outstanding example of effective and efficient management of water resources on the basis of need of the people Interbasin transfer or transbasin cheer are (often hyphenated) terms used to describe man-made expatriation schemes which move water from one river basin where it is available, to another basin where water is less available or could be utilized better for human development.The purpose of such designed schemes can be to alleviate water shortages in the receiving basin, to generate electricity, or both. The national water development execution (NWDA) has estimated that the purge would appeal Rs . 5, 60,000 cores at 2002 prices. The plan Inter basin transfer aims to deliver 173 billion cubic meter of water through a 12, five hundred km maze of canals which would irrigate 34 million hectares of land and would supply drinking water to 101 districts and five metro cities. THE NWDA HAS DIVIDED THE INTERLINKING OF RIVER PROJECT INTO TWO PRIMARY COMPONENTS 1.THE HIMALAYAN COMPONENT PROPOSING A wrench OF 14 CANALS The project in turn tails to link the bramaputra and its tri plainlyaries with the ganga and the ganga with the Mahanadi river to transfer surplus water from eastern United States to west. The scheme envisages flood control in the ganga and brahmaputra basins and a reduction in water deficits for many states which is estimated to cost Rs. 3, 75, 000 core. 2. THE PENINSULAR COMPONENT WITH A PROPOSED saying OF16 CANALS. River interlinks are envisaged to attain the states of Orissa, Karnataka,Tamil nadu,Gujarat,Pondicherry,and maharastra. he linkage of the Mahanadi and Godavari rivers is proposed to feed the Krishna,pennar,cauvery,and vaigai rivers. Transfer of water from Godavari and Krishna entails pumping 1200 cusecs of water over a crest of about 116 meters. Interlinking the spate with the Betwa, Parbati, Kalisindh, and Chambal rivers is proposed to benefit Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. The river links to cost Rs. 1, 85, 000 cores. It is planned to transfer 141 km3/yr through peninsular India and 33 km3/yr Himalayan links essentially for redistribution in the Ganga basin and to horse opera India.Only small majority of water can be transferred from the Brahmaputra basin. Thus in totality 1660 km3/yr of development water resource can be created which can take care of any exigencies. THE BENEFICIARIES OF RIVER LINKING The politically important consideration for drawing up the river linking plan was the emergence of major national and transnational industries and rapid urbanization in many of the low water availableness natural regions of the west and south. It was purported also to help the commercial farming lobby for sugarcane.A case of mortgaging the nations future for a miniscule affluent population. The plan is aimed at ending the flood problems of the Gangs and Brahmaputra and at the same time solving the drought problem in Confederate India by diverting surplus water of the snow-fed rivers to the rain fed peninsular river. Help prevent floods in north and east, drought in south and west of the country. India depends heavily on monsoon. Interlinking go away help irrigation, which in turn leave help increase the lop yields by reservation farmers less dependent on monsoon and ensuring a year long water supply.These worlds bring an extra 35 million hectares under irrigation whereby per capita food penetrate consumption would be doubled in spite of the increase in population. This interlinking of rivers will provide food security to the country. Additional 34,000 k. w. electricity will be generated against the p resent 24,000 k. w. I. e. it will be more than doubled. This would stop an impetus to the industrial sector as well. It will not only be a linking of rivers but a linking of lives. It will promote national integration. River raptures is not only cheaper but also a non-polluting transport alternative.This has been a success in Europe. Experts suggest that even canals can be used for moving cargo between the states. Interlinking of rivers will generate employ opportunities all over the country especially in agriculture sector, power, transport and construction works. This project alone can enhance the GPD by 4%. Above all migration from hoidenish areas will reduce which would reduce congestion in urban areas. Decentralization of industries would be a natural phenomenon with the availability of water and power. HURDLES IN INTERLINKING OF RIVERSUndoubtedly, interlinking of rivers would provide measureless facilities and comforts but certain hurdles are bound to swot up in the imp lementation of the project. In the first instance many canals will pass through national parks and sanctuaries and many people may be displaced by the building of dams and canals. The construction of reservoirs and dams may swallow up the natural habitats of wild life and the ecology of the country may be subjected to unknown consequences. Large areas under forests may be submerged under water.According to some scientists monsoon rains come all over the country at one and the same time, hence interlinking rivers may cause floods. accordingly rivers like Ganga and Brahmaputra are international rivers, hence consent of adjacent countries like Nepal and Bangladesh would be a necessity for the completion of the project. Country is already facing a dispute over sharing of Kaveri river water. Further conflicts may come near between the states on the issue of sharing of water between them. Dams tend to sometimes aggravate he condition of floods They cause water record and soils become s aline and unsuitable for crops if floodwater from the east is transferred to other areas the biodiversity of these regions will be affected the forms growing in these regions will die, many animal and hoot species that live there will become extinct. the severe drought during summer in many parts of the country is due to mismanagement of water and not because a lack of it. Steps should be taken to preserves water at the local level instead. Finally financing of the project will not be so easy.FUDAMENTAL OBJECTIONS TO RIVER LINKING 1. Linking of rivers violates the natural laws governing the life support system, and natural dynamics and discounts the bounties provided by river systems. 2. The loss of flood plains and spatter basins by human interference has caused devastating floods. River linking shall enhance this situation. 3. Man-made dams, reservoirs, and painted lakes that are to be project ingredients would rob the rivers of their energy potential. 4. In fact, exceptiona l energy would be needed for the rivers to jump over the natural water divides and topo-barriers. . Rainfall and water availability is regulated by the monsoons, resulting in a highly bimodal annual river hightail it and wet regime with consequential seasonal lows (droughts) and highs (floods). River linking shall certainly aggravate both droughts and floods by superimposition of the situation in each of the linked rivers. 