Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Ethical Dilemma Essays -- Health Care, Nurses

The two principles that are in focus are beneficence and nonmaleficence. Both beneficence and nonmaleficence have played a fundamental historical role in medical ethics (Beauchamp & Childress, 2009). Nonmaleficence is often paired with beneficence, but there is a difference between these two principles (Rich, 2008). According to Beauchamp and Childress (2009) conflating beneficence and nonmaleficence into a single principle obscures important distinctions. In addition, both of these ethical principles beneficence and nonmaleficence are strengthened by state nursing practice acts, which mandate that nurses are legally obligated to safeguard patients and the profession (Bjarnason & LaSala, 2011). Furthermore, it is with great purpose that we discuss the two principles beneficence and nonmalficence and their importance to the nursing profession. The principle of beneficence is concerned with a moral obligation to act for the benefits of others (Kennedy, 2004). Additionally, beneficence is the principle consisting of deeds such as mercy, kindness, and charity (Rich, 2008). There are other forms of beneficence including altruism, love, and humanity (Beauchamp & Childress, 2009). We use beneficence in order to cover beneficent actions more broadly, so that it includes all forms of action to benefit other persons (Beauchamp & Childress, 2009). Overall, beneficence implies that an individual takes action to do good by benefiting others and facilitating their well-being. Beneficence also requires that benefits are balanced against risks and costs (Kennedy, 2004). In order for a person to â€Å"do good†, they must also consider the values of individual in question (Bjarnason & LaSala, 2011). Health care professionals have a duty t... ...ey encounter an ethical dilemma (Rich, 2008). Nurses can also periodically be called to an ethics committee to consult to gain access to needed help to resolve ethical dilemmas. Serving on an ethics committee with other disciplines and discussing the ethical dilemmas brought before the committee can be an informing and challenging process for a nurse (Lachman, 2010). Furthermore, the opportunity to help patients, staff, and families resolve these dilemmas is professionally rewarding for a nurse (Lachman, 2010). Overall, ethical dilemmas are faced every day in the clinical practice of nurses. When facing an ethical dilemma, remembering to preserve the patient's autonomy, dignity and rights is an important part of ethically solving the dilemma. However, if the ethical dilemma cannot be resolved nurses have the right to seek advice from other professionals. â€Æ'

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Renal Cyst Ultrasonic Differential Diagnosis Health And Social Care Essay

With the aid of ultrasonography simple cysts, complex cysts and solid multitudes can be identified. Simple cysts may non necessitate surgical intercession but complex cysts and solid nephritic multitudes should be farther evaluated and decently managed. Nephritic cysts are common nephritic mass. Their frequence addition with age and they are present in half the population above the age of 50. The etiology of nephritic cysts is non known, but it is possible that they form from the epithelial giantism of tubules or roll uping canals, with ensuing distention of the uriniferous tubule. This would explicate why cysts enlarge over clip, and the engagement of next uriniferous tubules might explicate why thin septations develop2. Elkin and Bernstein classified nephritic cysts ; ( 1 ) renal cysts due to dysplasia of the kidney ; ( 2 ) polycystic disease ; ( 3 ) cortical cysts ; ( 4 ) medullary cysts ; ( 5 ) assorted intrarenal cysts ; ( 6 ) extraparenchymal nephritic cysts. Ultrasound standards for the diagnosing of a simple nephritic cyst includes ( 1 ) Spherical or egg-shaped form ; ( 2 ) absence of internal reverberations ; ( 3 ) presence of a thin, smooth wall that is separate from the environing parenchyma ; and ( 4 ) sweetening of the buttocks wall, bespeaking ultrasound transmittal through the water-filled cyst3. The object of survey was to observe the supersonic differential diagnosing of nephritic cysts, because echography is a uniquely safe and non-invasive agencies of imaging internal anatomy. Nephritic cysts are common incidental findings on echography but may besides organize portion of specific disease procedure. Differentiation of the forms of the cystic disease is necessary for diagnosis4.Patients AND METHODS:The survey was conducted between January 2007 to April 2008 at the section of Radiology and Urology, Chandka Medical College Hospital, Larkana. 