Thursday, August 22, 2019

Famous Kentuckian Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Famous Kentuckian Paper - Essay Example Young Harlan followed the footsteps of his father and entered politics. It was in the age of seventeen that he was offered the position of adjutant general of Kentucky. He opposed this idea by citing his age, however in autumn he was appointed the governor. It was a demanding position for Harlan, but keeping in mind his age he was only paid $250 annually. This contract formed the basis of his political career (John Harlan). After winning the elections, Harlan was working as a country judge before the start of the Civil War. Harlan won the election for the country judge on the Know Nothing ticket, which was a Native party who was enjoying their esteem from the time span between downfall of the Whig Party and the rise of the Republican Party. Despite of the fact that it was a slave state, Harlan was a part of the Union at the time of the War. It was at that time that Harlan joined the American troops as lieutenant Colonel. He left the army in the year 1863 at the time of his fatherâ₠¬â„¢s death. He was assigned the position of Attorney General of Kentucky in the year 1864, and also supported George McClellan’s campaign against Abraham Lincoln in the same year in which the Presidential Elections were being held. In 1876 he led the Kentuckian delegation at a convention after Benjamin Bristow (his law partner) ran to be nominated for the presidential elections. The presidential elections of the year 1876 were same as the year 2000 i.e. they were fiercely contested. As a result of the election of 1876 an electoral commission came into being. Hayes was declared the winner of the elections after which he appointed a commission to figure out that which of the two Louisiana governments was more lawful than the other. Harlan was an active member of one of these two Louisiana governments. The Louisiana commission appointed came with the result that the Democrats formed a more lawful government in Louisiana. The problem with the result of the Commission was that th e board responsible for certifying the electoral victory of Hayes also announced the result of the Louisiana’s contest declaring the Republican as the winners. During his career as a Justice he struggled to remain dedicated in winning the civil rights for the colored population and tried to enforce social equality among the population. He also worked for getting regulation of the giant industry that emerged in that century. Harlan had abiding faith on the judicial system and the Federal Government that they would equally spread the economic opportunities in the country, without any racial discrimination. His characteristic made him stand out from his colleagues and gave him his separate identity. He opposed the drawbacks of the system on several occasions, which exposed him to several passionate and dissenting opinions. He also faced rejections from several legal scholars until the mid of the 20th century when his views gained acceptance and were considered prophetic by the c itizens. Justice David Davis resigned and became the Senator of Illinois at the time of tussle concerning the electoral commission. Hayes wanted a Southerner to be appointed to this position and Harlan perfectly fitted the position. At the age of 44 he was subsequently appointed the Justice to the court. Harlan’s legacy lies in his rebellions. He took opposing side in the Lochner v New York case, where he spent the maximum working hours for the labor class in order to eradicate the institution of slavery from

Bridge Discuss the complex relationship between Eddie and Catherine Essay Example for Free

Bridge Discuss the complex relationship between Eddie and Catherine Essay The play is set in a slum area in Brooklyn.Between 1861 and 1920, 30 million people immigrated into America. Many people settled by the ports as there was a steady supply of work from the ships and Eddie Carbone is one of these longshoremen.  Eddie is the forceful, irrational protagonist with many complex emotions while his niece (by marriage only) is rather naà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ve and open. As they live in the same house, they spend most of their time with each other and get on well together as family.   Eddie and Beatrice (his wife) took Catherine in when her mother died and therefore, Eddie feels a great sense of responsibility; I promised your mother on her deathbed. Im responsible for you.  To Catherine, he is like a paternal figure, and she does love and respect him that way. At first, I also believe that is how Eddie thinks of her.  He provides a good home for her, puts food on the table and sees her through education, I think truly wanting the best for her- to go up in the world. His aspirations are high;  I broke my back payin her stenography lessons so she could go out and meet a better class of people.  His social aspirations for her are obviously higher than his own community- but does that mean he is snobbish of his own class? I think, perhaps slightly.  