Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Tata Motors Acquisition of Dawoo Commercial Vehicles Essay

Tata Motors Acquisition of Dawoo Commercial Vehicles - Essay Example The company is still chasing the opportunities to expand its business further to other location across the globe. Daewoo Motors Similar to Tata group, this group also started off in 1967 with a textile business by Kim Woo Choong (Koontz & Weihrich, 2006, p.206). In the 70’d and 80’s, the group has experienced a considerable growth with its diversification into several business. Later on in the early period of 1990s, the Group has expanded overseas and emerged as the largest conglomerate across the globe with around 24 companies under its shield. Back in the year 1978, the group has entered into the automobile industry by the acquisition of 50 % stake in the Sachan motor company while the rest was owned by another automobile giant, General Motors. The venture was later renamed as Daewoo Motor Company. In 1992, the Daewoo group acquired remaining 50 % of the stake with the withdrawal of partnership by GM. Later on after the bankruptcy of Daewoo, GM and some other companie s have shown their interest to acquire its assets. Daewoo Commercial Vehicle, previously a vertical of Daewoo, did not come under the bid and established itself as a separate company in the year 2002. Strategic and Economic Aspects behind the Acquisition Tata Motors had been one of the oldest players in the automobile industry of India. After expanding its dominance all over the economy, the company aimed at expanding its business all over the globe which made it adopt tie-up strategies with automobile companies in some of the major emerging markets of the world. The automobile industry is generally characterised by a large number of units and the commercial vehicles vertical in it occupies a small fragment of the entire industry. Globally, the commercial vehicles arena is dominated by... As the paper stresses Tata Motors is the leading automobile manufacturer in India and is among the leading commercial vehicle companies across the globe with revenue of $20 million in the last financial year. The company has also emerged as the one among the top four truck manufacturers as well as top two bus manufacturer across the globe. Established back in the year 1945, the company now employs more than 24000 employees with a vision to be the best in its operation and to be in compliance to its value systems and ethics. Tata Motors has also got the pride to be the first in the Indian engineering sector to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange; that happened back in September, 2004. This essay declares that Tata Motors had been one of the oldest players in the automobile industry of India. After expanding its dominance all over the economy, the company aimed at expanding its business all over the globe which made it adopt tie-up strategies with automobile companies in some of the major emerging markets of the world. The automobile industry is generally characterised by a large number of units and the commercial vehicles vertical in it occupies a small fragment of the entire industry. Globally, the commercial vehicles arena is dominated by players like Volvo, Scania, DaimlerChrysler and a few other giants who occupy nearly 60 percent of the total market share. In order to distinguish its might amidst them, the Tata Group needs to have considerable strategic as well as economic edge.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Philippine Rice Farmers Socioeconomic Status Essay Example for Free

Philippine Rice Farmers Socioeconomic Status Essay Rice farmers’ socioeconomic status better when they venture into other businesses. The economic and social status of Filipino rice farmers and their families has steadily improved during the last decade, not because they depended on rice, but because they ventured into other activities that supplemented their income from rice. This was shown by a study conducted by the Socioeconomics Division of the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). The study group, led by Divina Gracia Vergara, focused on trends transpiring in rice-based farm households and rice lands, and among farmer operators in 33 provinces for the last 10 years. â€Å"This intensive study captures the farmers’ image from 1996 to 2007,† Vergara said. The study shows that the rice-based farm household income is increasing, as gross household income went up from P68,974.85 in 1996-97 to P127,799.95 in 2006-07. The finding is also consistent with the result showing that almost 60 percent of the households are above poverty level (57 percent) in the 2006-07 period. Furthermore, the share of nonfarming activities as a source of income had steadily been increasing, as the study found that rice and rice-based farmers are now engaged in other businesses, such as rubber production, wood craft, welding and work overseas. â€Å"This finding implies an important question. The question in the long run will be about the presence of household members who are willing to pursue rice farming in the future or dependence of rice-farm households on hired labor for the management of their farms,† Vergara said. Aside from improving the status of rice-based households and increasing their income, Vergara also learned that the number of farmers owning rice land had been increasing by 10 percent for the last 10 years. Moreover, there is also an increase in farmers’ yields regardless of season from 3.30 ton per hectare (t/ha) to 3.72 t/ha during the wet season, and 3.37 t/ha to 3.94 t/ha during the dry season. Across three survey rounds, most villages are located in irrigated areas, and results show that irrigation is expanding from 60 percent to 66 percent. The current trend revealed by the study also suggests that highly educated persons are venturing into rice farming, although the majority is modestly educated or with elementary education only. There is a 2-percent increase in the number of farmers with at least a college education venturing into rice farming. In terms of organizing farmers, however, results show that more than 50 percent of the respondents are not affiliated with rice or rice-based organizations. Most of them have not also undergone training since 2004. Noting that half of the farmer-respondents have been farming for 20 years, Vergara also said farmers’ households are benefiting from the technologies and services that are being provided by the government. Despite the interventions, however, average yields gained during the dry and wet seasons are still below the experimental and on-farm trial yields of 7-9 t/ha. Gaining insight from the study, Vergara and her coauthors recommended that training should be sustained to continuously update farmers’ skills and knowledge. She also stressed the need for the government to encourage farmers to form or join organizations as through organization, farmers can pool resources and have easier access to government incentives. She also suggested the expansion of irrigation are as, as this creates â€Å"a more favorable environment for rice farming in particular and agriculture in general.† To attract more people to be involved in rice production, Vergara proposed that technologies lessening the drudgery of rice farming should continually be developed. â€Å"It is important that the government continue to monitor the rice-based farm household to determine or approximate the impact of their interventions. This will also give them enough knowledge on the direction of the policies that they would formulate to improve the countryside,† Vergara said.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Is Sherlock Holmes an Individual or a By Product of the Victorian Age? :: Sherlock Holmes Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Essays

Is Sherlock Holmes an Individual or a By Product of the Victorian Age? To the ignorant onlooker Sherlock Holmes is simply a clever detective amongst a horde of similar duplicates from various tales and myths of the crime-solving era. Sherlock Holmes is the culmination from a culture of detectives. Francis Eugene Vidocq, a â€Å"Holmes† in the making, with an utter disregard for the official police, an ability to disguise himself, and clever plans to catch the criminals accompanied by an excellent knowledge of the criminal underworld. Lecoq, used science and his cleverness to solve his crimes. Dupin, a detective who possessed powers of deduction and reasoning. Conan Doyle used all these essential ingredients and through an ingenious metamorphosis produced the ultimate detective; the meticulous observer Sherlock Holmes. If we delve deeper into the infinite chasm of Holmes' character we reveal more about the enigmatic figure that masquerades inside his majestic exterior. The entwining, interlocking tentacles of Holmes' deceivingly simple demeanour knot together to conceal his true being. His character cannot be confined to the restrictive boundaries we use for one and another. His character is far more complex and intelligent than his middle class placement in Victorian society would like to divulge. Conan Doyle created a character, blessed with gifts of deduction, intuition and a genius ability to solve crimes. But in forming this wonderful concoction he thus morphed many other sides to Holmes, seemingly oblivious to his adoring followers. He formed an untouchable creature, unable to feel emotion and passion. "He never spoke of the softer passions, save with a gibe and a sneer" Emotions would only make Holmes weaker, and Sherlock Holmes did not do weakness. A cold calculated scientist, an ostentatious performer, an arrogant conceited artist, a character arisen to a higher level than us 'inferior beings' Holmes' the bohemian, Holmes' the scientist, Holmes' the detective, Holmes' the gentleman, Holmes' the musician. Clever, genius, conceited, arrogant, patronising, condescending. His character is more than dual-natured. His multiple sided personality forms a complex persona to investigate. To dissect the inner chambers of Holme's thoughts, I will protrude into the depths of a classic narrative; The Red Headed League which embodies many of Holmes intricate characteristics. In this classic narrative Mr Wilson, the stereotypical ignorant victim is used as a long-suffering pawn in a game of cruel political chess, he is obliviously trapped in a criminal masterminds scheming plan to gain his revenge on society. The 'red headed league' is an exuberant ploy to keep Mr Wilson out of his lodgings for days on end under the preface that his "Real vivid flame coloured tint" had earned him a place in the ambiguous "red headed league". He has

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Disaster Preparedness Essay

A disaster is generally defined as an event in which illness or injuries surpass resource capabilities of a community or medical facility (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2010). Disaster preparedness is a process of ensuring that an organization has complied with the preventive measures and is in a state of readiness to contain the effects of a predicted disastrous event to minimize loss of life, injury, and damage to property. see more:essay on disaster management in english Disaster preparedness can also provide rescue, relief, rehabilitation, and other services in the aftermath of the disaster, as well as have the capability and resources to continue to sustain its essential functions without being overwhelmed by the demand placed on them. The American Nursing Association is helping to ensure that disaster preparedness and response is robust in this country to be personally and professionally prepared for a disaster. Being in a prepared profession can help cope and help the communities recover from disaster better, faster and stronger (Brewer, 2010). According to the Maricopa Integrated Health System (MIHS) at Maricopa Medical Center, they have a specialized disaster preparedness plan to fit their current top three hazards. Maricopa Medical Center conducts a Hazard Vulnerability Assessment (HVA) annually. The current top three hazards K. F. , Manager of Fire Safety and Disaster Preparedness, at Maricopa Medical Center has identified include: Mass Causality Incidents (trauma, burns, pandemic, etc. ), Small Casualty Hazardous Materials Response (less than five patients), and Severe Weather Incidents (monsoonal action, thunderstorms, and haboobs). This organization has a comprehensive Emergency Operations Plan that addresses the top three current hazards in the organization’s region. Maricopa Medical Center is also further developing their business continuity and recovery plans into stand-alone plans (K. F. , personal interview, February 13, 2012). In order to evaluate and determine the effectiveness of the disaster preparedness plan, Maricopa Medical Center annually conducts a minimum of two operational exercises, in addition to various discussion based exercises. The organization’s exercises follow the Homeland Security Exercise Evaluation Program (HSEEP), which includes an after action report process with an improvement plan and corrective action plan sections. According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, many studies have showed that disaster drills have been an effective way to improve staffs knowledge of hospital disaster procedures (Catlett, 2004). Additionally, exercise objectives are developed in such a way to exercise pieces of the plan that have been identified as opportunities for continual improvement and/or grant deliverables. Once opportunities for improvement of the disaster plan are identified, these improvements are remedied by being given corrective actions with specific time frames and the status is reported to senior management. Some recent corrective actions that have occurred within recent years include the development of position-specific training to further build comfort for those that are activated in the Hospital Command Center, plan changes regarding Casualty Care Areas during a response to a Mass Casualty Incident, and Standard Operating Procedure enhancement for the Hospital Emergency Response Team (K. F. personal interview, February 13, 2012). The representation that is present on the disaster preparedness committee for Maricopa Medical Center does not include nursing management. The emergency management committee includes a cross-sectional representation from the entire health system. This includes Acute Care, Behavioral Health, Ancillary Services, and Outpatient Services. K. F. , stated, â€Å"Bedside nursing has been extremely instrumental within the various task groups that focus on plan changes. In fact, the task groups associated with Casualty Care, Fatality Management, and HERT development are chaired by bedside nursing staff. There is also a Steering Committee for guidance that includes the Chief Operating Officer, Chief Medical Officer, Chief Information Officer, Chief Compliance Officer and the Vice President of Hospital Operations (K. F. , personal interview, February 13, 2012). † The established relationships that are within the community to help implement the organization’s disaster preparedness plan are that K. F. is currently the Chair-Elect for the Az Coalition for Healthcare Emergency Response (AzCHER-Central), which brings hospitals, clinics, skilled nursing acilities, fire & Emergency Medical Services (EMS), public health, emergency management, and other community stakeholders together for planning. Maricopa Medical Center currently has three to four members on the general body of this group, including bedside nursing representatives. There are a number of governmental agencies that are involved in the organization’s disaster preparedness planning. K. F. is an active member with Coyote Crisis Collaborative, which includes some of those from AzCHER, but also universities and community colleges, utilities, private business, faith-based and other volunteer groups, etc. The Chief Information Officer is currently the Chairman of the Board for Coyote Crisis Collaborative. Additionally, they participate in the Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP) Grant which is administered by Arizona Department of Health Services. All of these opportunities provide environments for collaboration, plan sharing, and developing solutions to issues that face all of those included (K. F. , personal interview, February 13, 2012). In order to implement this plan, staff has received adequate training. The National Incident Management System and Incident Command System training is required for all identified Hospital Command Center staff. They have a â€Å"3-Deep† list for all identified positions. Required training includes Incident System-100, Incident System-200, Incident System-700, and Incident System-800 as a minimum. Incident System-300 and Incident System-400 are required for section chiefs and incident commanders. An overview of the Hospital Incident Command System is shared with all employees at New Employee Orientation. The Hospital Emergency Response Team (HERT) members receive additional Hospital Incident Command System (HICS) training within the HERT course and must take Incident System-100, Incident System-200, and Incident System-800 as pre-requisites for HERT. At Maricopa Medical Center, HERT training is now the standard for the Emergency Department first-year residents during their orientation process. K. Fehr stated, â€Å"Additionally, position-specific training has been identified in a recent exercise as an opportunity for improvement. That training has been developed and is scheduled to be administered over the next 90 days (K. F. personal interview, February 13, 2012). † Maricopa Medical Center has an automated system for the Hospital Command Center that is based upon Hospital Incident Command System IV. This system allows for â€Å"virtual† command and has the ability to send status updates, as well as provide real-time status to the HCC Team. They have also just been given access to a Mass Notification program from Arizona Department of Health Services that can be used internally to ensure that communication during incidents is sent to every employee. HICS IV is the current model that is used, which is National Incident Management System compliant (K.  F. , personal interview, February 13, 2012). The standards that nurses are held to concerning their ethical obligations to their organization and community would be handled by the Incident Commander with guidance of wither a Legal Specialist or Medical Ethicist. Any issues that are specific to standards of care would be approved by the Incident Commander and forwarded to the staff during the event based upon available resources, etc. If the question is specific as to the nurses’ duty to respond to work during a disaster, they do not require them to respond. They hope that they would stay or be willing to come in. The planning includes the set-up of child/elder care areas and sleeping areas for the staff to remove barriers that would take them away from their station. Planning does include the idea that at least 40 % of the staff will not remain or come in during an incident. Maricopa Medical Center has a Memorandum of Understanding and a Memorandum of Agreement with other regional hospitals and formal request processes at the county and state levels for additional staff. When asked whether staff buy-in was a coveted aspect in Maricopa Medical Center’s disaster plan, K. F. tates, â€Å"Staff is absolutely buy-in coveted for this organization’s disaster preparedness plan. The best method that we have found for involvement includes the expansion of the HERT Program, covering the program during Health Fairs and Nursing Skills Fairs, and involving staff in exercises as mock patients (K. F. , personal interview, February 13, 2012). † After my interview with K. F. , I was really intrigued into what all goes on with a disaster preparedness plan. I knew that disaster plans were in effect for many organizations, but I did not realize the actual extent of what goes n with the planning of it. I learned a lot through the interview and was very pleased with the information that I received about Maricopa Medical Center and their disaster preparedness plan. I feel that what is involved in their plan is very relevant to the location of the organization, as well as how they every year they have two operational exercises, as well as discussion based exercises, to help test their plan and determine its effectiveness. I think this is a very important aspect to any organization because without testing the plan, it is unclear how effective it really it. After these annual exercises, I think it is great that the organization has an after report with ideas for improvement to help make their disaster plan stronger and more effective. All in all, I believe that Maricopa Medical Center has a very effective and sufficient disaster preparedness plan for their organization and that they are consistently looking for areas of where they can improve and better their plan to help the community recover from disaster as it occurs (K. F. , personal interview, February 13, 2012).