100 ( Symptomatic or Asymptomatic ) patients of either sex with nephritic cysts who were detected on echography were included in the survey. Along with history, physical scrutiny nephritic echography was performed to see the site, size and figure of cysts. A nephritic ultrasound is a radiological survey of the kidneys that can look at the kidneys in cross subdivision. Position of the patient for right kidney scanning supine, left posterior oblique, left sidelong decubitus, and prone as needed. For left kidney scanning right sidelong decubitus, prone as needed. Different patient places were used whenever the suggested place does non give the coveted consequences. Just Vision 400 ultrasound machine by Toshiba with 3.5 MHz convex ( multi frequence ) investigation was used for kidneys scrutiny. No readying was required for ultrasound scrutiny.Consequence:From January 2007 to April 2008, hundred patients were included in the survey. 72 were males and 28 were females. Male to female ratio was 2.5:1. Age ranges were between 1-100 old ages ( Table-1 ) . Of the one hundred patients 40 presented with symptoms but 60s were symptomless. Among 40 diagnostic patients the most clinical presentation associated with nephritic cyst in this survey was di abetes mellitus 10 ( 25 % ) and abdominal hurting 7 ( 17.5 % ) ( Table-2 ) . Among 100 patients differential diagnosing of nephritic cyst in 89 ( 89 % ) patient simple nephritic cysts were detected, hydronephrosis in 7 ( 7 % ) , medical nephritic disease in 2 ( 2 % ) , polycystic disease in 1 ( 1 % ) , haematoma in 1 ( 1 % ) were observed ( Table-3 ) . Of the 89 patients of simple nephritic cysts 57 ( 64 % ) were cortical cysts, 4 ( 4.5 % ) medullary cysts, 22 ( 25 % ) parenchymal cysts, 4 ( 4.5 % ) Para pelvic cysts, 2 ( 2.2 % ) extra parenchymal cysts. Different sizes of simple nephritic cysts were measured ranged from 1mm to 100 millimeters, 3 ( 03.40 % ) steps ( 01-10 ) millimeter, 25 ( 28.40 % ) steps ( 10-20 ) millimeter, 11 ( 12.50 % ) steps ( 20-30 ) millimeter, 27 ( 30.33 % ) steps ( 30-40 ) millimeter, 9 ( 10.22 % ) steps ( 40-50 ) millimeter, 5 ( 05.28 % ) steps ( 50-60 ) millimeter, 3 ( 03.40 % ) steps ( 90-100 ) millimeter and 6 ( 06.81 % ) measures variable sizes. ( Fig: ) . Cystic standards were besides assessed through 89 patients. Along this series the most frequent type of loculation in assorted nephritic cyst was uniloculated 87 ( 98 % ) and 2 ( 2 % ) were biloculated. 91 ( 91 % ) instances presented as one-sided simple nephritic cyst, 9 ( 9 % ) instances as bilateral simple nephritic cyst and multiple cysts nine in figure. Internal echogenisity of simple nephritic cyst in this survey revealed there were 100 ( 100 % ) takes all features of simple nephritic cyst anechoic or echo-free with absence of internal reverberations. In 89 patients of simple nephritic cysts concomitant sonographic abnormalcies were detected. Fatty liver were the most common accompaniment with simple nephritic cyst during this survey ( 4 Patients ) . There was one instance showed benign prostate. Others each instance for nephritic rock, pleural gush, enlarged prostate secretory organ, nephritic expansion, cut down kidney size, ectopic kidney, nephritic organ transpla nt and angiomyolipoma ( Table-4 ) .Discussion:This survey was carried out on 100 patients in whom nephritic cysts were identified sonographically, 72 % were male patients and 28 % were females. So males were more affected in our survey than females. Previous survey by Hanna et Al confirmed that, the distribution is equal between males and females5. In our series 89 % of instances were diagnosed as simple nephritic cyst which represent the most common differential diagnosing of nephritic cysts followed by, 7 % hydronephrosis, 2 % medical nephritic disease, 1 % polycystic kidney disease, 1 % haematoma. There was no instance presented with nephritic dysplasia. .Study by Yamagishi et Al confirmed that, thorough reappraisal of household history can besides add valuable information. Differential diagnosing should include multicystic and polycystic kidney disease and structural anomalousnesss such as duplicate and calyceal diverticula, tumour, abscess and haematoma may be considered, but t hey most probably will hold internal reverberations. Although nephritic cysts can be seen in chromosomal abnormalcies, there are normally other anomalousnesss present6. When cystic lesion is seen in the upper pole, an adrenal beginning must besides be considered. Finally, a cystic teratoma of the retro peritoneum can be considered. The youngest patient was 3 old ages old male child with mean size of left kidney showed mild back force per unit area alteration with good parenchymal thickness, dilated nephritic pelvic girdle and ureter down to bladder. Umbilical hernia noted with defect at anterior abdominal wall steps ( 7mm ) with enteric cringles seen go throughing