Saturday, August 31, 2019

Bureaucratic vs Democratic

bureaucratic VS The structure of the organization alone is not sufficient for the efficiency of the organization, the manpower of the organization employed in that structure also have an equally important part to play. In the absence of efficient and specialized personnel, even the effective structure power is a failure. Therefore public administration places a great deal of importance to the study of personnel management. There are different types of personnel systems being practiced by different countries around the world. Two of which are: * Bureaucratic system of personnel Democratic system of personnel BUREAUCRATIC SYSTEM OF PERSONNEL â€Å"A personnel system where a body of public servants are organized in a hierarchical system which stands outside the sphere of public control. † DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM OF PERSONNEL â€Å"A personnel system where no one man has any more intrinsic right to official station than other. † COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN BUREAUCRATIC AND DEMOC RATIC Feature 1 Bureaucratic System: The main feature of this system is that the officials are servants of the ruler in the fullest sense of the term. They are responsible to him and him alone.It is through them that the ruler exercises his autocratic powers and they, being the agents of the ruler, in their turn, wield high authority over the people and are, as a rule deaf to public opinion. Democratic System: There is no class division in the services. An employee may begin in the lowest grade of the public service and may progress to the top of the service. In every service methods of objective tests, like efficiency ratings and rating scales, have been established and promotions are based upon these records there being absolutely no restriction on promotions from one class to another.Comparison: While comparing the above contrasting feature of both the systems it became quite evident that in Bureaucratic system the officials major concern is to be in accordance with the expectati ons of the ruler or government. They don’t care about the general public because there public credibility or the decisions taken solely for the welfare of the public is not going to provide them benefit but on the other hand if they take any decision which is not very likeable or favorable for the government then the officials might face some frictions.Whereas in democratic system, different forms of evaluation methods are in practices and based on these standard methods the officials are promoted. That’s why the officials perform their duties efficiently to increase their ratings on these evaluations. So to sum it up, the major concern of attention of officials in bureaucratic system is the government or the rulers whereas the in democratic system, officials are not under authority of the government to the extent as the bureaucratic ones are. Therefore their major concern is their own better performance. Feature 2Bureaucratic System: The officials are organized as a d istrict branch of the government like those of the military branch. They are recruited and trained on strict technical lines so as to make them expert administrators in their respective branches of administration. Thus, they have to apply their skill and experience to the solution of the problems of the civil government of the country just as the military officials have to apply their military skill to the defence of the country. Democratic System: Educational requirements at the time of entrance are of a highly specialized ature rather than of a general character. â€Å"The effort is made to secure persons already possessing the particular technical training fitting them to perform the work called for by the particular to be filled† Comparison: The bureaucratic system relies on the training and supervision of the officials. They don’t go for the already specialized administrations rather they believe in hiring may be an amateur person and then developing and building him into a specialized professional after keeping him under a regress.The officials are given specific training according to the requirements of the department or branch of administration where they should be serving. The democratic system does not favor training inspite it relies on hiring already specialized officials to be appointed on the positions compatible with their qualifications and specialized skills. Bureaucratic system believes that every task is specific so to deal with it specific things should be provided whereas the democratic system believes that the specialized individuals should be hired, their specialization would be enough to manage almost anything.Feature 3 Bureaucratic System: Civil service becomes a district and permanent career, with a regular gradation of positions with fixed grades, salaries and other privileges and a set system of promotions. And with these grades, certain titles and honors also are attached which continue even after the retirement of th e person. Thus, a district official class is created in the society with its own etiquette, powers and prerogatives. Democratic System: No effort is made to make public service a life career.All the above mentioned requirements point to the fact that every individual has full freedom to enter government service at any stage and similarly leave it whenever he pleases. Comparison: It can be said that the bureaucratic system bonds an individual with it. Once the individual becomes the administrative official, the title and honors remain with him forever. It is due to the fact that the system works on their official a lot by providing them training and education.Whereas in democratic system, as the individual are hired with their own skills and specialization, the system does not bond the individual with them rather the official can leave wherever he wants or gets a more appealing opportunity. This shows that the bureaucratic system is appropriate and suitable for the country where the public sector has the major share in the economic says of the country, it wants to keep the skilled and educated manpower with the state whereas the democratic system backs the private sector, the specialized individuals are given charming offers by private enterprises due to which they opt out of the public sector.CONCLUSION Both the systems are efficient in their own respective domains, both need to adopt some improvements in their structure. The bureaucratic system should take care of the hazards of red tapism, corruption etc. which are common in this system. The democratic system also needs to amend itself. It should add some time to time training to their officials according to the changing trends of the society. Also in the countries where democratic system is practiced, the public sector should introduce some incentives so that the officials stay along with the public sector.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Discourse Communities Essay