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Global Beer Market Trends Essay

At the turn of the century, the top 10 brewers accounted for just over one-third of global beer sales volumes. The past decade has seen a rapid consolidation, resulting in the top four brewers – Anheuser-Busch InBev, SABMiller, Heineken and Carlsberg – accounting for almost 50% of beer sales volumes and up to 75% of the global profit pool2. Consolidation has continued in the past 12 months with further transactions in Mexico and China. As the pace of consolidation slows in the future, organic volume growth is expected to come from developing markets along with value creation opportunities in developed markets. Alcohol trends Category trends show a dichotomy between developing and developed beer markets. With incomes rising in emerging markets, consumers have shifted from informal, often commoditised, unregulated forms of alcohol to aspirational, attractively branded and safer beer products. The period from 1999 to 2008 saw commercially produced beer increasing its share of total alcohol consumption in emerging markets by over 800 bps from 32. 8% in 1999 to 41. 2% in 2008 on a pure alcohol basis. The same period saw a moderate decline in developed markets to 35. 2% in 2008. The economic crisis caused an overall downturn in 2009 – one that was further exacerbated by government fiscal pressures leading to increases in beer excise and other taxation in order to raise funds. The consequent consumer price increases have constrained beer volume growth while favouring unregulated forms of alcohol. As the global economy improves, rising incomes continue to be a significant factor in developing beer markets as the category grows at the expense of illicit, high-alcohol spirits. In Africa, Latin America and Asia in particular, the rise in consumption is closely correlated to population and income growth3. Beer growth trends Over the past five years the beer category has maintained a compound average growth rate (CAGR) of 3. 5% globally. However, this reflects two very different pictures in emerging and developed markets with emerging markets growing at an average rate of 6. 8% while developed markets declined by 3. 4%. The largest contributors to this growth have been China (now the world’s largest beer market), Africa and Eastern Europe. Given the economic pressures, total global beer consumption grew by less than 1% in 2009. That said, strong growth trends continued in some key emerging markets. China recorded an increase of over 7%, despite being hampered by heavy snow and wet weather that affected consumer demand. Africa experienced robust growth of 4%, driven by Angola, DR Congo, Mozambique and Nigeria. In Eastern Europe, certain beer markets contracted in 2009 as rising unemployment and declining on-premise consumption halted growth. Regulatory challenges created further headwinds in markets such as Russia and the beer market there declined 6% as a result. Macroeconomic indicators improved in some markets in the last three months of 2009. However, the drivers of beer consumption such as falling unemployment and rising consumption expenditure are expected to lag behind the recoveries in GDP. North America, hit hard in 2009 by high unemployment, particularly among men of beer-drinking age, is expected to see only slight growth. Globally, the beer market is expected to grow by 1. 5% in 2010, led by a continuing strong performance in Asia, Africa and Latin America. China is expected to grow by 6. 5%, Africa by 3. 1% and Latin America by almost 3%. Western Europe is expected to continue the trend of declining beer volumes, driven by a shift in consumption to other beverages and the decline of on-premise consumption. Looking further ahead to 2014, the top 15 growth markets are forecast to deliver compounded annual growth of 3%. China is expected to account for more than 45% of this growth with the USA, Vietnam, Brazil, Ukraine, Russia, Mexico and Peru making up most of the balance. Beer segment trends Across consumer goods sectors in general, the trend towards premiumisation accelerated in the past decade but slowed in the last 18 months as economic conditions worsened and consumers reverted to mainstream and economy segments. As economies improve, the trend towards premium will resume as consumers become more willing to pay for authentic, more image-oriented brands that reflect their socio-economic and lifestyle aspirations. The premiumisation trend has not altered the fact that beer remains very much a local beverage in terms of both production and consumer brand preferences. International brands account for just over 6% of the world’s beer consumption and this proportion has changed little over the last 10 years. Rather, what has happened is that urbanisation and a growing middle class in emerging markets have led to the growth of local premium brands. These offer premium packaging, positioning and variety, but are sold at a price accessible to many more consumers than international imported products. The resulting scale and higher profit margins make this a very attractive industry segment. 1. All data sourced from Canadean unless otherwise noted. 2. BofAMerrilLynch report: Investing in Global Brewers 19 April 2010. Canadean, Internal analysis. Principal risks The principal risks facing the group, which have been considered by the board, are detailed below. The group’s well-developed risk management process is detailed in the corporate governance section of the Annual Report and our financial risks are discussed in the Chief Financial Officer’s review and in note 22 to the consolidated financial statements. Risk: Industry consolidation Context? The global brewing industry is expected to continue to consolidate, albeit more slowly, creating opportunities to enter attractive growth markets and realise synergy benefits from integration and to leverage global scale. Risk? Failure to participate in value-adding transactions; overpaying for a transaction; and failure to implement integration plans successfully after transactions are completed. Possible impact? Lower growth rate, profitability and financial returns. Mitigation 3. Potential transactions are subject to rigorous analysis. Only opportunities with potential to create value are pursued. 4. Proven integration processes, procedures and practices are applied to deliver expected returns. 5. Activities to deliver synergies and leverage scale are in place, monitored closely and continuously enhanced. Associated strategic priorities * Creating a balanced and attractive global spread of businesses. * Constantly raising the profitability of local businesses, sustainably Risk: Change in consumer preferences Context? Consumer tastes and behaviours are constantly evolving and competitor activity is increasing and becoming more sophisticated. Strong brand portfolios together with excellence in marketing and sales execution are required if we are to meet consumer, shopper and customer needs. Risk? Failure to ensure the attractiveness of our brands; failure to continuously improve our marketing and related sales capability to deliver consumer relevant propositions. Possible impact? Market positions come under pressure, lower volume growth rates and profitability. Mitigation 6. Ongoing focus on building our marketing and sales capabilities through continued roll-out and enhancement of the SABMiller Marketing Way. 7. Ensuring that our brand equities remain strong through relevant innovation and compelling marketing programmes. 8. Ongoing evaluation of our brand portfolios in every market to ensure that they target current and future opportunities for profitable growth. Associated strategic priorities * Developing strong, relevant brand portfolios that win in the local market. * Constantly raising the profitability of local businesses, sustainably. * Leveraging our skills and global scale. Risk: Management capability impairment Context? We believe that our people are our enduring advantage. It is essential therefore that we identify, develop and retain global management capability. Risk? Failure to develop and maintain a sufficient cadre of talented management. Possible impact? Potential lower long-term profitable growth. Mitigation 9. Effective and well-developed strategic people resourcing and talent management processes. 10. A strong culture of accountability, empowerment and personal development. 11. Standardisation of key processes and best practices across the group through the roll-out of the SABMiller Ways. Associated strategic priorities * Developing strong, relevant brand portfolios that win in the local market. * Constantly raising the profitability of local businesses, sustainably. * Leveraging our skills and global scale. Risk: Regulatory changes Context ? The alcohol industry is coming under increasing pressure from regulators, NGOs and tax authorities as the debate over alcohol consumption continues in many markets. Risk? Regulation places increasing restrictions on pricing (including tax), availability and marketing of beer and drives changes in consumption behaviour. Possible impact? Lower profitability growth and reduced contribution to local communities in some countries. Mitigation 12. Rigorous adherence to the principle of self-regulation backed by appropriate policies and management review. 13. Constructive engagement with government and all external stakeholders on alcohol-related issues. 14. Investment to improve the economic and social impact of our businesses in local communities and working in partnership with governments and NGOs. Associated strategic priorities * Creating a balanced and attractive global spread of businesses. * Developing strong, relevant brand portfolios that win in the local market. * Constantly raising the profitability of local businesses, sustainably. * Risk: Raw material volatility * Context ? Recent volatility in the supply and pricing in some of our key raw materials. * Risk? Failure to obtain an adequate supply of brewing and packaging raw materials at competitive prices. * Possible impact? Lower profitability and occasional supply disruption. Mitigation 15. Contractual agreements with suppliers covering multiple time horizons, combined with an active hedging programme. 16. Programmes to support development of local sourcing for certain key commodities, such as barley, in Africa, India and Latin America. Associated strategic priorities * Constantly raising the profitability of local businesses, sustainably. * Leveraging our skills and global scale. * Risk: Economic environment * Context ? Recent global recession with weak GDP growth projected in 2010. Uncertain economic growth and rising unemployment have resulted in weak consumer demand which has, in some cases, been compounded by currency weakness. * Risk? Our marketing, operating and financial responses may not be timely or adequate to respond to changing consumer demand. * Possible impact? Lower short-term growth rates and profitability. Mitigation 17. Actions to restructure operations in certain countries to reflect current or expected deterioration in local economic conditions. 18. Maintaining and extending our local industry leadership positions through appropriate investments in our brands, focus on local execution and development of commercial capability. 19. Increased emphasis on cash flow management. Associated strategic priorities * Creating a balanced and attractive global spread of businesses. * Developing strong, relevant brand portfolios that win in the local market. * Constantly raising the profitability of local businesses, sustainably. * Risk: Delivering transformation * Context ? The group has begun executing a major business capability programme that will simplify processes, reduce costs and allow local management teams to enhance focus on their markets. * Risk? Failure to execute and derive benefits from the projects currently under way. Mitigation 20. Senior leadership closely involved in monitoring progress and in making key decisions. 21. Rigorous programme management and governance processes with dedicated resources. Associated strategic priorities * Constantly raising the profitability of local businesses, sustainably. * Leveraging our skills and global scale. * * Possible impact? Increased project costs, business disruption and reduced competitive advantage in the medium term.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Most Reliable SAT Essay Template and Format

The Most Reliable SAT Essay Template and Format SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Aside from the â€Å"grid in† math questions, all you have to do for most of the SAT is answer multiple choice questions. And then, if you've chosen to take it, there's the essay. Or, more accurately, "To finish up, there's the essay." Because the last thing you'll do on the SAT (with Essay) is read a passage and write an essay analyzing its argument, all in 50 minutes. How can you even begin to read a passage, analyze it, and write an essay about it in 50 minutes? What SAT essay structure should you follow? Is there an SAT essay format that’ll score you a top score for sure? Read on to find out the answers to these questions!