through. The eldest patient was 95 old ages old male with bilateral simple parenchymal cyst. The highest incidence of simple nephritic cyst in 6th and 7th decennaries of life. While the lowest incidence in 1st and 2nd decennaries. Previous surveies confirmed that, the pathogenesis of nephritic cyst is non wholly known. Because of increasing frequence of nephritic cysts with age ( they are found in over 50 % of people over 50 old ages of age ) . It has been suggested that cyst formation is acquired- a consequence of the aging process5,7. Another theory suggests that cysts are developmental in beginning. During nephritic organogenesis, the 2nd to 4th coevals of uriniferous tubules, ensuing in cyst formation 8. Among 40 diagnostic patients the most clinical presentation associated with nephritic cyst in this survey was diabetes mellitus 10 ( 25 % ) and abdominal hurting 7 ( 17.5 % ) they were more often associated with simple cyst, there were 60 patients symptomless normally associated with nephritic cysts. Previous surveies confirmed that, highlight a figure of facets refering to simple nephritic cysts. First, most instances are symptomless and are best treated cautiously by regular ultrasound follow up. Last, as the natural history of simple cyst is non known, long- term sonographic followup is recommended ; simple cysts can be the initial manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic disease in a child9,10. Sonographic rating of nephritic cyst revealed that simple visual aspects were most normally seen in nephritic cysts and limited polycystic disease and haematoma. Along this series among 89 patients of simple nephritic cysts the most frequent type of loculation in assorted nephritic cyst was uniloculated 87 ( 98 % ) and 2 ( 2 % ) were biloculated. The major sonographic findings of wall thickness and regularity were thin and regular walls, that more presented in nephritic cysts. There were ( 57 of 89 ) were cortical cyst, ( 22 of 89 ) were parenchymal cyst, ( 4 of 89 ) were medullary cyst, ( 4 of 89 ) were parapelvic cyst and ( 2 of 89 ) were extraparenchymal cyst. Previous survey confirmed that, the upper pole is the most common site5. Normally the cysts are lone but may be multiple. As was seen in this survey, 91 ( 91 % ) instances presented as one-sided simple nephritic cyst, 9 ( 9 % ) instances as bilateral simple nephritic cyst and multiple cyst nine in figure. Previous survey confirmed that, the distribution is equal between right and left kidneys5. Internal echogenisity of simple nephritic cyst in this survey revealed there were ( 100 % ) takes all features of simple nephritic cyst anechoic or echo-free with absence of internal reverberations. Previous survey confirmed that, many incidental nephritic multitudes are discovered on abdominal ultrasound examinations11. When the ultrasound standards for a simple cyst are met, the likeliness of malignance is highly little. Asymptomatic patients with incidental nephritic cysts that meet these standards require no extra rating. Fatty liver were the most common accompaniment with simple nephritic cyst during this survey ( 4 Patients ) . There was one instance showed benign prostate. Others each instance for nephritic rock, pleural gush, enlarged prostate secretory organ, nephritic expansion, cut down kidney size, ectopic kidney, nephritic organ transplant and angiomyolipoma. Fatty liver were the more frequent attendant disease in association with simple nephritic cyst were detected as an incidental sonographic happening during this survey. Previous survey confirmed that, simple nephritic cyst has controversy related to high blood pressure and nephritic disfunction. There was ( 6 of 40 ) ( 15 % ) high blood pressure patients during this survey. Different sizes of 89 simple nephritic cysts were measured, 3 ( 03.40 % ) steps ( 01-10 ) millimeter, 25 ( 28.40 % ) steps ( 10-20 ) millimeter, 11 ( 12.50 % ) steps ( 20-30 ) millimeter, 27 ( 30.33 % ) steps ( 30-40 ) millimeter, 9 ( 10.22 % ) steps ( 40-50 ) millimeter, 5 ( 05.28 % ) steps ( 50-60 ) millimeter, 3 ( 03.40 % ) steps ( 90-100 ) millimeter and 6 ( 06.81 % ) measures variable sizes. Pervious survey confirmed that size scope from really little to really big in diameter. By and large ultrasound detected all nephritic cysts, while CT scan used to corroborate the diagnosing and picked up of peripherally located and cystic multitudes. Two instances were aspirated under ultrasound counsel, were clear fluid.Decision:The most common differential diagnosing of nephritic cyst is simple cortical nephritic cyst with highest incidence in 6th and 7th decennaries of life. The least common is polycystic kidney disease or haematoma. Out of this survey we believe more that ultrasound is the individual cost effectual mean in sensing of nephritic cyst.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Taylor University Admissions SAT, Acceptance Rate...