Marketing Discourse Community- most simply defined as â€Å"The management process through which goods and services move from concept to the customer. â€Å" from business dictionary. Marketers use common language For example, 4 p’s of marketing: something used everyday and defines marketing. Learned the first day of intro to marketing class. Outsiders would not know what the 4 p’s are. For different discrouse communities there needs to be places they can all unite and come together to discuss their field Site I used was by a professional orginazation BMA BMA: The Business Marketing Association (BMA) is a professional association for business-to-business marketing professionals. It began in 1922 as the National Industrial Advertising Association. BMA now has more than 2,200 members in 22 chapters in the US. This BMA site is a place where marketers all over the world meet too: Get information Share information Become a member Find speakers Learn about events Use resources and forums and current buzz Promotiong â€Å"Blaze† global marketing put on by BMA They say â€Å"Our board believes b2b marketing is entering a new golden age, with marketers dealing with change (thus, opportunity) at blazing speed and being asked to take on bigger roles to help blaze paths to greater collaboration, customer focus and growth.† Can tell about this community they are very into getting better and getting more information: VERY interesting for a marketing site it is very straightforward and neutral Not a big production and eye catching like marketing is known for To me this tells me they are very business like in this site and want to learn and communicate. Watch blaze video that incoroporates a lot of marketing techniques (AIDA) attention interest desire action First impression of site White background, red header, black tabs underneath labeled with About, Press Room, Join BMA, Resources, Speakers Bereau, Chapters, Member Directory. Underneath the blaze video and then two columns. One has featured articles with a â€Å"read more† quick link for interested users. Second column to the right has upcoming marketing events with the date, place and time for users. Then far right of page has some different advertisements for viewers. Language of the home page is fairly simple and clear to all users. As navigate away from home page the design stays same but language becomes more specialized. Examples:

Health Care Project Essay

Team B has chosen prescription drugs for our health care reform project and how our current economic status is influenced. We will give ideas and solutions to show how to decrease the drug pricing. Ways that can be implemented toward a solution. Pharmaceutical company’s need to amend their business practices from a high profit, low development model to a moderate profit, moderate to high development model. Structures and regulation that will explain the competition, barriers to entry, and regulations. Taking a look at drug pricing from different perspective, like cost, research, and development, marketing, and the manufacturing of pharmaceutical drugs. The Monopoly of pricing who is involved, and the curves associated with it. Price discrimination how it changes who’s involved and what the criteria are for groups as well as pricing for individuals. How cost of co pays differ from brand names to generic and how the drug formulates come into play. How to make the system work for everyone that will amount to higher than just a 30-day supply, pharmacy assistance programs, local charity programs, and low income opportunities. Better ways to enforce existing legislation, vote in new legislation, and regulate prices across the board. The above affects the insured and non-insured American’s. For most American households, paying for health care to include prescription drugs and medical bills has been one of the hardest financial strains out there. According to a report published by (Consumer Reports, 2012), many have cut back on other household expenses or taken potentially dangerous measures with their health to afford their medications. The most affected population is the working-age Americans who do not have prescription drug insurance coverage. More than half of the people who completed the survey requested by Consumer Reports took one or more prescriptions had to reduce other household expenses or make changes in how the general population manage their finances. These reductions included how much they spend on their groceries, entertainment, activities with the family, and using their credit cards to purchase medications. The problem  was more severe with younger people than elderly people age 65 and older. â€Å"84 percent of them said they had to resort to such measures† (Consumer Reports, 2012) as previously listed. Prescription drugs or better yet the cost of prescription drugs is a discussion in the country of importance. The rise of the cost of prescription drugs is of important to many people in the United States and plays a huge role in the economics of health care. The elevated pricing of prescription drugs has become a focal point of politics and in need of some governance. Even though healthcare and prescription drugs are seen as a private sector issue, the discussion of some socialist measures put into place is a definite need for the economy. Some of those ideas include price-capping expensive drugs and even importing drugs from Canada. Healthcare and prescription drugs have been privatized; however, the government has a huge influence on them both. According to the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services, the government, including state, and federal, has contributed more the 2.7 trillion in 2011. This shows that we have hidden, or more politically correct, blurred the view of a socialist healthcare system. The currently health care system with health care reform has caused confusing for co nsumers. Many people are struggling to pay for the high cost of medication they are on. Some of the patients have to take a different type of medication, which is called alternative medication because their insurance denied paying for it in addition; the process to get approval from insurance takes longer time and more paperwork back and forth from doctors and insurance companies. In reality, health care consumers are the victims, they suffer from their medical illnesses, and they suffer for the high cost of prescription drugs. Health care reform in theory is helping more than forty million people to have health coverage, the demand curve shifts to the right. The important matter at the present time is the supply to cover that many people to have a quality care whereas the economy is gradually recovering. The unemployment rate is not changing much, it is still relatively high. When the prescription drug cost much of our income, seeking for other solution becomes a must do from consumers, they tend to dismiss their prescriptions or buying medication from online market, w hich may cause bad health than curing purpose.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Religion - Lumen Gentium Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Religion - Lumen Gentium - Essay Example Only the religion or churches can help us with convincing answers when science fails. Science always makes judgements based on observable or measurable evidences. Unlike religion or churches, science will never accept any principles which are based on beliefs. Many of the traditional church beliefs were questioned by science. In order to counter the attacks from science, contemporary churches made certain changes in their beliefs. I would like to analyse the future of churches, strengths and weaknesses of churches now, the role of churches in developing peace, compassion, hospitality, justice, etc on the basis of first two chapters of lumen gentium solemnly promulgated by Pope PAUL VI on November 21, 1964 â€Å"The Church, in Christ, is in the nature of sacrament--a sign and instrument, that is, of communion with God and of unity among all people† (DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CHURCH LUMEN GENTIUM - PROMULGATED BY HIS HOLINESS POPE PAUL VI ON NOVEMBER 21, 1964). We are living in an era of globalization at present. Globalization principles ask us to work for the progress of entire population in the world rather than the growth of a particular community or group of people. The first chapter of lumen gentium stressed the importance of unity of people much before the introduction of globalization. Church urged its believers to unite in the name of God. A common platform is required for people to work together for a common aim. All the people like to attain salvation and only the religion or churches talk about the ways of attaining salvation. Neither politics, nor philosophy succeeded in bringing people together under one umbrella. Under such circumstances, I strongly believe that churches may succeed in future in bringing people together in the Holy Communion with God. â€Å"All men are called to the union with Christ, who is the light of the world, from whom we go forth, through whom we live, and towards whom our whole life is directed† (DOGMATIC CO NSTITUTION ON THE CHURCH LUMEN GENTIUM - PROMULGATED BY HIS HOLINESS POPE PAUL VI ON NOVEMBER 21, 1964). Current churches have lot of strengths and weaknesses. In fact churches are the only entity which gives the believers some hope about another life after death. Science failed miserably in unveiling the mysteries surrounding our spirit or soul. Science educates us that souls or spirit is the driving force of our body. However, it failed to explain what will happen to the soul after death. Only the churches have the answer to that question which is the major strength of the current churches over science. On the other hand, there are different churches and different beliefs in this world even though all of them accept Jesus Christ as their savior. â€Å"The head of the body of church is Christ. He is the image of the invisible God and in him all things came into being. He is before all creatures and in him all things hold together† (DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CHURCH LUMEN G ENTIUM - PROMULGATED BY HIS HOLINESS POPE PAUL VI ON NOVEMBER 21, 1964). When Jesus remains as the head of all the churches, it is illogical for churches to spread different beliefs in the name of Jesus. Jesus taught us the ways of attaining salvation; but the current churches are trying to misinterpret it in different ways. For example, Pentecost churches urge its believers to take one more baptism for attaining salvation whereas other catholic and protestant churches do not advice baptism other than child baptism for getting salvation. This discrepancy in teachings if often creates problems for the contemporary churches. In short, wrong interpretation of the Jesus’ teachings is the major drawbacks of current churches. Current churches