6. Such linkages could possibly be thought of in more temperate latitudes with a more homogeneous annual moisture/flow regime. However, the Soviet experience of river sport has even then been catastrophic, resulting on the devastation of the Aral Sea. . A river is not a mere flow channel, but a holistic system encompassing the whole basin water divide, catchment, valley and outflow point. Any alteration shall affect the whole system and even induce microclimatic changes. 8. Inestimable loss of natural biodiversity, wild cultivars and plant gene banks shall ine vitably follow river linking to disrupting the regional food chain operation. 9. Monsoonal pelting on the degraded catchments shall cause excessive siltation-related problems in the linking systems. 10.Careful scrutiny of the state of environmental health of various rivers should have been first made onward clean rivers are linked very filthy rivers. 11. River linking shall inevitably lead to an alteration of the seasonal water availability pattern and the possibility of touch the evapo-transpiration balance. 12. An inevitable change in the cropping pattern from excessively irrigated lands after river-linking shall cause a major increase in methane and other gases that contribute to world(a) warming. 13. Land degradation shall also be inescapably aggravated. 4. The colossal estimated cost will surely jeopardise the national economy for decades and force diversion of funds from the more essential needs of the vast majority of rural poor. 15. The inter-state and international ramifi cations of shared riparian systems would certainly open the floodgates for a civil war situation and serious discord with Indias neighbours. Not only is any such proposal for inter-basin transfers totally repugnant to all natural and economic logic, but shall alter the subcontinents geographical configuration.In the ultimate analysis, the proposal shall signal the death knell of our river systems that provide the principal source of sustentation and encompass social, cultural and religious traditions. INTERLINKING MAJOR RIVERS WILL adulterate FARMER SUCIDES The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) hasdrawn out a blue print for implementing the project with the help of images collected from the Remote spying and Cartosat satellites launched by it in 2007 and 2008.Though the UPA government which came to power in 2004 had included the inter linking of peninsular Indian rivers as one of the top priorities in its viridity Minimum Programme nothing was heard about it afterwards. I ndia and Pakistan are locked in water war over the construction of power projects on Jhelum on their respective territories. Snow-fed rivers like Ganga, Indus and Brahmaputra, which originate in the Himalayas, and their tributaries are perennial. They continue to flow throughout the year. During monsoons, they tend to overflow and inundate large flood inclined areas and cause loss of ife, livestock, crops and property. Rain-fed rivers like Luni in Rajasthan remain dry for virtually part of the year because the rainfall is scanty in that area resulting in drought like conditions. The volume of water in the west catamenia rivers of Central Highlands, Narmada and Tapti is directly proportional to the amount of rainfall received during the monsoon season. Hence, there is a always an element of uncertainty in availability of water. To the northeastward of the Vindhyas, the Malwa Plateau and the Chhotanagpur Plateau of Jharkhand are comparatively better placed as they are drained by s teady Ganga and Yamuna.But due to the absence of comely river valley projects a large quantity of water wastefully flows into the alcove of Bengal through Ganga-Brahmaputra delta. In the peninsular region too, the rainfall is uneven, While the Western Ghats receive high rainfall, the Eastern Ghats receive very less. States like Tamil Nadu lie in the r tin shadow area and give way little rainfall from advancing South West monsoons. The East flow rate rivers of the Deccan Plateau-Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery drain this area. SEASONAL RIVERS OF THE SOUTHTo overcome the problems of flood and drought a whopping Rs. 5,60,000 crore river linkage project has been envisaged. The perennial and often inundating rivers of the north will be connected with the dwindling and rather seasonal rivers of -the south through a network of canals so that the former are stopped from bounteous and the latter are regularly replenished, curbing floods and famines at the same time. The project will also ensure regular, adequate and timely supply of water to all parts of the country for agriculture, industry and consumption. Of the three big Himalayan rivers, Indus has been left out because there is a natural connectivity in the ascertain of its tributaries like Sutlej, Beas and Jhelum which drain and well cater to the needs of the Indian part of the Indus basin. Water from Brahmaputra shall flow into Ganga. Two main headwaters in the ,Himalayas the Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda join at Devprayag and flow as Ganga thereafter. It enters Northern plain at Haridwar. Yamuna joins it at Allahabad. Yamuna, in turn, is joined by its tributaries like Chambal, Sind, Betwa and Ken. Sone joins Ganga directly andDamodar joins its distributor Hooghli. As the Ganga river system drains the States of Haryana, Southern Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and major parts of West Bengal many times its water falls short of the required quantity. Linking Ganga with Brahmaputra shall so lve this problem. Brahma- putra carries a tremendous volume of water. When it enters India at Namcha Barwa the undercutting done by this powerful river is of the order of 5500 meters. With the eastern States receiving heavy rainfall during monsoon, season the danger of floods looms large in many areas of Assam and Bihar almost every year.The linkage will mean diversion of . excess water from Brahmaputra into Ganges ,and this problem of floods shall be taken care of automatically. Ganga will be connected to Mahanadi and Godavari. This, will boost agriculture in the States of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Godavari will be further linked to Krishna, Pennar and Cauvery replenishing their depleting, waters. It will help Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and many parts of the Eastern ghats and the rain shadow areas of the South which get little rainfall from the advancing monsoons.This will bring smile on the faces of the farmers of the South many of which comm itted or contemplated suicide due to crop failures. This may also solve the dispute between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka over sharing of Cauvery waters. Narmada will flow into Tapi helping mainly the farmers around Satpura range. Yamuna will flow into Sabarmati which, in turn, will be linked to Luni. It will benefit many areas of Gujarat and the desert state of Rajasthan. Thar desert of today may become the prosperous Sahara in future, who knows?