Admissions at Taylor University are not highly competitive; with an acceptance rate of 85%, the large majority of applicants are admitted each year. Along with an application, prospective students will need to submit high school transcripts, SAT or ACT scores, a letter of recommendation, and a personal statement. Students are encouraged to visit the campus to see if it would be a good fit for them. Admissions Data (2016): Taylor University Acceptance Rate: 80%GPA, SAT and ACT Graph for Taylor AdmissionsTest Scores -- 25th / 75th PercentileSAT Critical Reading: 470 / 630SAT Math: 480 / 620SAT Writing: - / -What these SAT numbers meanTop Indiana college SAT comparisonACT Composite: 22  / 29ACT English: 22 / 30ACT Math: 22  / 28What these ACT numbers meanTop Indiana college ACT comparison Taylor University Description: Taylor University is a private interdenominational evangelical university located in Upland, Indiana, a small town located less than an hour from Indianapolis and Fort Wayne. For several years, Taylor has been ranked #1 among Midwest regional colleges by  U.S. News World Report, and the university has done well in other rankings as well. The universitys bell tower pictured above  signifies the schools integration of faith and learning. Academics at Taylor are supported by a healthy 12 to 1 student / faculty ratio. On the academic front, education and psychology are the most popular fields among undergraduates. Outside of the classroom, students can join a range of clubs and activities, ranging from arts groups to academic honor societies, to recreational sports.  In athletics, the Taylor University Trojans compete NAIA Mid-Central College Conference. Enrollment (2016): Total Enrollment: 2,170  (2,131  undergraduates)Gender Breakdown: 43% Male / 57% Female86% Full-time Costs (2016  - 17): Tuition and Fees: $31,472Books: $1,000 (why so much?)Room and Board: $8,845Other Expenses: $2,200Total Cost: $43,517 Taylor University Financial Aid (2015  - 16): Percentage of New Students Receiving Aid: 99%Percentage of New Students Receiving Types of AidGrants: 99%Loans: 52%Average Amount of AidGrants: $16,489Loans: $7,117 Academic Programs: Most Popular Majors:  Art, Bible Studies, Biology, Business Administration, Elementary Eduction, Media Communication, Psychology, Religious Education Graduation and Retention Rates: First Year Student Retention (full-time students): 85%4-Year Graduation Rate: 66%6-Year Graduation Rate: 76% Intercollegiate Athletic Programs: Mens Sports:  Football, Golf, Tennis, Cross Country, Track and Field, Basketball, Soccer, BaseballWomens Sports:  Basketball, Track and Field, Softball, Soccer, Golf, Cross Country, Volleyball Data Source: National Center for Educational Statistics If You Like Taylor University, You May Also Like These Schools: Ball State University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphPurdue University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphIndiana University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphDePauw University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphSpring Arbor University: Profile  Butler University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphHope College: Profile  Liberty University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphValparaiso University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphGrove City College: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphWheaton College: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT Graph

Thursday, December 19, 2019

John Wilson And Thomas Church - 1749 Words

Among all the authors this semester that I encountered, my strongest connections were near the beginning of the semester. It is difficult to pick one favorite, because of commonality across the voices of Thomas Long, Paul Wilson, and Frank Thomas. In varying combinations, they share certain beliefs about both the form and function of sermons. Wilson and Thomas both structure their sermons around parallel points: trouble in the Bible, trouble in our time, grace in the Bible, and grace in our time. Long and Thomas share the belief that sermons should affect change of some kind in the lives of their hearers. For Long, â€Å"sermons make demands upon the hearers, which is another way of saying that they provoke change in the hearers (even if the change is a deepening of something already present). Thomas s belief is that â€Å"in the pulpit, the preacher must influence behavior.