Eddies protectiveness of Catherine can be just like a normal fathers, as he says about her new skirt;  I think it too short, aint it? But often, this protectiveness can turn into dominance and possessiveness over his niece and his attitude towards her becomes unnatural. Eddie is never completely at ease. He tells her shes walkin wavy, but this is because he is subconsciously sexually attracted to her. He criticises her appearance and behaviour because she is attractive to other men and he does not like that. I think, in a way, he believes she is his and he wants her all to himself- i.e. if he cannot have her, no one can. I think to aid this, he tries to keep her a little girl, when actually, she is becoming a woman;  Youre a baby.. when you stand here by the window waving outside.  The word baby is mentioned constantly as if it will eventually persuade Catherine that she is one. This environment would be suffocating for her.  However, Beatrice isnt blind to all this;  You gonna keep her in the house all your life?  Eddie (insulted); What kinda remark is that?  She has not had sex with Eddie for quite a while and I think she knows it is because of his desire for Catherine. When Alfieri makes a joke about Catherine not being able to marry Eddie, he doesnt laugh, as he starts to realise his sexual feelings for Catherine are becoming more apparent. When Beatrice finally says;  You want somethin else, Eddie, and you can never have her!  He is stunned with silence, but I think deep down, he knows it is the truth.  Eddies positive and negative elements are often intertwined, but I think his intentions for Catherine were good; however the feelings he acquired for her should have been dealt with differently. Catherines attitude to Eddie is entirely different though. Eddie who lays down the laws heavily influences her, but she seems totally unaware of her sexual appeal generally, but especially to Eddie. Beatrice actually has to tell her about it;  but youre a grown woman and youre in the same house as a grown man. So youll act different now, heh?  Although Catherine is rather innocent, but I think that is because she is overprotected, so, in effect, there is a viscous circle. Catherines attitude to Eddie is, totally non-sexual, but after Beatrices talk, she does start to become aware of what could be going on, perhaps a little.  It didnt even cross her mind that she was a potential rival to Beatrice;  He said you was jealous?  When Catherine falls in love with Rodolfo, Eddie cannot stand this, and does everything in his power to stop it, as his subconscious desires tear him apart slowly. He even calls the immigration bureau and risks his respect (which means so much to him) for her.  I feel that both Eddie and Catherine were partly to blame for the tragic end of their relationship and in general. However, Catherine gained her confidence and independence a little more toward the end of the play. Eddies possessiveness and dominance over Catherine suffocated her into staying a baby, but I feel she could/should have been more self- aware, especially of the situation around her.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Diaspora Placed By Amitav Ghosh English Literature Essay

Diaspora Placed By Amitav Ghosh English Literature Essay RECONFIGURATION OF DIASPORA IN THE CIRCLE OF REASON AND THE GLASS PALACE BY AMITAV GHOSH. Objective: To trace the the notions and feeling of diaspora placed by Amitav Ghosh in his two novels. Diaspora, etymologically derived from the Greek term diasperien where dia means across and sperien means to sow or scatter seeds, diaspora can perhaps be seen as a naming of the other which has historically refereed to displaced communities of people who have been dislocated from there native homeland through the movements of migration, immigration or exile. First used to describe the Jews living in exile from the homeland of Palestine, diaspora suggests a displacement from the homeland, circumstances or environmental location of origin and transfer in one or more nation states, territories or foreign countries. The term diaspora then has certain religious significance and pervaded medieval writings on the Jewish, to describe the plight of Jews living outside of Palestine (586BC.). Another early historical reference is the Black African diaspora, beginning in the sixteenth century with the slave trade, forcibly exporting West African out of their native land and dispersing them into the New World, parts of North America, South America , the Caribbean and elsewhere that slave labor was exploited through the middle passage. These early historical references reveal that diaspora is not always voluntary. Diaspora in, the rapidly changing world we now inhabit, speaks to diverse persons and communities moving across the globe from Kuala Lumpur to Sydney , Harare to Toronto , Paris to Marrakesh or even Calcutta to Trinidad, just as earlier in the twentieth century it mapped the movements of Palestinian refugees from Jerusalem to Amman or Beirut and Pakistani refugees from Karachi to Der-es- salaam. In thinking through the category of diaspora and its link to geographical entities such as nation states, it is thus crucial to consider the important role of nation formation and constitution during the post world war II era. While cultural and literary interrogate contemporary form of movement, displacement and dislocation from travel to exile. Mass migration movements, the multiple waves of political refugees seeking asylum in other countries, the reconfiguration of nation state, particularly in central the concept of nationhood take account of the specific geopolitical circumstances that precipitate the movement of people. The term diaspora used to describe the mass migration and displacement of the second half of the twentieth