Monday, October 21, 2019

Case Scenario Interdepartmental Relations

Case Scenario Interdepartmental Relations Introduction Literary, every organization has different departments involved in performance of different activities relating to the organization. These departments are mainly involved in the management, marketing of the company’s product, and production, among others. All these departments must collectively work towards helping in improving the income of the company.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Case Scenario: Interdepartmental Relations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organizational culture usually determines how the various departments function to improve the productivity of the company. Moreover, communication and interpersonal relationship between the various members of the departments is therefore a very vital aspect, which determines the success or failure of the company. The Fortune 500 Company The company has been performing considerably well as evidenced by its ranking in the Fortune 500. How ever, there is a communication breakdown in the company’s various departments. These problems threaten the financial profitability of the company, and they should therefore be averted before they have far-reaching effects on the company. Conflict scenario There is a conflict between the various departments in the organization; for instance, there is a lack of cohesion between various departments involved in the production of products. Each department is trying to outdo the other, and hence show its importance to the company. For example, the sales department looks down upon the manufacturing department and is of the view that the latter department does not understand the needs of the customers of the company. On the other hand, the manufacturing department is of the view that it is not being consulted in the design of the company’s products; the department is of the view that its work is beyond just implementing the ideas that other departments come up with. The financ e department on the other hand, puts pressure on the sales department and does not facilitate their working so that they may achieve their set targets. The company also has a problem due to the incompatibility of the goals of the different departments of the organization (Daft, 2009, p. 494). The finance department is mainly concerned with the attainment of the sales targets for the marketing department, whereas the sales department is mainly concerned with the sale of the product, hence making it to have prejudice on the manufacturing department. Problems:Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Competition for recognition between the different departments Lack of teamwork within the departments Laying the blame on other departments Reasons for the problems: Lack of consultation of the relevant departments Lack of teamwork in the company Solutions to the problems Var ious strategies can assist the company to devise methods for solving the problems. One of the methods is through the enhancement of communication channels of the organization so as to help improve the cohesion between the members of the different departments. The company can also help to improve the teamwork of different departments in the organization by facilitating active participation of various relevant departments, which are involved in the development of the new products for the company. Solution strategies The main problem that the company faces is the conflict between the manufacturing and the marketing department. The problems facing the two departments should first be solved before tackling the differences between the finance and the marketing department. These problems mainly arise due to the lack of appreciation of the work done by the other departments. The lack of appreciation of the work by the other department is mainly brought about by ignorance of specific departm ent on the work that the other department does. The strategy employed would mainly be to enhance the mutual respect of other departments in the organization. To help in solving the problem, the company should ensure that the departments that are in conflict are in mutual agreement of the strategy, which would be employed to solve the problems they face (Marsen, n.d. p 23). Mutual agreement also helps in creation of a situation where none of the parties perceives itself as the winner and the other as the looser in the conflict. This leads to the creation of a win-win situation for both parties, thus enhancing the productivity of the departments (Rahim, 2001, p. 166). Moreover, mutual agreement will also encourage the active participation of different department in the chosen strategy. The strategy will mainly involve enlightening of members of the departments on the activities undertaken in the other departments. The company should create strategies, which will enable the engineers t o have knowledge on marketing, while the marketing department should be given some knowledge of engineering (Tutek and Ay, n.d. p. 549).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Case Scenario: Interdepartmental Relations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Knowledge of the other departments will help in reduction of the disagreements between the two groups and in effect, help in solving the problems that the department faces. In addition, the company should ensure that it takes measures to ensure that the marketers receive training on the characteristics of the products and the processes involved in manufacturing of the products. The company should also ensure that the engineers receive training on the needs of the customers and their preferences, as well as the various marketing skills involved in making of the products, which the company specializes in. This will help in solving the differences between the two departments, h ence enabling them to speak in a common language (Tutek and Ay, n.d. p. 545). Solution of the problems in the manufacturing and marketing departments will help the company to achieve its target sales, as there would be better coordination of activities involving the marketing and the manufacturing department, hence leading to the satisfaction of the finance department. The strategy used in the solution of the problem between the manufacturing and the marketing department can also be employed in the treatment of problem between the finance and the marketing department. However, the ideal time for the employment of the strategy is after tackling the problem, which faces the manufacturing and marketing department. Tackling of all the problems at the same time, would complicate the problems that the company faces, as it would most likely lead to vilification of the marketing department by the manufacturing and finance department. How to avoid the future occurrence of the problem The com pany can ensure that the conflicts are avoided in future by facilitating better communication between different departments of the organization. The better communication and mutual respect for the work done by different department should be integrated into the organization culture of the company. In addition, instilling the practices into the organization culture will enable the company to remain true to the above values (CommGAP, n.d. p. 4). The company can instill this into the organizational culture through regular and occasional training of the members of different departments on the activities of other departments. This will enable the members of the different departments to work as a unit for the attainment of the basic objectives of the company. References Communication for Governance and Accountability Program (CommGAP). (N.d). Organizational communication. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTGOVACC/Resources/OrganizationalCommweb.pdfAdvertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Daft, R.L. (2009). Organization theory and design. OH: Cengage learning. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=CmFjF5tNmuECpg=PA494lpg=PA494dq=resolving+conflict+between+marketing+and+engineering+departmentsource=blots=XpFIvNE_ncsig=Ur2Wn60x2Vh-G3L-S1pACsLhciEhl=enei=KSJATbHXN8KSOojPrf0Hsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=8ved=0CFAQ6AEwBw#v=onepageqf=false. Marsen, S. (N.d). Organizational Communication. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved from its.caltech.edu/~e105/readings/team/communication.pdf. Rahim M. A. (2001). Managing conflict in organizations. CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=c7ydIBWar-4Cpg=PA169lpg=PA169dq=resolving+conflict+between+marketing+and+engineering+departmentsource=blots=8__ieRPfq-sig=uYpHPhaxd8snBjRPmAFspGvLLZ4hl=enei=MiZATa63FcWbOs3wgP0Hsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=10ved=0CFcQ6AEwCQ#v=onepageqf=false. Tutek, H. and Ay, C. (N.d.) Resolving conflict between marketing and engineering: A quest fo r effective integration. Celar Bayar University, faculty of Economics and business administration. Retrieved from opf.slu.cz/vvr/akce/turecko/pdf/Tutek.pdf.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

How to bridge language barriers - Emphasis

How to bridge language barriers How to bridge language barriers A new dictionary is set to make sense of that most inscrutable of languages: teen speak. This comprehensive reference book, called Pimp Your Vocab, aims to allow bemused parents and teachers to comprehend such teenglish terms as owned (meaning embarrassed), smacked it (to have done well), and teek (adjective for very old; from antique). Understanding your child or pupil may help you to save face (though its probably best not to adopt these words yourself); but being completely clear in business communications can be the difference between winning and losing a client. Thinking globally In the modern world of global commerce, chances are at some point youll have to correspond with someone in another part of the world. We know technology can instantly transport information to just about anywhere on the planet, but are you sure your message will be completely understood once its there? If you are writing any work document (including any letters and emails) for someone whose first language isnt English, there are some rules that you must follow if you want to be understood. 1. Think of the reader and keep it simple This advice really applies to all business writing, but it is particularly important across language barriers. Use the most straightforward words and sentences you can. So, instead of saying, we have been thinking of implementing some alterations, please see them outlined in the attached document, try descriptions of the changes we want to make are in the attached document. Usually you should try to avoid tions (like description, recommendation etc.), as they tend to make sentences heavy with extra words. However, in this case its good to use them, since other languages often have recognisable equivalents. 2. Structure thoughtfully You want to make the readers journey through your document as smooth and easy as possible. Plan thoroughly first to make sure you structure it in the most logical way and use clear subheadings to guide them. If they have to work even harder by following a haphazard stream-of-consciousness, you risk irritating them and losing their interest entirely. 3. Be literal and explain yourself Be very aware of the language you choose. English is bursting with idioms (expressions that dont make sense from literal translations), like put the project to bed, cut the mustard and clear as mud. Avoid these entirely. What is an everyday term to us could well be utterly bewildering to your reader just imagine them looking up each individual word to understand the sentiment behind think outside the box or a different kettle of fish. Even such simple phrasal verbs as turned up and stand for dont make literal sense. Use came and represent or mean instead. Abbreviations and acronyms should also be used with care, or left out if possible. If you really cant avoid including them, make sure you explain them at your first use, or add a glossary. If you stick to these principles in your global dealings, you will reap the rewards. But when you do, just try to resist telling your colleagues that you totally smacked it.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Computer Fraud Tools Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Computer Fraud Tools - Essay Example This software works best in machines that contain 64MB or more of system memory, with a processor of Pentium II 400 MHz core or a more advanced processor than this, and lastly it can work in Vista, Windows 7, and XP, 98, 2000, 2002, and 2003 (Sammons, 2012). This program has the following features: deleted files recovery, missing folders and files recovery, live updates are available for the program, full support for long string variables and names, and it fully supports SCSI, EIDE, IDE, and PAN, SATA, ZIP drives (Mary-Jo Kranacher, Richard Riley, Joseph T. Wells ,2010). It is used to recover files deleted from NTFS and FAT based operating systems. This program cost about $29, and can be accessed online with a full license or bought from different outlets worldwide. Disk doctors undelete (Mary-Jo Kranacher, Richard Riley, Joseph T. Wells, 2010) This program can recover deleted files on SATA, IDE, ATA, SCSI hard disk drives, memory sticks, SD cards, USB hard drives, and external Zip d rives. It supports recovery in the FAT32, FAT, FAT16, NTFS5 and the normal NTFS file systems in the following operating systems: XP, 2003 and 2000, Windows VISTA (Sammons, 2012). It recovers files that are accidentally deleted on a window running operating system. This software costs $49.00 USD. Tools that can be used to collect digital evidence from a cell phone are softwares, which use forensic abilities, to recover data that is not currently in the phone. These programs include; Cell phone and data mining (Androulidakis, 2012) This tool involves evidence from cellular devices playing a critical role in the component of data mining. This ability is often overlooked in the use of digital evidence (Androulidakis, 2012). This tool involves the export of information from various digital devices like the cell phones. For cell phones, you export the call logs, stored files from the phone and possibly the net visited sites if it is web enabled. After exporting, then the data is imported into an analytical software package, whereby the experts and investigators using the data mining techniques can visualize and diagram a timeline of events or a criminal enterprise. To understand the complex relationships of the timeline of events and criminal enterprise, the graphical representation would do a lot better for investigators and the jury in the courtroom presentation on a criminal investigation.an example of the is the AFLOGICAL 1.4 investigation tool (Androulidakis, 2012). This tool tested personal Information Management data was attempted including access to the multimedia messaging services, and it runs on Mac OS X 10.5.4. It is quite an expensive tool. Camera (Androulidakis, 2012) A cell phone camera can be used as a forensic tool to collect digital evidences (Androulidakis, 2012). A camera takes photos and subsequently stores them in memory in the phone or an external storage device. These tools are fairly cheap and must be attached to the phone and connected to t he phone system. So it must be compatible with the cell device that it is to be installed. Cell phone analysis tools These are tools that are used to read a SIM card. A SIM (subscriber identity module) accommodates text messages, recently dialed