† The points of divergence for these three authors are points that I like from all three aut hors, leading me to incorporate them all into my own sermons whenever possible. Long s major emphasis on sermon structure comes through the presence of focus and function statements. Other than that, he is wide open to various ways of arranging the ideas within the sermon. I appreciate his fluidity in this area, because any kind of persuasive speaking opportunity is affected by the intended audience just as much as the message itself. Consequently, one strict format is unlikely to be effective in allShow MoreRelatedThomas Woodrow Wilson888 Words   |  4 PagesThomas Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born in the small town of Staunton, Virginia on December 29, 1856 or, as other sources say, the 28 of December. He was the third of four kids with two sisters and one brother. His parents were Joseph Wilson and Jessica Woodrow Wilson. Tommy was only at the age of two years when his family moved to Augusta, Georgia. Then, two years later the civil war had started and, while the war was going on, his dad had changed the church into a confederate hospitalRead MorePuritan Prophet886 Words   |  4 PagesAnne Hutchinson in chronological order throughout the book, while using sources from not only historians of today, but also from firsthand accounts of people who lived during that time period. For example, Hall uses many references and quotes from John Winthrop’s Short Story of the Rise, Reign, and Ruin of the Antinomians, Familists, and Libertines. In order to understand who Anne Hutchinson is, we have to understand where she came from. Timothy Hall does a great job of setting the scene for hisRead MoreEssay about Salem Witch Trials1106 Words   |  5 PagesSamuel Parris in the village of Salem is where the witchcraft crises broke out (Wilson, 18). Within his house was his nine year old daughter Betty Parris, and her eleven year old cousin Abigail Williams (19). Together, they played with white magic, but so did many of the teenage girls in the village (19). On Samuel Parriss journey from Barbados to Salem he acquired an indian slave named Tituba, her husband, John Indian, and a couple more slaves(19). While no evidence has been proven, it is believedRead MoreThe Construction Of The Patoka Reservoir1695 Words   |  7 Pagesapproved construction of the Patoka Reservoir. The home they had always known would subsequently turn into a drowned, abandoned ghost town. Ellsworth, Indiana, a land now under the Patoka Reservoir, o nce served as a place for people to attend school and church, purchase items from a general store or peddler, and socialize with community members; this routine flourished until the government enforced eminent domain, causing the community to sell their homeland for less-than-market value and move away in theRead More The Influence of the Protestant Religion on the American Revolution2775 Words   |  12 Pagesconsidered in a restricted framework; it was thoroughly engaged by it and multi-faceted. It is difficult to make the case, however, that religious ingredients - even broadly defined- played a definitive or even markedly innovative role.[1] John F. Wilson acknowledges that religion did have an affect on the revolution but also argues that perhaps Protestantism had a lesser affect on the revolution as a whole than other factors such as economic aspects. Some historians have attributedRead MoreThe Salem Witch Trials1274 Words   |  6 Pagesthemselves. (LaPlante p33) The term devil included humans and spirits, anyone who acted devilish. (Roach) English Puritans were named so because they believed their religion to be more pure than that of the English Church; they considered themselves to be God’s chosen people. (Wilson 20) To break away from religious oppression by the English monarch, these people left England and moved their families to the New England Colonies. Along with their families, they brought with them: their bibles, strictRead MoreThe Success Of The Conjuring Trick1722 Words   |  7 Pagesis pale and trembling,† says Miriam Joseph, author of Discerning the Ghost in Hamlet (495). According to Robert Thomas Fallon, author of A Theatergoer’s Guide to Shakespeare’ Themes, says that â€Å"Medieval doctrine distinguished between white and black magic. The white, a gift from Heaven, accounted for the miracles of healing and the protection of virtue recorded in the annals of the church, the black for instances of collusion with the forces of evil for power or gain† (174). In addition, the GhostRead MoreHoly Spirit : The Holy Trinity1148 Words   |  5 PagesLiving – 01 M. Thomas October 28, 2016 Holy Spirit Project Along with the Father and the Son, the Holy Spirit completes what is known as the Holy Trinity. He is both different than and the same as the Father and the Son. The Holy Spirit has His own unique characteristics and personality, specific functions and purpose, He has used many people throughout history, and He can also use me. First, the Holy Spirit has