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Reflection on Key Issues in Doing Business in China from a Cross Essay

Reflection on Key Issues in Doing Business in China from a Cross Cultural Perspective. (Russia) - Essay Example Nevertheless, since the collapse of the USSR the two nations significantly improved their relations because they managed to settle the issues of land border by creating cross-border cooperation, controlling illegal migration and setting up vital mechanisms. Background information China and Russia share various similarities but they also have marked differences; for instance, the two countries are large nations because China has a huge population and Russia has the largest territory in the world. The two nations are multi-ethnic and heterogeneous but they are dominated by one group like in China the Han and Russia the ethnic Russians. Currently, the two nations are essential in terms of their economic potential as well as military power; moreover, the two nations are taking pathways toward capitalism. The two nations lack sufficient regulatory environment and have been for many years under the rule of a communist party and in the case of china, the party considers itself above the law . In the two nations, the existing rules and regulations can easily be violated because some written contracts have little value since personal connection along with dyad-based reciprocity prove to be substitutes for reliable institutions. Besides there are differences between China and Russia because China is considered to be a rising superpower while Russia is believed to be struggling to capture the lost glory after being a superpower for more than 50 years. Moreover, the two nations follow different paths toward capitalism with china adopting incremental approach to market reforms while the Russians rapidly replaced central planning system with market-based mechanisms with the aim of developing new market institutions (Buck, Filatotchev, Nolan and Wright, 2000). China has been a renowned success story in implementing reforms and consistent growth because the nation’s annual growth rate in the past two decades exceed 10% and is among the highest in the world. In contrast, Russia changed its position as the second largest economy during the Soviet era to 12 position currently and the country’s GDP growth rate is among the lowest partly because of its stagnated private sector (Wilson, 2004). Over the years, China has come to be recognized as a moderately low risk nation that offers high rates of returns, while Russia risk throughout 1990s was the highest and offered low returns because of privatization of manufacturing firms. Cultural similarities between China and Russia In the Chinese society, family remains the cornerstone with reciprocal obligations being which are not limited to the family and kinship but rather extended to non-kin ties where individuals are expected to help one another fulfil their obligation to family members. In China, individuals tend to prioritize group interests than their own and make decisions that can be detrimental to an individual if the decision is collectively beneficial. However, through my experience collecti vism in china has been misrepresented to be a negotiation for individual interests or well-being, which goes against the assumption that group interests are the best guarantees for an individual. Nevertheless, the Chinese society cultivates strong relations where everyone is responsible for other members within the group. As well, the Russian culture is considered

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Is the Criminal Justice System Fair and Functional Essay

Is the Criminal Justice System Fair and Functional - Essay Example For any act to be considered a crime, its actus reus must be shown. Actus reus can be in any of the following forms: â€Å"An act, or a failure to act (an omission), or a state of affairs† (Challenge College 2013, p. 2). In the first form above, an act, it must be shown that an act committed violates the law and if this cannot be shown then there cannot be any liability. For instance, in the crime of murder the actus reus is the unlawful killing of a person. Another way of assigning liability is through showing that an undesirable or otherwise incident took place because of a failure to act. The case of Pittwood (1902) bests illustrates how a failure to act may result in criminal liability (Challenge College 2013, p. 8). Lastly, crime liability can be proved through showing the state of affairs. Proof of a state of affairs that is declared wrong is enough to assign crime liability. Mens Rea This is another condition which has to be proven for a person to be considered liable f or a crime committed. Mens rea is considered to be a state of mind in which a person is fully aware of the consequences of his actions thus the doer is assumed to have an intention of the end result of whatever he or she does. There are two ways in which mens rea is assessed in England and Wales – subjectivism and objectivism. ... On the other hand, objectivism is thought to be too broad because it fails to consider defendants with lower than average IQ, that is, those who lack the capacity to reason as an average person would (Furey 2010, p. 1). An illustration of mens rea application can be seen in the case of R v Molony (1985) AC 905 whereby the defendant shot his step father dead but was acquitted of murder charges and instead charged with manslaughter. The intention to shoot was found not to be connected to killing (e-Law Resources 2013). Question 2: The Criminal Justice System Its function The criminal justice system is meant to ensure that every person under the law has access to justice. Having access to justice means being punished for wrongs accomplished, giving protection to those who are innocent and making it possible for those convicted of wrongs to stop offending. The system aims at â€Å"delivering an efficient, effective, accountable and fair justice process for the public† (Garside 201 3, p. 1). It is further noted that the system must sieve among potential, alleged and actual criminal activities and ensure that treatment adjudicated on persons is rightful. Its Working The criminal justice system is composed of many agencies which work in unity to ensure that justice is availed to all. The agencies involved in this system include â€Å"the Crown Prosecution Service, the police, the courts and the National Offender Management Service† (Criminal Justice System 2013, p. 1). The three government departments which oversee the criminal justice system are â€Å"the Ministry of Justice, the Home office and the Attorney General’s Office† (Criminal Justice System 2013, p. 1). The Ministry of