Marketing Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Marketing Plan - Essay Example 95% of ingredients are ordered on the basis of sources to make a product. This means that company has high reliance on farmers for the cultivation of organic ingredients. Perfect potion is not involved in animal testing. Its production department measures safety of both animals as well as humans, even the minerals used in products is exempted from petroleum and silicones products. Perfect portion does not deal with products which are subjected to dyes, coloring agents, paraffin or fragrances However, considering the present condition of the company, its manufacturing cost is increasing rapidly, 20% of the cost is allocated to raw material and if there is any minute error it will be an addition to the cost. To control this it requires an integrated management system. 1.2 Background In accordance with the corporate service manager of perfect portion, this company was established by one man, having one outlet, limited products and manufacturing of these products was done in a garage. It was a very small business. As this business began to grow more stores were opened, wide product varieties, large network and also resulted in many problems. It is a common thinking that as a business grows more problems exists as compared to that of small business. Though company had huge business but it wasn’t managed accordingly. ... Some of these forces affecting the present situation of the company are described below: Micro forces Intermediaries Intermediaries play a key role in controlling the internal and external environment of the company. All depends on the process and management carried out by top level executives. Perfect potion gets organic coconut oil from the island of pacific communities. This not only helps the island communities but also encourages local entrepreneurship. These are the intermediaries from which company sources most of its organic products to make a final thing for clients. They play a key role in its success. So in order to deal with this situation companies involved in producing such products should try to purchase their own lands to reduce the high cost of organic ingredients. Customer markets It is very essential to identify the changes in customer markets, their trends keep on fluctuating in the industry. People get more attracted to new things introduced by various competitor s. Therefore, it is essential for the company to have a wide network of retail services to cater a large market. Perfect potion has a wide network of retailing around 800 products. It has catered a large part of customer market. Though company always has a threat of better product and technology to be introduced in the market by other competitors, in this case it will increase cost of the company. In order to tackle with this situation company should be more innovative and should increase its market coverage in other regions, to overcome the uncertainty of changes in consumer market. The organization Organization can be a driving force in relation to the environment both internal and

Friday, October 18, 2019

Gays should have the same rights as married couples Assignment

Gays should have the same rights as married couples - Assignment Example In America, gay rights have become a central battle in their culture because of the growing acceptance of homosexual relationships that has led to direct threat to dominant Christian norms regarding sex and sexuality. Many people accept marriage as being a union between heterosexuals and this begs the question to define sexes. There are those who define marriage as a religious rite, hence legalizing gay marriage will constitute sacrilege of some level and state intrusion to religious matter. It is untrue to state, and undemonstratable that gay marriage is harmful; on the contrary, gay marriage may benefit us in several ways. Arguments for and against Gay Marriage Marriage between two people who love each other is essential in providing physical and psychological benefits. Research was carried out and it found out that preventing gay couples from marrying might result in psychological problems. When these couples get married, they get access to social support that is essential in faci litating and strengthening heterosexual marriages with the help of psychological and psychical benefits that are associated with that support. Alternatively, gay unions accelerate assimilation of gay couples to a mainstream of heterosexual cultures, which can seize to exist if the gap resent between the experience witnessed between gay and heterosexual is reduced. There are varieties of means that has been used to suppress people who are against same sex marriage (Corvino and Gallagher, 2012). Marriage is therefore, summarized as a means of adopting heterosexual form of family while giving up gay families as well as gay cultures. Majority of gay couples insist the absence of a thing known as traditional marriage, and with the prevalence of both modern and ancient family examples that were nuclear, polygamous, community child rearing, concubines, mistresses, prostitution, etc. are among the unnatural evolutionary thoughts. In comparison, most marriages currently are threatened by hig h rates of divorce. Research carried out in 2008 suggested that 40% to 50% of marriages end up in divorce while 40.6% of babies currently born are born by single mothers; therefore, gay marriage should be banned to prevent weakening of marriage institution. The constitution, by trying to reinforce both equality and liberty to its citizens has given protection to gay couples. This was evident in 1974 when the case of Cleveland vs LaFleur where the verdict given by the court was to declared marriage as personal choice of a person. Vaughn Walker who was a US District Judge wrote on 4 August 2010 that Prop.8 in the state of California that bans gay marriage was not constitutional under the Due process Clause. Another argument against gay marriage is that it leads to slippery floor that will end up giving people polygamous, bestial, among other relationships that are not traditionally recognized an opportunity to marry one another. Glen Lavy, a senior counsel wrote on the 28th day of May 2008 about polygamy movement posing to take advantage of the success of homosexual relations to springboard de-institutionalization of marriage. Another reason gay couples demand their rights to have marital benefits similar to heterosexual couples is that by denying them the right to marry stigmatizes the gay families as being inferior as well as the act of discriminating these type of family as acceptable. Supreme Court

Sexual Harassment Scenario Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Sexual Harassment Scenario - Essay Example There is also the difference between the bodies of the male and the female. There are hormonal, mental, emotional as well as physical aspects which vary. Also, the side of the brain – whether left or right – a person uses counts. All these lead to the males and females having thoughts and feelings not quite similar. The accounts of many psychologists in the 1990’s state that gender identity and personality of a child emerges by the age of 3 years and it continues to gradually evolve by the influence of the outside world: parents, school, etc (Morris & Maisto, 2005). However, Collaer & Hines say that a child starts to develop its individuality in the womb and that is dependent on certain hormonal factors. Environment plays an important role throughout the stage in which the child continues to change (Morris & Maisto, 2005; Collaer & Hines, 1995). By the time a child enters school, he already has certain ideas in his head, which continue to grow or diminish depending on the worldly influences, so it is necessary that they are nurtured. We have certain concepts in mind as to how the boys are much better in Science and Mathematics so the teachers ask them the related questions and not the girls. On the other hand, if the topic is literary related, then the girls are encouraged to answer and the boys ignored. This automatically brings in a divide between the two. The school environment helps in making groups, the children being too young to understand what is going on and follow blindly. Later they realize that they could have pursued another subject altogether. On the other hand, this example is a misconception since it has been proven that there is no biological reason why only boys may be good at the subject, the girls have equal opportunity too and vice versa. Another misconception is that males who are interested

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Features of Employment Relations Systems and their Impact on the Essay

Features of Employment Relations Systems and their Impact on the Position of Women in Labour Markets - Essay Example Reduced levels of unemployment indicated that few households lacked a working adult. During this period, most of those working in different institutions were high school drop-outs with an estimated one third of the total population of the United Kingdom working in the manufacturing and agricultural industries. However, the 21st century has seen none of the above features in still existence in many economies across the globe. Most, if not all jobs are now evenly distributed across all genders with a host of households in each country having more than one member in the labour force. On the contrary, the steady rise in unemployment rates is an indicator that there are a number of families in which no member is employed or has a definite job. An increase in education and improved formal structures for learning has seen a rise in the number of high school graduates and college/university graduates as well; hence an increased mass of human resources available to the market. In addition, th e emergence of other fields and or industries, for instance, finance, business services as well as property management, building and construction services has resulted in the creation of more stable jobs than the manufacturing and agricultural sector could provide. ... The Employment Relationship An employee relations system can be referred to as a legal concept used by organizations and or institutions in different countries worldwide to refer to the relationship between an employer and their employees for whom the employees perform certain activities (work) under defined procedures and conditions but in return for salary and or wages. Employee relations help the employer and the employee to come up or develop obligations and rights to govern the performance of both the employee and the employer towards the success of their respective organizations and or institutions. Over period, this tool has acted as a medium through which employees gain access to various benefits, obligations and rights that are related to employment with respect to social security and laws of labour. According to Verma (2003), â€Å"an employee relations system is the key point of reference for determining the nature and extent of employers’ rights and obligations to wards their employees.† (p. 519). Today, intense changes are taking place in the contemporary world of work with particular concern on the labour market. These changes have led to subsequent emergence of new types or rather forms of employment relationships. As a result, market flexibility has been increased as well as an increase in the number of employees uncertain of their status of employment and thus falling out of the normal protection scope of employment relationships. This is a challenge that is described by the International Labour Office’s Director as follows: â€Å"The State has a key role to play in creating an enabling institutional framework to balance the need for flexibility for enterprises and security for workers in meeting the changing demands of a global economy. At

The Role of Cost Accounting in Business Planning, Control, and Essay

The Role of Cost Accounting in Business Planning, Control, and Decision Making - Essay Example Modern cost accounting is being termed as management accounting, since managers being the primary user of accounting information are increasingly using the data provided by the accounts, setting objectives and controlling the operations of the business. Today cost accounting is much more than an inventory cost tracking system. Cost accounting involves determining the costs of products and activities, but it does have a broader role; to furnish management with information used in planning and controlling activities, in improving quality and efficiency, and in formulating strategic policy. To be more specific, cost accounting can help management achieve the following: †¢ Formulating and implementing plans and budgets that motivate employees toward the achievement of company goals. †¢ Establishing cost tracking methods that allow control of operations, cost savings and improvement in quality. †¢ Controlling inventory cost, minimizing inventory investment, and determining the cost of each product or service. †¢ Pricing products and services in ways that are congruent with organizational goals. †¢ Making prudent decisions that impact both short-term and long-term revenues and expanses. Technological changes and management innovations are drastically changing the nature of costs. Many technologically advanced companies have lower inventory levels; use less labor and often experience increasing levels of fixed costs. These developments are interesting and exiting, but they are also challenging cost accounting systems to provide reliable, useful information, data that can be used to keep an organization efficient and most of all competitive in the global market. The cost and management accounting is responsible for generating financial information required by the firm for internal and external reporting. This involves responsibility for collecting, processing and reporting information that will help managers in their planning, controlling and other decision making activities (Hanson & Mowen, 2005). The detailed formulation of future actions to achieve a particular end in the management activity called planning. Planning therefore requires setting objectives and identi fying methods to achieve those objectives. An organization may have the objective of increasing its short term and long-term profitability by improving the overall quality of its products. By improving product quality, the organization should be able to reduce scrap and rework, decrease the number of customer complaints and the amount of warranty work, reduce the resources currently assigned to inspection and so on, thus increasing profitability. This is accomplished by working with suppliers to improve the quality of incoming raw materials, establishing quality control circles, and studying defects to ascertain their causes. So cost accounting plays major role in management planning and control of organization. Similarly cost accounting plays effective role in the decision making process in the organization as well. The process of choosing among competing alternatives is decision making. Decision can be improved if information about the alternative is gathered and made

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Features of Employment Relations Systems and their Impact on the Essay

Features of Employment Relations Systems and their Impact on the Position of Women in Labour Markets - Essay Example Reduced levels of unemployment indicated that few households lacked a working adult. During this period, most of those working in different institutions were high school drop-outs with an estimated one third of the total population of the United Kingdom working in the manufacturing and agricultural industries. However, the 21st century has seen none of the above features in still existence in many economies across the globe. Most, if not all jobs are now evenly distributed across all genders with a host of households in each country having more than one member in the labour force. On the contrary, the steady rise in unemployment rates is an indicator that there are a number of families in which no member is employed or has a definite job. An increase in education and improved formal structures for learning has seen a rise in the number of high school graduates and college/university graduates as well; hence an increased mass of human resources available to the market. In addition, th e emergence of other fields and or industries, for instance, finance, business services as well as property management, building and construction services has resulted in the creation of more stable jobs than the manufacturing and agricultural sector could provide. ... The Employment Relationship An employee relations system can be referred to as a legal concept used by organizations and or institutions in different countries worldwide to refer to the relationship between an employer and their employees for whom the employees perform certain activities (work) under defined procedures and conditions but in return for salary and or wages. Employee relations help the employer and the employee to come up or develop obligations and rights to govern the performance of both the employee and the employer towards the success of their respective organizations and or institutions. Over period, this tool has acted as a medium through which employees gain access to various benefits, obligations and rights that are related to employment with respect to social security and laws of labour. According to Verma (2003), â€Å"an employee relations system is the key point of reference for determining the nature and extent of employers’ rights and obligations to wards their employees.† (p. 519). Today, intense changes are taking place in the contemporary world of work with particular concern on the labour market. These changes have led to subsequent emergence of new types or rather forms of employment relationships. As a result, market flexibility has been increased as well as an increase in the number of employees uncertain of their status of employment and thus falling out of the normal protection scope of employment relationships. This is a challenge that is described by the International Labour Office’s Director as follows: â€Å"The State has a key role to play in creating an enabling institutional framework to balance the need for flexibility for enterprises and security for workers in meeting the changing demands of a global economy. At

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Internet Sharing of Files, and HIPAA Regulations Research Paper

Internet Sharing of Files, and HIPAA Regulations - Research Paper Example Physicians  have a legal obligation to keep patient information, such as data contained in PACS confidential (Cao, Huang & Zhou, 2003). Legal issues and resolutions surrounding internet sharing of files, HIPAA, and PACS revolve around safeguarding data Privacy and Security. Healthcare institutions bear an obligation of taking appropriate measures to guarantee that patient information is availed to persons who have a professional need. Some of the issues essential to adhering to HIPAA requirements include restricting access, tracking access, protecting data security, confidentiality, and integrity and sustaining data chain-of-control (Lyer, Levin & Shea, 2006). Health Insurance Portability and Accountability (HIPAA) standards for privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information avail a comprehensive federal protection for the confidentiality of health information. The Privacy Rule  pursues strong privacy protections that do not interfere with patient’s access to heal thcare. The Act gives patients more control over their health information, outlines boundaries on the application and release of healthcare records, and avails appropriate safeguards that health care providers must attain so as to safeguard the privacy of health information (McWay, 2010). The bedrock of HIPAA Privacy Rule is the protection, use, and disclosure of Protected Health Information (PHI). Under HIPAA, patients have an enhanced awareness of their health information privacy rights. The Security Rule outlines means of protecting patient information  on computer networks, over the internet, disks and other storage media, and extranets. The safeguards pursue protection against dangers for breaches of confidentiality. The Security Rule mandates medical facilities to implement audit controls, so as to record and vet staff  accessing information systems containing PHI (Lyer, Levin & Shea, 2006).