century, particularly in reference to independence to movements in formerly colonized areas, waves of refugees fleeing war-torn states and fluxes of economic migration. Diaspora has been particularly loosely associated with other terms, particularly transn ationalism, to describe the disjunction and fractured condition of late modernity, however , diaspora needs to be extricated from such loose association and its historical and theoretical specification made clear. While diaspora may be accurately described as transnationalist, it is not one and the same with transnationalism. Transnationalism may be defined as the course of citizens, thoughts, possessions and capital across nationalized territories in a way that undermines ethnic group and nationalism discrete categories of classification, money-making organization and political constitution. But there is a some what slight difference between diaspora and transnationalism, however, in that diaspora refers specifically to the movement forced or voluntary of the people from one or more nation state to another. Whereas transnationalism speaks to larger, more impersonal forces specifically those of globalization and global capitalism. Diasporic subjects are distincted by hybridity and h eterogeneity- artistic, linguistic, cultural, national and these subject are defined by the transversal of the borders demarcating nation and diaspora. Diaspora does not, however, transcends difference of race, class, gender and sexuality nor can diaspora stand alone as an epistemology and historical category of analysis, separate and distinct from interrelated categories. More complexly, diasporic scholars have suggested innovative and nuanced ways of thinking across the once demarcated terrains of identity and exploring the imbrications of ethnic and national categories, while offering insight into the cultural construction of identity in relation to nationality, diaspora, have, gender and sexuality, of course, class inflicts, if not haunts the formation of all these categories. To that end, class disrupts and complicates often in productive ways the intersection of race, gender and sexuality. Diaspora has been theorized from many diverse points of departure- East Asian, South Asi an, South East Asian, Asia Pacific, Carribean, South American, Latin American, African and Central European. Recent uses of homeland, rational ethnic identity and geographical location to deployment of diaspora conceptualized in term of hybridity or heterogeneity. While diasporic studies has emerged as an important new field of study , it is not without its critics. The term diaspora has been critiqued as being theoretically celebrated while ethologically indistinct and a historical. Some scholar, arguing that diaspora enters into a semantic field with other terms and terrains, such as that of exile, migrant, immigrant and globalization, have assented that diaporic communities are epitome of the transnationalist moment, other critics have resisted and critiqued such celebratory models of thinking diaspora, noting that such celebration are often a historical and apolitical, failing to note the different contexts allowing or prohibiting movement globally or even locally. For example, Bruce Robbins(1995) offers a close readings of four journals diaspora, boundary 2, social text and public culture that have broken new ground in stimulating and supporting work in the international area, the non specialist area beyond area studies, and each of the m see the work it publishes as in some senses adversarial(P97). In his analysis he describe diaspora as one of the four journals which has gone furtherest through never without qualification toward celebrating transnational mobility and the hybridity that results from it as simple and sufficient goods of themselves (P98). While Robbinss description of diaspora as a journal that celebrates transnational mobility is itself somewhat problematic, the article importantly as how and why do reputed academic journal contribute to and also map out terrain of intellectual engagement centering around the question of nation formation and migration within a transnational frame? And how do these journals valorize certain types of the theorization of nation specifically those centered on global mobility over others? Analogous of the problematic use of the term border within branches of area and ethnic studies in general, the term risks loosing specificity and critical merit if it is deemed to spea k for all movement and migration between nations, within nations, between cities and within cities. Some feel separated when they are out of their country while there are some people who feel separated and alienated even in their own country, and colonial power was one of the major reason for their alienation. Many Indian writers have contributed to the rich tradition of English literary studies. Writers like Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao and R.K.Narayan ,were the ones who made Indian English literature recognized and all were subjects of the British rule in India. Writers like Nirad. C.Chaudhari chosen the English coasts because his views were not willingly accepted in India. Salman Rushdies imaginary homeland encompasses the world over. Salman Rushdie, V.S Naipaul, Amitav Ghosh, Anita Desai, Rohinton Mistry, Vikram Seth have all made their names while residing abroad. These nonresident Indian writers have tried to discover the