distinctive characteristics and has His own personality. Per Dr. Billy Wilson, the HolyRead MoreMy Personal Philosophy Of Preaching Essay1852 Words   |  8 Pagespreaching has evolved in surprising and inspiring ways this semester as my pastoral identity has become clearer through my exegetical explorations, further discernment of my pastoral call, and my ministerial experiences with both my supervisor and the church members at my supervised ministry placement. This ongoing formation of my pastoral identity has been a journey of personal discovery of both my gifts and weaknesses, as well as a deep exploration of my faith in God. In fact, I have come to realizeRead MoreThe Life and Presidency of Woodrow Wilson Essay1160 Words   |  5 PagesThomas Woodrow Wilson was born December 28th, 2014. Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia to Joseph Ruggles Wilson, and Jessie Janet Woodrow Wilson. Wilson was born into a deeply religious family, his father was a P resbyterian minister. Wilson’s family didn’t stay in one place, because of Pastor Wilson’s duties, their family moved often. When Wilson was only 2 their family moved to Augusta, Georgia. Later on they moved to Columbia, South Carolina. Wilson was born just shy of 5 years before the outbreak

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Social Learning Theory in Relation to Gender Development free essay sample

Describe SLT explanations for gender (You MUST focus on gender, not just SLT in general)Social learning theorists such as Bandura believe that all behaviour is learnt. In regards to gender development, SL theorists believe society trains individuals how to act in accordance with societys expectations of males and females. The reason boys and girls behave differently is because they are treated differently. Other peoples expectations of how the child should behave is dependent on their sex, shapes the behaviour of the child. SLT emphasises the importance of observation and reinforcement in the development of behaviour and attitudes. An individual seeks to determine what behaviour and beliefs are appropriate to display. Through observing role models and imitating their behaviour, followed by reinforcement by significant individuals in the childs life, the child will learn a new behaviour or attitude considered sex appropriate, If that behaviour is not reinforced, or is punished, the behaviour will not be learnt. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Learning Theory in Relation to Gender Development or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page For example, a boy may identify with a group of boys of the same age playing football. The boy will imitate that behaviour and also play football. The behaviour will be reinforced through acceptance by his peers. This football playing behaviour will be learnt. By observing reinforcement in others, behaviour can also be learned. For example, if Carol sees Julie display a certain behaviour, and also sees Julie reinforced for that behaviour, Carol is more likely to imitate and therefore learn that behaviour. Summarise a piece of evidence to support SLTUsing the experimental method, Bandura arranged for boys and girls to witness a short television programme in which children of a similar age behaved aggressively towards a toy doll called a Bobo doll. There were three films, each with a different outcome. A- positive outcome. B- An adult made a critical comment to the aggressive behaviour. C- Nothing happened about the behaviour. The results showed that even though the children were exposed to the same behaviour, boys showed high levels of imitation and girls showed low levels of imitation and were particularly influenced by negative comments. | Explain why it is evidenceThis is evidence because it shows that boys were influenced by gender stereotypes and were more aggressive than the girls as they were more violent towards the Bobo doll where as girls were much less aggressive and were much more reserved, they were better behaved and this matched female stereotypes of being timid and less aggressive then males. | However.. .We dont know if there was anything previous to the experiment which could have affected the way that the children behaved towards the Bobo doll such as watching a violent act before the experiment or parental influences which could have caused them to already have internalised an aggressive or passive behaviour. This would mean that environmental situations have affected the experiment making it less reliable. | Summarise a piece of evidence to support SLTMartin and Halverson 1983 Using the experimental method, the researchers showed five and six year old children pictures of carrying out activities.Sometimes these activities were schema consistent (for example a girl playing with a doll) and