Monday, August 26, 2019

A policy brief Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

A policy brief - Essay Example The company has implemented initiatives aimed at conserving environmental policy by reducing waste. The petroleum industry has been under scrutiny by the international community for its contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases. Petroleum products are also non-renewable hence the exploitation of these products could lead to the depletion of resources for future generations. A major environmental risk posed by the company is oil spills into the ocean which results in water pollution and suffocation of sea life. During the fractionation process to manufacture petroleum products, some of the byproducts of the process that are released into the environment such as sulphides and carbon dioxide contribute to the greenhouse effect. The company should develop methods of reducing emission of these wastes into the environment by exploring alternative waste management methods. The implementation of green energy in a petroleum industry can be quite an expensive venture. To mitigate losses due to the increase cost of manufacture of petroleum products would have a direct impact on the price of petroleum products. The company should revise its policies to include reducing the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbon which contribute to the greenhouse effect. They should also consider integrating the use of natural sources of energy such as solar, wind and tides to reduce their reliance on electricity and promote biodiversity. Further, the company should educate its workers on the need to preserve the environment by adopting recycling and techniques of proper management of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

FIVE short seminar Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

FIVE short seminar - Essay Example The texts were available before in the local orthodox language and beliefs of the Church which were given new expression in the print media and led to more openness of the expression. The target segment for receiving the benefits of print revolution already existed. The paper and block printing was first invented in China in the first century which spread to Europe in the twelfth century (Eisenstein, 2012, p.53). The spread of Martin Luther’s ideas and the lessons of the Church found channels of expression. In the nineteenth century, the print presses were power driven and faster dissemination of information happened among the masses. Development in investment scenario of the countries like Australia, etc is also a contribution of the print media. Radio days The emergence of radio as a mass medium happened long back from the days of Marconi. Marconi invented ways of decoding the communication codes used in a telegraph and transmitting useful information through a radio. In the early days, the use of radio was an amateurish activity by the audiences who used crystal radio sets. People also pursued hobbies of using radio as a communication medium. In 1920, the corporate radio broadcasting centres stared to operate for reaching out to the masses. With time the desire and the need for radios developed. This gave rise to subsequent developments of the radio communication through the introduction of vacuum tube radio and loudspeakers for better communication. During the time of depression in 19298, radio became the mass medium of communication. Thus for the stages of hobby, radio developed into a wired mass medium for distant communications. Messages and information starting from emergency to entertainment were spread through the radio. The sinking of Titanic and messaging for SOS happened through telegraphic system. However, the news of the world wars was more wide spread with the help of radio. In the field of entertainment, radio started to broadcast new on films, broadcasted musical events and commentaries on live sporting events like Olympics, Football world cup, etc. Image Technologies and Mass Society The image technologies came into vogue during the end of the nineteenth century. The image technologies marked the emergence of the mass society in the twentieth century. In the twentieth century, the communication in the world circulated through wired media like telegraph and telephone. The advent of the image technology brought about the spread of news and entertainment to a wider section of the society. Almost all the spheres of life that include urbanisation of the regions, transportation and public works, information on the time zones were all the more accessible with the help of image technologies. Consumerism developed rapidly with the formation of departmental stores, exhibitions and fairs, e.g. Paris Exposition of 1901. Numerous small theatres developed along with the stardom of the celebrities also grew. The spread of pictu res led to change in lifestyles of the population with more interest to the world of eminent personalities. The Paris Exposition of 1901 received overwhelming responses on sensual pleasures as compared to the knowledge part. The heritage properties like the Crystal Palace of 1950 were designed for the awareness of the masses. The manufacturers started to apply