feelings of displacement in all of their literature. In one of his interviews, Amitav Ghosh said that I dont think migration signifies one thing. There are so many reasons why migrations take place it could be economic, social, political or even related to education. Amitav Ghosh is one of the well known face in English literature. His work received great critical acclaim: winning several awards and major nominations. His work deals with remarkable themes set against historical backdrops. His writings reveals about his subterranean connections and patterns. But his all the various ideas that inform his work are basically his characters whose life engages us and take us to some magnificent imagined places and times. Some of his novels are: The Circle of Reason (1986), Shadow Lines (1988), The Calcutta Chromosome (1995), The Glass Palace (2000), The Hungry Tide (2005), Sea of Poppies (2008). THE CIRCLE OF REASON The Circle of Reason is the first novel of Amitav Ghosh. The Circle of Reason is remarkable for many reasons. Its theme is different from traditional concerns of Indian English fiction. It challenges a direct and simple appreciation. In fact, it needs a different types of approach to be grasped fully. The book itself is sort of a paradox. It exuberates restlessness with extreme control and poise. The new thrust and lift that came to Indian English fiction duing late eighteenth and nineteenth century is partly due to this path breaking work. It is daring in its experimentation with form, content and language of the novel. The novel, although not strictly organized, is episodic in nature or we may call it picaresque. The novel is a journey in irregular. Traditionally the protagonist Alu should have gone from tama (darkness) to satwa (purity). Ghosh freely mixes a chain of thoughts. He superbly mixes past, present and future of his book. He describe one incident and if the incident links itself to any past happening, he immediately goes to that past incident. Through whole novel he played with changing consciousness. So the whole fabric of the novel keeps floating, goin backward and forward. In any case present is born out of past. So why should one not go to the great reservoir of memories, dreams and desires i.e past. The novel is crowded with characters. Alu is the only constant factor who lives by trial and error method, falls at times, stand up again and finally moves on to realize his potential, if he has any. The novel, without becoming a melancholic case history, underlines the troubled times, t hrough which all of us are living. Like a typical ended novel, it ends without providing readymade solution. There is a soothing effect at the end. Different threads seen to draw together yet there is no effort at preaching. In a typical picaresque fashion, Alu moves from Lalpukur in India to Al- Ghazira in Egypt and then to a small town in north eastern edge of the Algerian Sahara. The first section of the book contains many instances of migration. One of the instance from the book is that of Balarams birth year 1924, which forces author to think about the mass Indian migration to West. The People of Lalpukur, for example, had seen vomited out of their native soil(p 59) in the massacre connected with the partition of Indian. Within the novel people witnessed one more time that the spectacle of people being thrown miles away because of the civil war that led to the emergence of Bangladesh. The journey of Alu, although, does not bring any kind of satisfaction or success. It celebrat es the sense of unquiet wanderings. Its goes on and on searching a vision suitable for present timer. It is like chasing a phantom that ultimately vanishes into the thin air. The Circle of Reason has both historical as well as mythological elements . Mythical references have been moulded to reflect contemporary condition in a true new historicist fashion. Here ghosh nicely weaves ideas, characters and metaphors through magic and irony and develop his fictional motifs. Characters in the novel are not far from metaphors, they become metaphors. The charcters as well as different situation of the novel stand for rootlessness. Sometimes, I also wonder of our fascination about the idea of rootlessness. The present piece of work seems obsessed with his idea of migration. Migration, diasporic feeling, rootlessness and a new kind of sensibility born out of these factors what is new, typical and unique of our age is loneliness and sense of vacuum that comes with the individual migration or m igration of comparatively smaller groups. In real sense everyone is away from the roots- where have all the roots gone. There is nothing in this novel that can ordinarily be called a home. Sometimes novel seems confused and one is not sure about the city or village. Its goes back and forth from Bangladesh to Calcutta, then Middle East to Kerala. The story moves in very uncertain atmosphere. The novel can be called an eternal chronicle of restlessness, uncertainty and change. The novel basically tells three stories. The first part deals with the story of Balaram. He is rationalist and is very much influenced by Louis Pasteur. He has no involvement with people and he is equally cynical. Alu (Nachiketa), the protagonist, is a nephew of Balaram. He is a only one who survives in the family. The second part of the novel tells another tale. An earthly, zestful trader tries to bring together the communities of India and Middle East. But