sometimes the they were schema inconsistent (for example a girl playing with a gun). The results found that when the pictures were tested a week late the children were able to remember schema consistent images better and then when schema inconsistent images were recalled they were often distor ted so that the expected sex was remembered as carrying out the activity (for example, children recalled a boy playing with a gun rather than a girl). Explain why it is evidenceIt shows that children do use schemas to help them make sense of their world. They will sometimes use schemas to reorganise information so that it is consistent with their view of gender even if it is not accurate. | However It may be that the students have generalised the activitys specifically shown to be either male and female and if other activities were shown then the results may have differed. They also had the week in between so it also shows more of a memory test and some students could have paid more attention than other which could have influenced what they remembered.It was only done in one classroom meaning that it is a biased piece of information limited only to the pupils in the classroom they were tested in. this is a problem as the pupils cant be used to generalise the behaviours of other people. The social learning theory suggests that if a child is punished for doing something wrong then the behaviour in not internalised, however this is not always the case and sometimes children still repeat the same behaviours even after being punished for doing so. This shows that the social learning theory cant be used as a concrete method. |

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

John Stuart Mill

Introduction John Stuart Mill was a famous English philosopher. Mill contributed a lot to political economy, political theory, and social theory. Most of Mill’s ideas have reshaped people’s ideas regarding politics, justice, economics, and happiness.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on John Stuart Mill specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Capaldi (21) writes that his influence came from his father and Jeremy Bentham. As a child, his father encouraged him to study various works by great philosophers and thinkers such as Plato. Mill eventually became one of the greatest philosophers of the 19th century. This paper presents a short biography of the philosopher and goes further to discuss some of his outstanding ideas and philosophical views. Mill’s Short Biography John Stuart Mill is definitely one of the famous philosophers of the modern era. Mill was born on 20 May 1806 in Britain. He was bor n to James Mill, a great historian, philosopher, and economist. By the age of 12, Mill had studied works of great philosophers such as Plato. He had also familiarized himself with subjects such as algebra. Mill’s father shielded him from children of his age (Capaldi 16). As a scholar, Stuart Mill wrote extensively on various subjects including morality and politics. He also served as a Member of Parliament (MP) for Westminster. He was the first person to call for equality by giving women rights to vote. During his life, â€Å"Mill wrote many works in support of utilitarianism, women rights, and liberty† (Capaldi 86). He also contributed widely to political and social theories. Mill was an atheist. He taught different scholars such as Bertrand Russell. The philosopher died in Avignon, France, on 8 May 1873. Today he remains a great figure in modern philosophy. John Stuart Mill’s Philosophical Ideas Stuart Mill was definitely an influential philosopher of the 19th century. Some of the outstanding ideas by Stuart Mill appear in his masterpiece â€Å"On Liberty†. In the work, Mill examines the question of liberty and the power of the society. According to Mill, â€Å"individuals in the society are permitted to harm themselves† (Capaldi 72). This is acceptable only if the individuals do not harm other people.Advertising Looking for research paper on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, there is need to prevent individuals from damaging property or themselves. This is necessary because such individuals do not live in â€Å"isolation†. This establishes what Mill calls the â€Å"harm principle†. According to the principle, any kind of harm to property and individuals might eventually affect the welfare of the society. Mill goes further to say that â€Å"individuals should be free and do whatever they want unless they potentially harm other people in the society† (Mill 37). This means that individuals have the right to make decisions that will affect their wellbeing. Governments should intervene in order to protect the wider society from harmful persons. Such philosophical ideas have played a significant role towards the formation of many societies