Monday, October 14, 2019

Find out the difference Essay Example for Free

Find out the difference Essay I am trying to find out the difference in flight time, of a weighted paper helicopter, on comparison to a mass of blue tack with equivalent mass. Variables Things that could be investigated are:   Wing span which would effect the air resistance of the helicopter   Mass attached to helicopter   Wing area   Increase the mass of the helicopter by adding more paper clips which I predict would effect the rate of which the helicopter would fall. Measurement and different interpretation of these variables could be made for example, increasing the amount of mass then compare it with air resistance by timing a piece of blue tact of same mass. Hypothesis What I predict will happen is, as the mass of the blue tact is increased the speed in which it falls will be increased too. Also I predict that as the mass of paperclips are added to the helicopter the faster it will fall. The reason and objects stay at rest is because the two forces on the object are equal. Things that effect the rate of which the paper clip fall are gravity and air resistance: * If an object is released above the ground it falls, because it is attracted towards the earth. This force of attraction is called gravity. As an object falls through air, it usually encounters some degree of air resistance. Air resistance is the result of collisions of the objects leading surface with air molecules. The actual amount of air resistance encountered by the object is dependent upon a variety of factors. To keep the topic simple, it can be said that the two most common factors, which have a direct effect upon the amount of air resistance, are the speed of the object and the cross-sectional area of the object. Increased speeds result in an increased amount of air resistance. Increased cross-sectional areas result in an increased amount of air resistance. I think when theres more paperclips (when the helicopter is heavier) its time of fall would decrease. I think this will happen because the force pulling the helicopter down (weight/gravity pull) is larger when its heavier whereas air resistance is the same. The reason it will fall is due to gravity acting on the mass at nearly 10meters/sec. But the reason why the ball of blue tack and the helicopter will have varying flight times is due to air resistance. A way of increasing an objects rotational momentum is to put most of its mass as far from the centre of rotation as possible as this will maximise its speed and therefore give it more momentum. If a spinning object has more momentum when its mass is far from the centre of rotation, then it must require more energy to make such an object go the same speed as one with its mass in the centre of rotation. In the preliminary tests I decided I would use medium strength sugar paper. The clock is to be started from the top of the ceiling at 2. 5metres and then stopped when the helicopter touches the floor Method. You want to find out the comparison in flight time between the blue tack and the paper helicopter; the helicopter design, which should be used, is attached. Paper helicopter must be kept to the same design each time. First the paper helicopter should be weighed with the specified amount of paper clips on an electronic scale, then the weight should be recreated with a piece of blue tack rolled into a ball. The height of the drop should be stated, then the paper helicopter and blue tack should be dropped at separate times while being timed with a stop watch and recorded. This should be repeated 3 times to make sure no mistakes occur. It is fair test because: 1. Electric scales are used to make sure the measurement are as precise as possible. 2. The test is committed inside thus avoiding wind, which would effect the experiment. 3. It is repeated 3 time in order to make sure no anomalies occur. 4. The same height of which it is dropped will be kept. Some of the variables that can be changed are the weight and design of the helicopter but those will be kept the same by simply making sure accuracy and care is performed. The clock is to be started from the top of the ceiling at 2. 5metres and then stopped when the helicopter touches the floor Risk Assessment. Well the experiment is fundamentally safe with the only danger being that of which you stand on to reach the desired height on to drop the helicopter and the ball. Diagrams Results Analysis The experiment was repeated so that we have 3 separate results for accuracy. What I found out was that although the mass are the same for both object this doesnt mean that they will have the same amount of flight time. This is due to the varying air resistance of the two objects. My results proved my hypothesis to be correct and I also found out was that the higher the mass on the helicopter the faster the helicopter span. As gravity pulls the helicopter down, air pushes up against the blades, bending them up. Because the blades are slanted slightly, some of that push becomes a sideways push. Because you have two blades that are pointed in opposite directions, the two opposing pushes of air cause the helicopter to spin. The rotation speed increases as the weight (paper clips) increases, but a point is reached where additional weight pulls down with such force that the wings move upward and the plane falls like and falling object. Air resistance is proportional to the falling bodys velocity squared. For an object to experience terminal velocity, air resistance must balance weight. An example that shows this phenomenon was the classic illustration of a rock and a feather being dropped simultaneously. In a vacuum with zero air resistance, these two objects will experience same acceleration. But this does not happen on Earth. Air resistance will equal weight more quickly for the feather than it would for the rock. The reason why the helicopter with most paper clips fell faster was due to Terminal Velocity. So a helicopter with more paperclips will experience a Terminal Velocity greater that a helicopter with less paperclips. Trends that happened in the experiment include that as the mass increased on the helicopter the time to fall was shortened and with continued tests would equal out to the same flight time of the ball of blue tack, reducing the effect of air resistance drastically. The paper helicopter initially accelerates due to the force of gravity, because the downward force due to his weight is the only force acting on him. Then it starts to experience frictional force of air resistance in the opposite direction. As the helicopter increases in speed eventually the force due to air resistance is equal to the force due to his weight. This means that the air resistant force is equal to the force due to the weight. This means that the resultant force acting on him is now zero and it continues to fall a constant speed called the terminal velocity. Conclusion What I found out was that as the mass increased on the helicopter the effect of resistance on the helicopter dropped on comparison to the blue tack ball. I found out that although two objects may be the same mass it depends on the other forces effecting it, and in this case it was air resistance acting upon it. The helicopter was better shaped to stay in the air longer, but as the mass increased the wings were unable to open. Evaluation The results did fit into a clear pattern and are as expected, as the mass was increased the rate in wish it fell was faster and as you can see by the comparison of the blue tack it was getting close to the rate of the blue tack. For one example of a slight anomaly is in experiment 1 at the weight at 2. 2g It seems out of place. The results seem reliable and follow a trend with minimal anomalies. Preliminary tests were completed and no alterations were made, as the tests were a success. In the preliminary tests I decided I would use medium strength sugar paper. Some of the reasons that could have caused the anomalies are:   The accuracy of taking the timing could have been at fault   The releasing of the helicopter Things that made the test unfair are:   Every time you put a paper clip, centre of gravity / centre of mass is different. What would have been better to get a precise reading to the falling would have been to use a laser trigger to set the stop clock off because for people to be split second accurate it would be extremely difficult if not in possible. To extend my experiment I would like to drop the helicopters with greater masses on but be able to record the timing of them accurately. References 1. The essentials of AQA science: Double Award Coordinated Physics 2. Key science by Jim Breithaupt Chris Sommers Page 1 10/05/2007.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Purpose of the Electrocardiogram (ECG) in Paramedic Practice