those efforts remain unrealistic. The third part in the story of Mrs. Verma, who, outrightly rejects the rational thinking. At the end of the novel, these three are in the search of newer horizon, unformed hopes and ideas. On an allegorical plane Alu is someone rooted in identity. But as we will see by his torturous wandering, Alu seems only to satirize his name. Ghosh divide man as mechanical man and other type of man can be easily assumed, thinking man. In this thinking, Ghosh, is talking about the Man on the loom or even furth er the idea behind on loom and not just the instrument. It is also the idea behind history. Loom united human race at times, it divides at other. It brought victories to some, subjugation to others. This passage is significant in its historical perspective, simply because the author here goes not to mere events or states of being but to themes that run then. The anti colonial note against the monopoly of hand shine cloth in obvious. There the relation of loom to computer, the most advanced achievement of Man at machine, is beautifully and factually established. Through this book Amitav Ghosh portrayed his diasporic feelings, loss of homeland and rootlessness which were clearly understandable and warmly felt. THE GLASS PALACE Tracing Indian lives in Burma, Amitav Ghoshs The Glass Palace (2000) recall Burma as a part of British India. Ghosh, who is from India, attempt to bring the suppressed history of subaltern in this novel. The Glass Palace is therefore condemned to record in exit ential dilemma. Where in the subjects is inevitably partitioned, a confused refugee never quite focus nor contained within the frame. Ghoshs characters, in this most spacious of his fiction, literally include both kings (Thebaw, Queen Supalayat, The Burmese Princess) and commoners ( Dolly, Raj Kumar, Saya John, Uma) but what unities them all is the unavoidable narrative of colonial dislodgment. If any single motif frames the grand picture, it is the occurrence of the English soldiers. That these soldiers as turn out more often that be Indian sepoys and some time ever, Indian officers- compound the puzzling effect. As Ghosh tells us , that smoke of dusts tend to hang over the imposing scenario. Whole cities are on the run and it is often impossible to see far given the apprehensive conditions. The Glass Palace of his title, it turn out, indicates both the magnificient half of mirrors which form the centre piece of the Mandalay residence of Burmese royalty are the name of a small photo studio where the books action appropriately ends. A writers business was to write and problematic values could, in his view, be interrogated as effectively in chapter sixteen. The rest of the forty eight chapters of The Glass Palace concern, during period of history both harrowing and exciting, the interaction between three families: of Dolly and Raj Kumar in Burma, of Uma and her brother in India and of say John, Raj Kumar and Matthew in Malaysia. Ghoshs novel, one can argue that coincidence represents what post modernist would call break in the logic of narration, just as post colonialism mark a disjunction from the earlier trajectory of colonialism. Migration in this book of Amitav Ghosh is the real experience: the protagonist suffer from it to larger extent as the role was assigned to him. Ghosh tries to focus on the reason of Indian involvement in imperialism and also takes in the economic perspective. Many Indians who were in the roles of businessmen and soldiers were involved and victims who throughout helped the British to conquer and sustain their empire. Other characters of the novel struggled for the Indian independence and few even revolted against the Britishers. In the light of emigration as a worldwide phenomenon it is indeed, Ghosh in his novel The Glass Palace managed to confine the past and what it must have meant to move to abroad settled down there and then be thrown out of there by war. It gives out the feeling of conquered and exploited and the terrible pressures and tensions of those people who were part of more than one ethnicity and culture, an almost usual result of the movement of people and the British empire set in motion. In his writings, Amitav Ghosh portrayed his diasporic feelings, loss of homeland and rootlessness which were clearly understandable and warmly felt while going through his work. Selected Bibliography Ghosh, Amitav , The circle of reason, publish (ravi dayal publishers) 2003 Ghosh, Amitav, the glass palace, new York, random house inc,2002 The Indian Diaspora: Dynamics of Migration,(sage publication)2004 Robbins, Bruce, Internationalism in Distress. Essays : The Imam and the Indian (2002) Exile literature and Diasporic Indian writers by Amit Shankar Saha Interviews: Migration of the reality of my times by Amitav Ghosh to India e news.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

William Harveys Discoveries and Effects on Society