today. The other philosophical idea by the philosopher occurs in his essay â€Å"Utilitarianism†. In the essay, Stuart Mill supports utilitarianism as an important moral theory. He also responds to most of the misinterpretations associated with utilitarianism. According to Mill, â€Å"utility theory is based on the rule that actions should be accepted if they promote happiness† (Mill 43). He also suggests that actions are wrong if they result in unhappiness or pain. To support the theory, Mill states that people’s expectations in life are essential aspects of happiness. Mill believes the society should embrace the theory of utilitarianism because it gover ns the ethical aspects of its people. With the theory, people will embrace the best actions because they result in happiness and not sorrow. It becomes evident from these ideas that happiness should be the basis of human ethics and morality. Mill believes every person in the universe â€Å"desires happiness than anything else† (Capaldi 98). It is agreeable that different sentiments such as that of Justice are founded on the utility theory. Mill encourages people to support human rights because they provide the necessary framework towards greater happiness.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on John Stuart Mill specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The utilitarian theory has encountered criticism from great thinkers and scholars. For instance, critics suggest that the theory fails to provide the necessary ideas and frameworks to protect human liberties and rights. As well, some critics argue that the theory cannot be a standard measure for all things. Faced with such criticism, Mill’s essay presents new answers thus making it easier for people to understand the foundations of utilitarianism (Honer et al. 65). Stuart Mill offers a classical connection between human utility and the concept of justice. This makes it easier for the reader to understand that human justice is developed from happiness. John Stuart Mill also presents his views on economic philosophy. Although he embraces the idea of â€Å"free markets†, Mill accepts the presence of economic interventions (Mill 83). However, Mill believes there should be significant utilitarianism ideas for free markets to exist. As well, Mill addresses the issue of slavery and human liberty. Mill is against slavery because it does not promote equality or happiness. Mill also supports women rights and happiness. This explains why many people consider Mill a feminist (Capaldi 103). In most of his works and ideas, Stuart Mill critic izes women subjugation and oppression. According to the philosopher, oppression of females is a major obstacle affecting the modern society. John Mill also presents essential ideas regarding the issue of politics and democracy. In his work â€Å"Considerations on Representative Government†, Mill believes that leaders should be competent in order to guide their citizens. As well, citizens should be equally involved in government matters (Capaldi 65). This explains why he supports â€Å"plural voting† because it can be one of the best steps to democracy. John Mill was also a strong supporter of â€Å"freedom of speech† (Mill 64). By so doing, Mill believes people should be free to communicate in order to discover the truth.Advertising Looking for research paper on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the best way to increase human knowledge. The other important thing to understand is that Mill was once an elected government official, something that made it easier for him to exercise his political theories and philosophies. Conclusion From the above discussion, it is agreeable that John Mill Stuart is an important philosopher in the modern world. Mill presents useful philosophical ideas that have helped transform the universe. For instance, Mill examines the question of liberty and power in the society. According to the philosopher, individuals in the society are permitted to harm themselves. However, this is only acceptable if the individuals do not harm others. As well, Mill’s utilitarian theory supports actions that result in happiness. He also supports equality, freedom of speech, and rights of women. These philosophical ideas have played a significant role towards the establishment of societies and governments today. Works Cited Capaldi, Nicholas. John Stuart Mill: A Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print. Honer, Stanley, et al. Invitation to Philosophy: Issues and Options. Cengage: Cengage Learning, 2005. Print. Mill, John Stuart. Remarks on Bentham’s Philosophy. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2001. Print. This research paper on John Stuart Mill was written and submitted by user Chr0n0mancer to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.