Purpose of the Electrocardiogram (ECG) in Paramedic Practice Lachlan Donnet-Jones Intro Electrocardiogram, commonly abbreviated to ECG or EKG, is defined as â€Å"a graphic tracing of the variations in electrical potential caused by the excitationof the heart muscle and detected at the body surface† (Dorlands). An ECG monitor is the device that has the ability to read and graphically present an ECG reading (Mosby’s Dictionary of Med) via a digital monitor or printed on a strip of special graph paper designed to show the rhythm of the heart over time (Mistovich). There are many different manufacturers of ECG monitors such as Philips and Physio-Control (ASNSW Protocols). An ECG monitor allows two methods of recording electrical activity, a 4-lead reading and a 12-lead reading. The ECG readings consist of three segments; a P wave, QRS complex and a T wave. The PQRST waves are the components that create the ‘waves’ or ‘spikes’ presented on an ECG reading. Electrocardiography has an extensive history dating back many centuries as pione ers of medical science were eager to understand the electrical functionality of the heart. History of ECG, what was before ECG? In the year 1600 William Gilbert discovered static electricity, a discovery that would eventuate in the development of one of the most important medical inventions of all time, the electrocardiogram. In the early nineteenth century the first instruments were invented that were sensitive enough to detect small electrical currents in the heart. The first functioning electrocardiogram was created by Willem Einthoven, a Dutch doctor and physiologist, in 1903. Einthoven won the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1924 for his electrocardiogram invention. Prior to the invention of the electrocardiogram an instrument called the string galvanometer was used to detect electrical activity, it was an earlier invention of Einthoven’s. The string galvanometer could be used to measure cardiac electrical activity in a procedure where patients would submerge three of their limbs into a saline solution creating ‘Einthoven’s Triangle†, a principle still used in contemporary electrocardiogram recording. Before both the electrocardiogram and string galvanometer were invented a device called the capillary electrometer was invented by Gabriel Lippmann in 1872. The capillary electrometer consisted of â€Å"sulphuric acid and mercury in a capillary tube with wires at each end† (WEST INDIAN MED JOURNAL). Similar to the string galvanometer Lippmann’s device requires the patient to place limbs into tubs of saline solution and was the first device to read cardiac activity using this method (WEST INDIAN MED JOURNAL). Little did these early inventers know that their inventions would go on to be used thousands of times per day at all corners of the globe with its purpose and functionality continually polished and refined over the years as is evident in modern day ECG monitors. http://www.jchimp.net/index.php/jchimp/article/view/14383/html http://caribbean.scielo.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttextpid=S0043-31442005000300012lng=en http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Willem_Einthoven http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lippmann_electrometer [Naming the waves of ECG their genesis.pdf] [The origins of the electrocardiogram as a clinical instrument.pdf] http://search.credoreference.com.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/content/entry/dicscientist/einthoven_willem_1860_1927/0?searchId=1a112bd3-b32d-11e3-9ce6-12c1d36507eeresult=0 http://search.credoreference.com.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/content/entry/ehsmed/einthoven_s_triangle/0 http://search.credoreference.com.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/content/entry/columency/galvanometer/0 http://www.ecglibrary.com/ecghist.html Purpose functionality The ECG machines purpose and functionality is to provide information and understanding of the heart’s electrical functionality. (MISTOVICH) This includes information on the current rate at which the heart is beating, whether the heartbeat rhythm is regular or irregular, how strong the electrical signals are and the timing between the electrical signals. There are two methods to procure an ECG reading, a 4-lead and a 12-lead. The main difference is the number of leads used to obtain a reading which in effect allows for a better or worse reading. They are both effective in attaining information on the hearts electrical activity, however they are different and have their advantages and disadvantages. The 4-lead method, sometimes called 3-lead, typically uses three limb-leads: RA (right arm), LA (left arm) and RL (right leg). Each lead is attached to the torso despite the lead labels indicating otherwise. The RA lead (white) is placed ‘to the right side of the anterior chest just under the clavicle at the midclavicular line’ and is the negative lead, meaning it augments the signal of the LA lead. The LA lead (black, brown or green) is placed OPPOSITE the RA lead and is the grounding lead. RL lead is the final lead and is placed ‘to the left lower chest at about the seventh intercostal space on the anterior axillary li ne’ and is the positive lead. 4-lead monitoring is useful as it is quick to apply and †¦ 4-lead monitoring has its benefits however it cannot deliver the same level of comprehensive and detailed information that a 12-lead reading is capable of. The application of a 12-lead ECG monitor requires applying 10 leads, 4 ‘limb leads’ and 6 ‘precordial leads’. 4 lead 12 lead PQRST Graph paper Defibrillation Phillips, lifepak Other functions [Guidelines for electrocardiography.pdf] http://www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com/archive/may-2010/how-to-read-an-electrocardiogram-ecg.-part-one-basic-principles-of-the-ecg.-the-normal-ecg.html ECG contribution to patient assessment ECG Monitoring is typically used following a primary assessment especially in cases where there is a suspected issue with the heart or cardiovascular system. An ECG provides paramedics with information about the electrical functionality of the cardiovascular system. This is done by analysing the electrical activity displayed on the ECG reading and observing any changes in the waveform in relation to the rate and rhythm. As well as the rate and rhythm the paramedic would note any changes in the P wave, PR intervals, QRS complex, S-T segments and the P to R ratios (REFERENCE). Through this method of analysis the sign and symptoms of a patient assumed to be having cardiac issues can be confirmed for the initial diagnosis (REFERENCE). For example during the primary assessment the patient is suspected of having a myocardial infarction and is showing symptoms of chest pain, hypotension, diaphoresis and a weak and rapid pulse the paramedic’s primary goal would be to obtain an ECG rea ding which can then confirm the initial assessment by virtue of the PQRST waveform. Ambulance Service New South Wales protocols provides a list of common conditions that may require ECG monitoring, the list includes: â€Å"Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), Dyspnoea (SOB), trauma, lowered level of consciousness (LOC), post syncope episode, cardiac dysrhythmias† and many other conditions which interfere with the hearts normal capacity to function (ASNSW Protocols). Provides paramedic information in a situation (subsequent to primary assessment/surgery) that may involves cardiac issues, events or abnormalities via reading the ECG reading and linking any abnormalities in the PQRST waveform to the patient’s symptoms condition. (LOOK IN MISTOVICH, PP. 1463ish) Situations or indications that may require ECG monitoring include: post syncopal episode, a decreased level of consciousness, chest pain, acute coronary syndrome, shortness of breath, dysrhythmias or if any cardiac occurrence is suspected (ASNSW Skills 2011, 103.5.2). FOR EXAMPLES: Myocardial Infarction etc. Use a med journal/article/study? Strengths, weaknesses challenges faced by paramedics (critique) An ECG monitor such as the Phillips carried by Ambulance Tasmania or the Lifepak15 carried by Ambulance Service New South Wales are incredibly versatile diagnostic tools. They are portable and can be taken into the field to patients even in challenging situations such as the small interior of a crumpled car or a in a remote bush area (ASNSW Protocols; AT Protocols). The ECG monitor allows for immediate and continuous monitoring of the electrical functionality of the heart permitting a critical assessment of the patient’s condition to be made. The paramedic can then inform the receiving hospital of the patient’s condition and allow for the necessary measures for treatment to be organised prior to the patient’s arrival. (REFERENCE) One of the significant faults of an ECG is it can only illustrate the electrical activity of the heart, it does not tell us how well the heart is functioning mechanically (Jones, 2008). Though there are clear benefits of using an ECG monitor in the paramedic field there are also certain weaknesses in its use such as the unreliability of consistent and accurate ECG readings. It is essential for paramedics to accurately interpret ECG readings to avoid mistaken initial diagnosis which can prove costly for patient well-being in time-critical situations. Contributing factors to inaccurate ECG interpretation include cognitive bias and heuristics (mental shortcuts) (ECG READINGS BY DOCTORS). Properly cleaning skin with swabs, removing any hair in the way and certifying that the area is dry before application of electrodes will help to increase ECG accuracy and reduce inaccuracies (MISTOVICH; ASNSW Protocols). Other environmental factors such as vehicle movement can contribute to inaccurate ECG readings by virtue of unstable leads creating artefacts. Similarly if the patient is in a combative or wrestles state it can interfere with clear ECG readings, so keeping the patient calm, reducing anxiety and eliminating stressful factors can be beneficial to both acquiring vital information and the patient’s well-being. (REFERENCE) References 2011 Electrocardiogram inDorlands illustrated medical dictionary, Elsevier Health Sciences, Philadelphia, USA. 2012 Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) inMosbys dictionary of medicine, nursing, health professions, Elsevier Health Sciences, Philadelphia, USA. Accessed: 30 March 2014, from Credo Reference Goy, Jean-Jacques; Staufer, Jean-Christophe; Schlaepfer, Jà ¼rg; Christeler, Pierre 2013, Electrocardiography (ECG), e-book, accessed 19 March 2014, http://UTAS.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1310813>. Jones, SA 2008,ECG Success [Electronic Resource] : Exercises In ECG Interpretation / Shirley A. Jones, n.p.: Philadelphia : F.A. Davis Company, c2008., Items in the Library Catalogue, EBSCOhost, viewed 19 March 2014. Resources http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ekg/ http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003868.htm http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Electrocardiogram http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/eds/detail?sid=59a6c19e-901d-440a-b791-a71625c1f886%40sessionmgr114vid=1hid=104bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=cat02831aAN=UTas.b1560119 http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.utas.edu.au/eds/results?sid=127dd355-fcfc-42af-a93e-9ccff2e157c5%40sessionmgr115vid=1hid=104bquery=ecg+(PT+book+OR+PT+ebook)bdata=JmNsaTA9RlQxJmNsdjA9WSZ0eXBlPTAmc2l0ZT1lZHMtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d Page 1 of 8

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Illegal Immigration in America Essay -- Cons of Illegal Immigration, Im

Illegal Immigration in America America's past is made up of immigrants who have came and formed our country. However illegal immigration has now plagued our economy. What happens when you allow millions into the country, both legally and illegally? Exactly what is happening today? You have tens or hundreds of groups, made up of various nationalities, from various places. Forming themselves into isolated communities, and then trying to get the country to change for them. This paper confirms detailed information on how America is being altered by mass immigration and by uncontrolled illegal immigrants. Americans like to believe that people should have the chance to better themselves. That is why people come to the United States to make things better for themselves. They come here to ha...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Effectiveness of Matatu Saccos a Case Study Ofnairobi County