William Harveys Discoveries and Effects on Society The Renaissance, which means rebirth, was a time of much literary and humanistic growth dating from 1350-1600 AD. During this period, scholars and intellectuals alike began to show interest and respect for the arts, literature, science and architecture again. The humanistic growth of this time refers to the scholars of the renaissance, known as Humanists, who put themselves and humankind at the centre of their world and culture rather than God. The Renaissance originated in northern Italy but eventually took over Europe, with clergymen and bishops moving to Italy to study   what was known as the New Learning. The invention of the printing press during this time also meant that books could be mass produced, quickly and cheaply for the first time, making them more widely available to humanists and those in the public that could afford such commodities. This led to increased learning in this time, which in turn led to great scientists and scholars being born who changed the way we loo k at the world, even today. (, 2011) William Harvey, alongside Galileo, Kepler and Bacon was a very important individual in the advancement of science in the renaissance period, who is credited today as being one of the most influential English physicians in history. He is mostly known for his research into the circulatory system and was the first person to discover and accurately describe how blood was transported throughout the body by the heart. Harvey was known for never fearing to go beyond what science had accepted in his time and for pushing the boundaries of Renaissance science, never having any fear to experiment on things that would be considered major taboos at the time. His exploits however would lead to the public and other physicians to write off his work completely. William was born in Folkstone, Kent, England in the year 1578 to Thomas and mother of nine, Joane Harvey. Williams father, Thomas, was quite a successful merchant who would go on to become the mayor of his town which meant that William lived a quite comfortable life growing up. As a child and young teen Harvey was taught the classics and latin, which would later aide him in his ventures to Europe where Latin was widely used for academic work. In 1597, Harvey attended Gonville and Caius College in the University of Cambridge where he studied and completed a bachelors degree. Upon completing his degree, Harvey thought it best to move on to study medicine in the highly prestigious University of Padua in northern Italy. At the time Italy was known to be one of the great centres of intellectual activity in Europe. It was in Padua that Harvey would go on to study and be tutored under the great and famous surgeon and scientist Hieronymus Fabricius. Fabricius was a dedicated anatomist who wa s revolutionising medicine in the renaissance period who had discovered that veins in the human body contained valves, although to use of these valves were unknown to him. His beliefs in the workings of scientists such as Galen were so strong that he didnt want to challenge these views which meant that Fabricius would never go on to further his studies in this area. Fabricius discovery would later inspire Harvey to further these studies. Harvey would then go on to receive the degree of M.D from the University of Padua in 1602, where on his diploma it was written [Harvey] had conducted himself so wonderfully well in the examination, and had shown such skill, memory and learning that he had far surpassed even the great hopes which his examiners had formed of him. They decided therefore that he was skilful, expert, and most efficiently qualified both in arts and medicineâ‚ ¬Ã‚ ¦ (, 2015). He would then go on to return to England to join and perform well in his ex ams at the Royal College of Physicians. During the renaissance period, the scientist and anatomist, Galen, was widely renowned as the greatest physician to ever have lived. Galen believed that the body was made up of bodily fluids called humors, these included blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm. Galens views were unanimously agreed upon and people of the time saw these humors in the same way that DNA and genes are viewed in modern science today. For example if somebody was optimistic or positive it would suggest, in Galens teachings, that the humor, blood, was the primary bodily fluid to make up said persons body. The same would be applied for someone who was bad tempered who would be thought to be mostly made up of yellow bile. Although these findings were widely accepted, Galen was never able to prove them outright as at the time, dissecting human bodies was forbidden and was widely believed that it would lead to the dissector not going to heaven upon death. It was these accepted views that would lead future scien tists, such as Fabricius, to not want to challenge Galen or conduct any sort of experiments that would be considered taboo at the time. (World Science Festival, 2014). Although Harvey was very curious and would go on to investigate Fabricius studies further as he was not a believer of this ideology, which meant that he wasnt afraid to conduct experiments such as dissecting and other procedures that would have been considered unthinkable at the time. His practices though, did not come without his critics, who believed in the workings of medieval scientist and anatomist Galen. It would be Harveys eventual rise through the ranks of the college of physicians and his marriage to Elizabeth Browne, daughter of the physician to the queen at the time Elizabeth the First, however, that would give Harvey the time and space needed to conduct his controversial experiments. His marriage into a family of power and his expertise as a fellow physician to his new father in law would lead to him becoming the physician extraordinary to Queen Elizabeths successor, King James the first. Harvey would begin through human dissection to open up arteries and begin to study blood flow and blood like nobody had ever before him. Harveys work was based on a range of experiments and observations, including applying ligatures to arms to compare the flow of blood through arteries and veins and to establish the role of valves and some live experimentation on the hearts and vessels of fish and snakes. (Underhill, 2015)   Harvey also used mathematical data to prove that the blood was not being consumed (Ribatti, 2009). Harvey continued to experiment until he was able to provide concrete evidence to publish for the public to view. In 1628, at the age of 50, Harvey published his findings in latin under the title: Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibusor in English as On the Motion of the Heart and Blood. It provided new evidence on blood circulation for the first time since Galen, who had believed that blood was produced in the liver from food and pumped to the lungs. It has been shown by reason and experiment that blood by the beat of the ventricles flows through the lungs and heart and is pumped to the whole body. There it passes through pores in the flesh into the veins through which it returns from the periphery everywhere to the centre, from the smaller veins into the larger ones, finally coming to the vena cava and right atrium. (Ribatti, 2009) Harveys findings went completely against the works of Galen   which sparked outrage in the scientific community as Galens work was regarded as untouchable at the time. The medical community grew hostile against Harvey and began to send hi m threats and insults. Always a believer of his work though, Harvey would never stop trying to defend his findings. Unfortunately this abuse did not end and his practice began to suffer because of it. Eventually it forced Harvey into isolation where he lived out his life as a recluse to avoid any unnecessary attention on himself. This wasnt the end for Harvey however as a new generation of budding medical students were on the rise, who were ready to disregard old teachings and pursue modern medical studys which Harvey pioneered with his research. Harvey would continue to give lectures to the new generation of scientists, detailing his methods and findings and who would then go on to use these findings and methods in their own research which would eventually make the works of Harvey mainstream, eventually making him into a more influential scientist than Galen, whose work is still used today. His sceptics outrage ended in 1661, four years after Harveys death, when scientist Marcello Malpighi discovered capillaries which finally gave factual evidence and proved Harveys theory of blood circulation. William Harveys discoveries and their eventual acceptance meant that medical practises in general improved greatly during the end of the renaissance period and beyond. His discoveries in the circulatory system and his students further studies into his field allowed for new, more complex operations to take place. This had a big effect on heart surgeons as before Harvey, nobody really knew much about the functions of the heart. This allowed for a greater, although still very low survival rate for cardiac patients as new experimental operative methods were used through trial and error. The next 100 years would prove vital for advancements in cardiac related research as followers and accepters of Harveys work would lead major breakthroughs that have lead up to where modern heart and circulatory surgery is today. To conclude, William Harvey was a very influential scientist who lived in a time and culture where people outright believed the views of medieval medicine. A time where the medical community was unwilling to challenge the views of the greats such as Galen. Harvey showed the scientific community that no matter what your views or stance on a particular science is, that if you keep an open mind you may just be proven wrong in the end. William Harvey was the landmark scientist of modern medicine who paved the way for what we consider modern medicine to be today. Harvey was the inspiration for a whole generation of anatomists and physicians in his time and for future centuries to come. Who to this day is used as the benchmark for how influential a physician can be. Thanks to Harveys willingness to abandon old wisdom and observe and test for himself, we have our modern understanding of physiology. ( , 2006) References: Harvey, william first, blood, body, Harveys contribution, Harvey publishes his findings (2006) Available at: Ribatti, D. (2009). William Harvey and the discovery of the circulation of the blood. [online] Available at: Underhill, S. (2015) 6.2 circulation Galen and Harvey. Available at: World Science Festival (2014) Misunderstood geniuses: William Harvey. Available at: (2011). The Renaissance. [online] Available at: (2015). William Harvey Biography, Facts and Pictures. [online] Available at:

Monday, August 19, 2019

Armour :: Essays Papers