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background of the Study The transportation industry sector is comprised of a wide range of service providers covering all modes of transport; air, road, sea and rail. In Kenya, both private and public providers offer transportation to the public.Due to the diversity of the transport sector in Kenya, the infrastructure group; the department of Price Waterhouse Coopers-Kenya that deals with researches on industries and infrastructures, had classified roads as the prime link between all the economic sectors since they account for 80% of Kenya’s total passenger and freight transportation as well as value of output (PWC Kenya 2009). The word matatu is derived from the local kikuyu vernacular word mang’otore matatu which means â€Å"thirty cents† which was the standard charge for every trip made. Chitere. O and Kibua. N, 2004). Majority of Kenyans do not own private cars, thus they use matatus as their mode of transportation. By 2003, the nu mber of matatus operating in both urban and rural areas was estimated at 40,000 and they provided employment to 160,000 people and paid up to Ksh. 1. 09 billion per annum to the government in taxes (Chitere and Kibua, 2004). The origin of matatus in Kenya can be traced back in the late 1950s. After Kenya’s independence in 1963, Africans migrated to Nairobi to search for employment opportunities.Informal settlements began to expand in areas where there was limited transport. These people were too poor to own private vehicles. Recognizing the opportunity for financial gains while providing the much needed service, mini-bus taxis (which were largely owned by middle-income people) began offering transport services from rural areas and informal urban settlement around the city. Due to high demand, the number of matatus increased but was operating illegally until 1973 when the then president (Mzee Jomo Kenyatta) issued a decree officially recognizing matatus as a mode of public tra nsport.This made them to be the main mode of transportation in Nairobi metropolitan up to today, with an estimated number of 15,000 matatus. (Graeff J, 2009). The benefits that are attached to matatus as a mode of transport by various parties include: Owners get income inform of profits, workers such as drivers, conductors and stage workers also get income in form of salaries, passengers get mobility and safety, other road users such as cyclist, motorists and pedestrians also get safety, and institutions such as local authorities get revenue.Despite all this, there is still a struggle for regulatory and economic sphere of influence in the matatu sector (Khayesi. M, 1999). It has been reported that there is insufficient consistent data about matatus. If any, there is limited access to the database and can only be found through SACCOs (Graeff. J, 2009). Since the official recognition of the matatu as a means of transporation in 1973, the sector grew to the extent that the owners forme d a national association to control the operations of the sector and also advocating for their rights and demands.All matatu operators were expected to belong to this association, that is, The Matatu Vehicle Owners Association (MVOA). They had a rule that forced new matatu operators to register with the association in order to be allocated a route of operation. The association attracted the attention of both the Government and political opposition groups who saw the association as an important ally to advance political moves. The association was disbanded by the Government and was accused of having been penetrated by rich individuals who were oppressing the weak members by assigning them to routes that had fewer passengers.The Government then left individual members to operate on any route although it did not end the influence and support that politicians had for the matatu owners and operators (Khayesi. M, 1999). The Government then introduced SACCOs in the matatu sector as one of the reforms strategy that targeted to manage transport systems (Graeff. J, 2009). These SACCOs played an important role in addressing the concerns of the stakeholders and integrating the matatus into a comprehensive system. They are the professional transport firms as they act as the key takeholders. They act as the liaison between the members of the SACCO and the other stakeholders including the Government. They have the ability to unify the industry and strengthen the voice of the stakeholders which is an important incentive. Although SACCOs are important, they compete with each other thus creating a dangerous and stressful environment (Graeff. J, 2009). A Savings And Credit Co-Operative (SACCO) is an association of like-minded people registered under the ministry of cooperatives.It is owned and operated by its members, according to democratic principles, for the purpose of encouraging savings, providing credit facilities and other related financial services (The SACCO bill, 2005) . In Kenya people are eligible to form a SACCO if; they have a similar occupation or profession or are employed by a common employer or within same business district or market area; they have common membership in association or organization including, but not limited to: religious, social, cooperative, labor or educational groups; who reside, worship or work within the same defined community (the SACCO bill, 2005).It extends to any form of industry, not exclusively transport. In the case of matatus, a group will register to become a SACCO identifying itself mainly with the route where it is operating, although many people refer to the SACCOs as route associations (Graeff. J, 2009). 1. 2 Statement of the Problem There have been several benefits that have been accrued to the use of SACCOs as a mode of matatu management in Kenya. They include; creation of employment and additional revenue in form of taxes to the Government (Chitere. O and Kibua.N, 2004), professional management, financ ial support and reduced conflicts to the owners and employment benefits, credit services and employment contracts (Khayesi. M, 1999). The proponents of managing matatus individually argued that, operating matatus individually earns a lot of profits due to reduced costs such as SACCO contributions, the taxes paid to the Government and the salaries paid to the professionals and employees and poor financial management (The Citizen, 2010). There has been an argument that operating matatus on individual basis makes it easy to reach decisions faster than when in SACCOs.This was based on the argument that in the SACCO; there will be a split of decision among the members on different issues concerning the SACCOs thus delaying the decision making process. The financial management in SACCOs can be poor simply because the leaders who manage the finances have no basic knowledge of financial management with the addition of poor working environment and increased political interference (The Citize n, 2010). While the benefits of matatu SACCOs are undisputed, there have been several concerns about its success in terms of financial benefits, handling matatu industry challenges and improving road safety.Investors and other stakeholders need guidance concerning this. This study was used to guide the entrepreneurs interested in the matatu sector on the mode that would bring full benefit to them which took the form of studying the performance of matatu SACCOs, before and after their formation and that of individual management. 1. 3 Objectives of the Study 1. 3. 1 General Objective To assess the effectiveness of SACCOs in the management of matatus in Nairobi 1. 3. 2 Specific Objectives To find out the difference in the financial revenues and costs before and after the formation of matatu SACCOs.To examine the role of matatu SACCOs in handling the challenges facing the transport industry. To find out the level of road accidents before and after the formation of matatu SACCOs. 1. 4 Re search Questions What are the financial benefits that come with SACCOs as a mode of matatu management? How do matatu SACCOs handle the challenges that face the transport industry? Has matatu SACCOs helped in dealing with road safety? 1. 5 Significance of the study Matatu SACCOs operate in environments surrounded by communities who depend on them for jobs, tax revenues and quality services.All stakeholders have interests in the well-being of their SACCO. This SACCOs also operate in environments which are characterized by political interests, markets existence, culture, values, technology, regulations and taxing authorities (Agumba. N, 2008). This study would be of great benefit to the matatu owners as it found out the challenges that matatus and matatu SACCOs face in these environments. This uncertain environment leaves doubt in the stake holders. This study would also benefit the stake holders as it would aid them to make decision in order to improve the services of this industry.Th ere is SACCO leadership for efficiency and probity and that SACCOS are responsible, responsive, accountable, transparent, competitive and sustainable. Through the study, the new entrepreneurs would want to be reassured that; Matatu SACCO enterprises are viable, sustainable and competitive; are held accountable and not left to run amok; are competitively attractive to investments; are responsible corporate citizens and that they comply with legal framework and remain relevant and legitimate in society (Agumba. N, 2008)The majority of matatu owners has reasonable educational and training qualification and occupational experience in fields such as banking, accountancy as well as teaching and is well informed of about the industry. Mostly they have other sources of income and can use credit to improve their vehicles. This shows that the industry still attracts new entrants and entrepreneurs with funds to invest in the industry, they will therefore need some guidance on which form of man agement they should use for their business. 1. 6 Scope of the StudyThis study was conducted to find out the financial gains that matatu owners get when they are operating their business through SACCOs. This covers credit facilities to acquisition and maintenance of the mini-buses, repair costs, level of income and generally the issue of security in order to help the owners acquire loans from the financial institution. The study also covers how productive the SACCOs manage the matatus better than if it was to be managed on individual basis and if there are any savings made if the matatus are managed through SACCOs.This study also found out the benefits that SACCOs give to other stakeholders in the matatu industry, the differences that SACCOs have brought to the welfare of the workers in the matatu industry, the levels SACCOs aid in the reduction of road accidents and how far they aid the road traffic department in bringing order to the roads, the safety that the users (customers) fee l while using the SACCO owned matatus in comparison to the individually run matatus and the challenges that matatu SACCOs face during their operation.This study also covered the transport industry in Kenya, and because of the diversity in the industry, the research will focus on the road transport in Nairobi. This was through finding out how effective the matatu SACCOs have been in the management of the matatu industry. 1. 7 Limitation of the Study For a general conclusion to be reached, this research needs to be conducted within the whole country, but in this case, the study is limited to Nairobi alone. As an addition, there are other factors that can be used to measure the effectiveness of the matatu industry other than the ones that this research has used.The results of this study did not put in to consideration the other variables that affect the functionality of the matatu SACCOs. Usually, it is always difficult to make people reveal the amount they benefit from a given busines s or enterprise. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Introduction The matatu as a means of transport has an array of businesses and individuals who are involved in it. Apart from the regulatory dominance that has been shown, there are economic interests pursued by the owners and operators.The matatu is not just a business for the low-income and the self- employed workers, it is a big time enterprise now involving the affluent in the society (Khayesi. M, 1999). There are cases where one individual owns several matatus. There are also other businesses that are linked to the matatu industry, for example insurance firms, motor vehicle body builders, vehicle assemblers, vehicle importers, garages, petrol stations, driving schools and commercial banks/ money lenders but in this case SACCOs will be our main concern.This means of transport employs drivers, conductors and stage workers. All these people are stakeholders in the matatu industry and therefore they have benefits that they attach to the industry hence a need for effective management of the industry (Khayesi. M, 2002). This chapter explores what other researchers have found on how the stakeholders have gained from managing the matatus on individual basis in comparison with SACCO mode of management. 2. 2 Conceptual Frame Work The management of the matatu industry in Kenya has taken two main forms of management.These are management through SACCOs and managing the matatu business as an individually. This research took the matatu SACCOs as the dependent variable on to which the effectiveness of the industry will be measured through the factors as the independent variables. These are the financial benefits of using SACCOs as a mode of managing the industry. In this case, costs and gains, access to credit and other financial benefits, effectiveness in terms of handling of matatu industry challenges, effectiveness in improving road safety and reducing road accidents.The outcomes of the results can be affected by the i nvolvement of the Government but during this research its effects were kept constant. Figure 1 Conceptual Framework | | |Financial Benefits/Revenues | Independent Variables (Factors) Dependent Variable (Outcomes) | | |Effectiveness Of Matatu SACCOs | | | |Matatu SACCOs | | | Road Accidents | Source: (Researcher, 2012) 2. 3 Theoretical Review According to Aline. J, (2011), the first Kenyan co-operative society, the Lumbwa co-operative society was formed in 1908 by the European farmers with the main objective of purchasing farm inputs at radically reduced prices because of their numbers and on friendly terms to the members who paid in installments or when they harvested and then market collectively market their produce. Lumbwa was replaced in 1930 by the Kenya Farmers Co-Operative to take over the role of farm input supply.After seeing the success of European co-operatives, the smallholder African farmers fought for the formation of their own co-operatives, in which they were allowed to form in the late 1950s and register co-operatives for cash crops like coffee and pyrethrum. Consequently at independence in 1963, there were 1,030 co-operative societies with 655 being active with total membership of 355,000(Aline. J, 2011). Since independence investment in Kenya has empowered and energized by the existence of the co-operative sector where pooling of resources was closely linked to Mzee Kenyatta’s call of Harambee.Presently, matatu SACCOs are dominating the city route in form of route associations (Graeff. J, 2009). In Kenya, SACCOs are co-operatives which are formed by an association of people who come together with a common purpose of pooling together resources for mutual economic and social benefit (Aline. J, 2011). According to Mikwamba. E and Ng’ombe. W (2003), a SACCO is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic and social needs through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise or busi ness.The objectives of forming SACCOs include; organizing and economic interests of its members; promoting thrift among members opportunity for accumulation of savings, loans at fair and reasonable terms; providing opportunities for members to improve their economic and social conditions; and perform the functions that they were formed to (Aline. J, 2011). According to the SACCO society’s regulatory bill, 2005, a SACCO is registered by writing an application to the registrar of SACCO societies who will register the SACCO if it has complied with the provisions of the Act.This research found out if the objectives of forming SACCOs in the matatu industry are being realized by using them in the managing of the matatus in the Nairobi’s transport sector and their effectiveness. 2. 3. 1 The Management and Operation of SACCOs According to Mikwamba. E and Ng’ombe. W (2003), members are the heart of the SACCO and the reason for the SACCO’s existence. The members ar e the owners and the only â€Å"users† of the SACCO and no more persons has the monopoly in a SACCO regardless of one’s share and savings.Usually SACCOs are democratically run and controlled organizations. According to the SACCO society’s regulatory bill, 2005, one thing that is clear is that the affairs of a SACCO are managed and administered by a board of directors elected at annual general meeting. It is this board of directors which will hire a manager and support staff to run the day to day operations of the SACCO. In most cases the manager and the staff hired are qualified and competent people with skills and knowledge of SACCOs (Chitere. O and Kibua.N 2004). According to Mikwamba. E and Ng’ombe. W (2003), a SACCO is a financial business and it has to be managed as such. Its major commodity is the money the members bring in as their savings for the safe keeping, convenience and as a form of investment. The savings earn competitive interest rates. Me mbers who have established their credit worthy can borrow from the SACCO. The interest on loans, investments and the other income is used to cover operational costs as well as paying interest on members' savings.The next surplus is used to pay dividends to the members and the building of SACCO capital reserves. Specific duties and responsibilities in a SACCO are assigned to different committees to ensure smooth running and coordination of SACCO activities. All the committee members are elected from the general membership. According to Chitere. O and Kibua. N, (2004), owners of the matatu are employees and professionals in different fields like, banking, accountancy and teaching and thus they don’t involve themselves in the hand on management of their matatu businesses.This study found out how effective the employees of the SACCOs will be effective in the running of matatus on behalf of their employers and ensuring that they receive the benefits they are entitled to as provide d in their values. 2. 3. 2 Effectiveness of SACCOs SACCOs create the opportunity for people to take responsibility for their own financial organization, these is facilitated through democratic processes. SACCOs pay dividends on shares to their members once the SACCO is established and profitable. Members therefore take pride in owning their own SACCO.SACCOs educate their members on financial matters by teaching prudent handling of money, how to keep track of finances, how to budget and why to keep away from hire purchase and loan sharks, this encourage saving culture for their members. Loans of SACCOs are usually insured thus death of a member the estate will not have to repay the outstanding loans to the SACCO. After deducting all the working expenses from the income, the profit is usually shared among members according to their patronage (South African Reserve bank, 2011). . 3. 