Armour Armour in chivalric ages was truly one of the most important aspects of life. A family could spend all the money that they had arming one of their boys. The modern day equivalent to a fully armoured knight would be a tank for the United States Army. A knight's armour was important for a number of reasons. He needed it to be good looking, protective, and well maintained. Armour could take on several forms not just the typical metal suit. It came in the form of hardened leather, chain mail and hanging metal. Chivalry could not be upheld if it were not for Armour. Armour was a key tool of the chivalric period because a knight could not uphold the code of chivalry without it. A knight was judged by the armour that he wore and how he appeared in it. There were strict rules as to how the armour was to be applied to the knight and what the squire was supposed to bring to the field of battle. This is clearly evident in the following passage taken from the SCA web site ( ) entitled To Arm A Man GRAFICAS First you must set the sabatons and tie them to the shoe with small points that will not break. And then the greaves and cuisses over the breeches of mail. Then place the taces upon his hips. And then the breast and back plates, the vambraces and rerebraces {the arm defenses}. And then the gauntlets. Hang the dagger on his right side, his short sword upon his left side in a round ring that it may be lightly drawn. And then put his cote upon his back. The bascinet follows, laced to the cuirass in front and back that it sits just so. And then his long sword in his hand, a small pennant bearing the figure of Saint George or Our Lady in his left hand. Now he is ready to take to the field. What an Appellant shall bring to the field:

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Literature Reflects Life in The Gilded Age :: Literature Essays Literary Criticism

Literature Reflects Life in The Gilded Age As immigrants began to flood into America in the late 1800's and early 1900's, they had hopes of a miraculous new life in the Land of the Free. They may have thought that they would not have to live in cramped and unsanitary conditions as they had in their old homes. They may have had hopes of finding a great new career that would skyrocket them to fame and fortune and allow them to live like the Carnegies, Rockefellers, and Morgans did. It could be possible that all their hopes were assured once they caught sight of the New York City skyline, expanding as far as the eye could see and stretching like arms spread welcoming home a loved one. The sun may have been shining bright and golden, bathing the not-so-distant city in a fantastic light. At a distance it was quite possibly one of the most exquisite sights that their eyes had ever come upon. However, the land that looked so beautiful and grand from the distance was actually filled with greed, corruption, and opportunists. That is h ow America can be described during the Gilded Age. The wrapping was pretty, but the present was awful. Such wealthy entrepreneurs as the Rockefellers and Carnegies helped to make America the beauty that she was on the outside, but to an extent they also contributed to the rotten inside. America's new European residents lived in cramped apartments and worked in unsafe factories. The factories housed the latest technology of the Gilded Age, the assembly line. The mass production that the assembly line brought about made the rich richer, but did nothing to help the poor. They were working long hours in sometimes extremely dangerous conditions. Injuries and even deaths would occur due to faulty machinery or exhausted employees, but these occurrences were often ignored or covered up to avoid any bad publicity. As the immigrants flooded the big cities seeking jobs, other Americans headed west with the expansion of the railroad. However, nobody seemed to take into consideration that they would be intruding on the American Indian's territory. It also seemed that no one cared. America was gree dy for land that lay to the west and would be quite deceitful in getting the land that they wanted. The American Indians were pushed further and further west, and their tribes began to dwindle.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Brian Quinn

Dear Ms. Brummel: I have been involved in training clients and designing custom solution with Microsoft products for many years.  Ã‚  Ã‚   I would like the opportunity to see new Microsoft technologies first hand.   Specifically, I am writing to you about the System Administrator (Job code: XXXXXXX) and System Engineer ( Jobcode: 180703) positions I found while browsing the careers section of your website. I am a System Engineer specializing in Novell Netware and Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory.   For the last eight years, I ran a successful consulting business focusing on end-user training and Microsoft Systems support and administration.   Some of my former and current clients include: Onesoft Corporation, Novell, Oppenheimer Funds, Cal State Hayward, Energy Commission, Brigham Young University, Department of Justice, Franklin Covey and Anderson Consulting. In the course of pursuing my business interests I have acquired several professional certifications including: Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer , Microsoft Certified Trainer, Microsoft Certified Desktop Technician, Cisco Certified Network Associate( CCNA )and Novell Engineer.  Ã‚   I have 14 years of experience in the IT field; my previous employment is further detailed in the enclosed resume. I feel I can bring my extensive field and training experience to exceed the expectations for a person in the positions available.   I would like to speak with you at your convenience to discuss how I can contribute to Microsoft’s continued success.   I can be reached at (916)789-1779 any time. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Sincerely, Brian Quinn