3 Effectiveness in Terms of Financial Benefits According to Mudibo. E, (2006), SACCOs have been in exist ence for a long time starting with the Raffeissen movement in Germany in the middle of the 19th century. The movement has since spread to most countries, both developed and developing world and throughout the decades they have been important for small-scale savers and borrowers. This has been embodied in the co-operative and SACCO principles which was summarized as: user-owned financial services.In this case the savers/ borrowers own and govern their institution which provides them with the financial services that they need. This was the fundamental quality of the SACCO since its set-up provides for demand-led services decided by members in a democratic and participatory manner. It is the clients who are the members, as well as the owners themselves, who decide on which type of financial services to benefit them, how these are to be provided and where the external forces cannot take advantage of members need for the services.Not only did SACCOs provide savings facilities from their formation but they also generally applied a holistic approach to the needs of their members. Loans were provided for productive purposes and variety of needs for example for welfare and consumption purposes (Mudibo. E, 2006). This research reflects these financial benefits to the case of matatus, whereby according to Chitere. O and Kibua. N, (2004), the initial capital to invest in matatus is large and hence difficult to rise together with the insurance costs and taxes.The other benefits will be in terms of operating costs like fuel, costs of repair and maintenance which can be reduced when operating in SACCOs (Chitere. O and Kibua. N, 2004). 2. 3. 4 Challenges of Matatu SACCOs Cartels have positioned themselves in the name of SACCOs to take advantage of new operators seeking to join the industry. The high financial requirements demanded from new by established SACCOs have forced some operators to miss out on this business while some operators use fake stickers of unregistered SACCO s (Mwaniki, W 2011).Some SACCOs have invested in other line of businesses and when a new member comes it becomes a challenge. 2. 3. 5 Effective in Terms of Handling Challenges According to Agumba. N, (2008) SACCOs operate in an environment surrounded by communities who depend on them for jobs and tax revenues and customers for quality products and services. All stakeholders have interests in the well-being of their SACCO. These SACCOs also operate in an environment which is characterized by political interests, markets existence, culture, values, technology, regulations and tax authorities.Despite these challenges, SACCO values under the principle based model – voluntary membership, democratic member control, member economic participation, autonomy and independence, education, training and information, cooperation among SACCOs and concern for community are key to enhancing performance in handling challenges within and out of the SACCO (Agumba. N, 2008) According to Chitere. O , (2004), most drivers and conductors do not observe traffic rules and are responsible for many accidents in both rural and urban areas.Other problems include harassment of owners and workers by the police, corruption, government and local authority taxes, lack of control of the industry by the vehicle owners and exploitation by cartels. A larger study was carried out that examined policy, legal and regulatory framework; institutional arrangements; costs and benefits; and the internal capacity of the industry at the local level and their training was weak and conditions of work poor (Chitere. O, 2004). This research found out how effective the matatu SACCOs have been in the handling these challenges. 2. 3. 6 Road Safety in KenyaThere has been a rapid increase in the number of matatus on Kenyan roads from the time they began operating till today. Unfortunately, the industry’s vast growth has been accompanied by increasing road traffic accidents that have threatened the safety of Kenyan passengers. The accidents tripled from 3,578 in 1963 to 10,106 in 1989, and 11785 in 1994 (Chitere. O and Kibua. N, 2004). In these accidents, 2,014 persons were killed, 6,650 were seriously injured and 11,094 had minor injuries. The cause of these accidents are majorly reckless driving, driving non-roadworthy vehicles and poor conditions of the road.Research by Odera, Khayesi and Heda (2003) found that 3,000 people are killed annually on Kenyan roads, which translates to 68 deaths per 1,000 registered vehicles. This is the leading trend in whole world (Chitere. O and Kibua. N 2004). Transport Licensing board (TLB) is supposed to license all PSVs, allocate them routes and regulate their operation timetables. It has been unable to allocate routes and monitor or even ensure PSVs have operation timetables which might be as a result of the board not being conversant with the routes (Chitere. O and Kibua. N 2004).Due to this the Government has tried to put in some measures in t he form of the famous Michuki rules in order to reduce the rate of accidents on roads. These reforms included; Fitting speed governors to all PSV and commercial vehicles to a speed of 80km/hr. Fitting seat belts to all vehicles (both public and private). Issuing of badges and uniforms to all drivers and conductors. Indication of route details for purpose of easy identification. Re-testing drivers after every two years. Displaying of drivers passport photograph together with the identification details.These rules (Michuki rules) proved difficult to maintain owing to the level of expenses attached to it. This research found out how the SACCOs have helped in the reduction of reckless driving through enforcing the reforms that were put in place by the government and also found out how far the SACCOs have gone to reduce accidents in Nairobi. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Introduction This chapter looks at the methodology used to conduct the study. It highlights and expounds on the research methods employed in conducting the research, methods that were used in collecting data, how the data was analyzed and reported. 3. 2 Research DesignResearch design is the plan and structure of investigation so conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions. The plan is the overall program of the research and includes an outline of what the investigator did from writing the hypothesis and their operational implications for the final analysis of data. Cooper and Schnielder (2003) summarize the essentials of research design as an activity and time based plan; always based on the research question; guides the selection of sources and types of information; a framework for specifying the relationship among the study variables and outlines the procedures for every research activity.In conducting this research, descriptive research design was used in collecting the data from respondents. The design was preferred because it was concerned with answering questions such as who , how, what, which, when and how much (Cooper and Schnielder, 2001). A descriptive study was carefully designed to ensure complete description of the situation, making sure that there is minimum bias in the collection of data and to reduce errors in interpreting the data collected. 3. 3 Target PopulationThis research considered all matatus operating in Nairobi County. Those operating on the routes that ferry people to the city were the main target population. This gave the researcher easy access to the workers of the matatus as they were at their respective stages (matatu terminus). In the sample frame, more consideration was awarded to the major matatu SACCOs with offices in Nairobi metropolitan operating large occupancy vehicles. This was efficient and effective in terms of cost and accessibility to the researcher.Table 1 Target population | Route |North of Nairobi (a) |East of Nairobi (b) |South of Nairobi (c) |West of Nairobi (d) |Long | |(Population Size) | | | | |Distances (e ) | |Capacity | | | | | | |(Population Category) | | | | | |High Occupancy | | | | | | | |30 |30 |30 |30 |30 | |Low Occupancy |40 |40 |40 |40 |40 |Source: (Researcher, 2012) 3. 4 Sample Design Majorly stratified and clustered sampling was used to select a sample that will represent the entire population. Stratified sampling was the best procedure as it gave the chance to group the matatus in accordance with their capacity i. e. , high occupancy and low occupancy. In addition, clustered sampling supplemented stratified sampling.This technique helped in accessing all routes (Nairobi County has several routes) which gave a fair ground for the acquisition of different opinions since different routes have different matatu SACCOs that have varying strategies in attaining their goals. This method was the major source of primary data. Table 2 Target sample size Route |North of Nairobi (a) |East of Nairobi (b) |South of Nairobi (c) |West of Nairobi (d) |Long | | |(50%) |(50%) |(50%) |(50%) | Distances (e) (50%)| |Capacity | | | | | | |High Occupancy | | | | | | | |15 |15 |15 |15 |15 | |Low Occupancy |20 |20 |20 |20 |20 | Source: (Researcher, 2012) 3. 5 Data Collection InstrumentsIn this research, the use of both primary and secondary sources of data was adopted. Personal interviews were done through appointments with the managers or phone call interviews in case an appointment failed, questionnaires which were given in a period of one week and then collected by the researcher and direct observation on physical basis were the source of primary data. The use of relevant literature like; Matatu SACCO’s website, business magazines, daily newspapers and government authorities (traffic department) journals available for the public was an ideal source of secondary data. 3. 6 Data Analysis and Presentation The data collected in this study was both qualitative and quantitative in nature.This was for the analysis of data to show the effectiveness of SACCOs in the managemen t of the Matatu Industry. The analysis applied the use of percentages to show the effectiveness of SACCOs. This analysis made it possible to draw appropriate conclusion about the study and pave way for reporting and documenting the study. In order to infer the data that was collected into a form that is understandable to the users of this study, the researcher used tables for quantitative analysis and cross comparison analysis and pie charts that depict the trends and frequency distribution of the research. CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTEREPRETATION 4. 1 IntroductionThe study aimed to establish the effectiveness of SACCOs in the management of the transport industry in Nairobi County. This chapter discusses data analysis and findings of the research. Descriptive analysis was used and represented by the use of tables and pie charts. Qualitative analysis was used to summarize the respondents’ final comments in the questionnaire so as to get a better insight on their opinions on Matatu SACCOs as a mode of transport industry management. 4. 2 Respondents The sample size comprised of 100 respondents drawn from selected Matatu SACCOs. Out of the 25 SACCOs that were given questionnaires, 5 of them gave their feedback. Table 3 Sample and number respondents MATATU SACCO |Sample size |Returned |unreturned |percentage | |MWI Sacco |20 |18 |2 |90% | |Double M |20 |20 |0 |100% | |Super highway 45 Sacco |20 |15 |5 |75% | |City hopper |20 |16 |4 |80% | |KBS |20 |18 |2 |90% | |TOTAL |100 |87 |13 |87% | The research targeted the owners, managers and employees (drivers, conductors and stage workers) of the SACCOs to provide information. Table 4 Type of respondents |SACCO |OWNERS |MANAGERS |WORKERS | |MWI SACCO |5 |5 |8 | |DOUBLE M |2 8 |10 | |SUPER HIGHWAY 45 SACCO |4 |3 |8 | |CITY HOPPER |3 |4 |9 | |KBS |0 |6 |12 | |TOTAL |14 |26 |47 | 4. 3 Findings The financial revenue benefit was indicated by 85% of the respondents saying that there are financial re venues gained by the use of SACCOs as a mode of matatu management and 15% supported individual management and that the financial status before SACCOs were formed was the same as that of individual management which was prominent in the past. Figure 2 Pie chart presentation on increase in financial benefits [pic]When it comes to the reduction of the operational costs, 83% of the respondends accept that there is a significant reduction in the operational costs of the matatu sector. This is attributed to the fact that some SACCOs have their own petrol station thus reducing the costs. On the other side, the remaining 17% don’t see any reduction in the operational costs as there are contrubutions made by the SACCO every morning or evening of the day. Figure 3 Pie chart presentation on the reduction of operation costs [pic] In reference to the level of profitability, 25% of the respondents said that the profitability of the SACCOs was high compared to individual management. 58%, of the respondents said that the profitability of SACCOs is medium but etter than individual management, and 17% retained that the profitability of the SACCOs was low compared to individual management since daily contributions are made by the SACCO which reduces daily production. Figure 4 Pie chart presentation on the level of profitability [pic] To the challenges facing the transport (matatu) sector, majority of the respondents at 50% still maintain that SACCOs have done nothing to manage the challenges. They attribute this to the fact that the SACCOs are just a statutory requirement and not a free will initiative while others state that the challenges facing the transport industry is a responsibility of the government for example, bad roads and that the work of the SACCO is to support them financially not in terms of handling challenges. 2% of the respondents said that the management of the challenges by SACCOs is better than individual management. This is mainly due to the fact that finances are also a challenge and that the services offered by the SACCOs are part of the solution to the challenges. 18% of the respondents are satisfied with the way SACCOs are handling the challenges that face the industry. Figure 5 Pie chart presentation on the level of handling challenges by SACCOs [pic] In response to the level of accidents, 54% of the respondents support that SACCOs have reduced road accidents supported by the fact that they ensure that their drivers maintain road safety while others said that they service their vehicles in order to enhance safety standards. TThe remaining 46% of the respondents said that accidents have not reduced because they are not only caused by public service vehicles alone but others like personal cars, long-distance Lorries, motor cycles, and other users. Figure 6 Pie chart presentation on the level of road accidents [pic] In terms of general effectiveness, 85% of the respondents said that the SACCOs have been effective in the manage ment of transport industry and have brought order in the matatu industry. 13% of the respondents said that matatu SACCOs are not effective in the management of the transport industry. Figure 7 Pie chart presentation on Effectiveness of SACCOs [pic] 4. 4 Qualitative analysisFrom the findings we can see that the introduction of SACCOs as a mode of transport industry management has benefited the owners, workers and other stake holders of the matatu industry with 85% of the respondents supporting that SACCOs have been effective in the management of the transport industry. To the owners, there has been a benefit in terms of accessing credit facilities, sharing of operation costs with other matatu owners and monthly or yearly dividends received from the SACCO with or without operation since 83% of the respondents supported that the SACCOs have reduced operational costs. Drivers also get financial support from the SACCO as a means of self -help.They gain credit facilities from the SACCOs a t an affordable rate as compared to the other financing institutions like banks. The Owners and other stakeholders like the Government also benefit financially in terms of taxes and profitability since 85% of the respondents supported that SACCOs have increased financial benefits and the profitability gained through them are as follows: High-25%, Medium-58% and Low-17% The other beneficiaries of the Matatu SACCOs are passengers, who enjoy safety and quality services and other road users benefit from the relatively good order on the roads and discipline in both conduct and service with 54% of the respondents who have supported that SACCOs have reduced road accidents and have increased road safety.Unfortunately, the SACCOs have not been able to curb certain challenges within the transport sector such as corruption, harassment by the police and reckless driving by their drivers with 50% of the respondents saying that they have not done enough to handle these challenges. CHAPTER FIVE DI SCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. 1 Introduction. This chapter presents the summary of the research based on the analysis of the responses received from the relevant respondents. It is a summary of the main findings of the research and how they relate to the nature of the study. This chapter also includes suggestions for further action and research. 5. 2 Discussion of the Findings Matatu SACCOs have been effective in the management of the transport industry at 85%.This is attributed to the increase in financial revenue benefits at 85%, reduction in the operation costs at 83%, level of profitability being medium at 58% and reduction of road accident at 54%. Despite being unable to manage the challenges facing the industry, SACCOs are still able to manage the challenges of the industry at 32% – better and 18% – best, 50% of the respondents indicated that SACCOs are worst managers of the challenges facing the industry. The passengers indicated that the use of matatu SACCOs as a mode of transport industry management has set standards of service in order to satisfy the customers. Other road users indicated their satisfaction towards the improvement in the level of order and road ethics. In comparison to management by Matatu SACCOs, the effectiveness of management on individual basis stood at 15%.This was indicated by the financial revenue benefits at 15%, reduction of costs at 17%and profitability at 42%. Generally, passengers were dissatisfied with the services offered by the matatus and they saw the industry as a house of insanity and disorder. This was attached to reckless driving and high level of accidents as a result of this. 5. 3 Conclusion With use of Matatu SACCOs as a mode of transport industry management, there is a sign of relief to the stakeholders of the matatu industry. SACCOs give the owners professional service in terms of management. Therefore, the profitability of SACCOs is medium and it gives satisfaction to the owners since they benefit financially from the SACCOS.In the long run, there is anticipation by all stake holders that the problems and challenges facing the industry will be handled through the SACCOs and in turn this will improve the Matatu Sector. 5. 4 Recommendations The challenges facing the SACCOs can be helped by the government. This includes improvement of road networks. This will help reduce the cost of maintaining the vehicles. The Government should put the right structures in the right places in order to reduce the procedures regarding the registration and legislations of the SACCOs. The dealers in the petroleum industry, should try to reduce the cost of fuel. This will be of great benefit to the other stakeholders.To reduce the level of road accidents, that should be taken as a responsibility of everyone who makes the use of the road from motorists to pedestrians. The government should enforce the road safety (the famous Michuki rules) to the latter. To the SACCO man agement, there should be additional training to the staff in areas such as financial management and customer service. The drivers and other workers should be employed on relatively permanent basis for better accountability. 5. 5 Limitations No SACCO accepted to give their financial report. The SACCOs termed the financial reports as private and could not be issued for research. Most of the Matatu SACCOs are new (less than 3 years old) since the government legislated them.Therefore it is difficult to obtain financial information covering the whole period. 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