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Open Office Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Open Office - Essay Example This project eliminates the helping wizards like in Microsoft office and introduces with a new feature that may be somewhat helps in the styles of the document. The best feature of this Open Office is that it maintains the database in form of bibliography, which later helps in referencing or finding some extra resources for notes. Being a writer Mike Magee emphasizes about the feature comparable to Microsoft Word in Open Office in his article. He after his reviews on different word processors like the Byzantine Wordstar, Lotus Manuscript, Xywrite, Gem First Word Plus and many more including different innumerable Microsoft word processors he prefer Open Office Word Processor. He encloses that Open Office Word Processor by default gives many feature for the document that may be changed and saved as a template document, later all other documents may customize with respect to all favorite style document user saved. The software may read all the Microsoft extensions i.e., .rtf, .txt, etc and may produce HTML files as well. He as a writer likes Open Office as it allows him to switch all the auto options, like auto spell-check, auto sense, auto sniff, auto quotes etc, easily. Moreover, he switches off the option that change his word Icons in OO icons. Open Office is an open source software and are available free on Internet. There are two kind of software, one is open source software and the other is proprietary software. The open source software is found free or for very low cost on Internet or on Compact Disks with their source code for the use. However, proprietary software is same but their code is only with developers or sometimes with the good hackers. Microsoft Explorer is the best example for preprimary software. This software is designed for some particular issues, as developers are not the users and though it lacks with the features and sometimes don't allow enhancing. Contrary to this, open source software holds the source code and can be modified by the user according to its own requirements. Briefing a little more about the proprietary software, that to eliminate bugs and have new functionalities user has to wait for the new version and developers work for this on extra money, despite open source totally oppose it an d though use more cause its bug fixations are continuous and features release are regular to the user to use. Moreover, developers work for open source by volunteering themselves for free to specialize and earn name where as all proprietary software are part of business trade-offs. And though it may conclude that due to open source in hand, user is more flexible with open source rather than proprietary software. Open Source Software is famous and efficient cause their source code is in the hand of user and can modify to respective requirements. Source Code actually is a set of instructions or programs compiled together to run software. Or in other words, source code is the set of statements that is readable to human but not computers and to make computer understand that language it is compiled and changed into machine language. This set of statements seems to be nothing else than a document of text but values whole software. A little change in a text of doc may not allow software to run perfectly and though these source codes of different software are kept out of reach from the users who don't have any idea about computer languages. There are

Friday, August 23, 2019

MIH512-Demography and Health (Module 3-CBT) Essay

MIH512-Demography and Health (Module 3-CBT) - Essay Example Another surprise the effect Asian style government family planning, specifically in China, will have on the age of the population. China is rapidly aging because so few children are being born. Another surprise is the gender imbalance. In nations where one-child policies are in place and there is a cultural preference for boys, the abortion of girl fetuses or infanticide of female children has led to a great disparity between the numbers of men and women. Added to this surprise is the fact that the disparity among the educated and affluent in these countries is greater than that of poorer families that one would think would hold to a more traditional view of family. Mortality holds the second surprise for Eberstadt. Traditional thinking leads us to believe that increases in medical technology, advanced medicines and education on nutrition will lead to an ever-increasing life expectancy. In Japan, each new birth cohort can expect to live longer than the one before it. In many places this is not true. In sub-Sahara Africa, the culprit is HIV-AIDS. But in places like Russia, the culprit is less exotic. Two-thirds of men in Russia are intoxicated when they die. Alcohol abuse alone seems to be accounting for Russia dwindling life expectancy among men. The final surprise is the anomaly of America. America does not seem to be trending in any of the ways other nations are. America is surprisingly, evening out among age’s ranges. While places such as Russia and Europe will decrease in population and in world rankings, America will be holding its own if current trends continue. The health care system in my home country of the United States will need to adapt to the changing demographics by learning how to deal with continued influxes of immigrants. The pictures painted by these surprises leads to the conclusion that places such a Russia and China could become

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Famous Kentuckian Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Famous Kentuckian Paper - Essay Example Young Harlan followed the footsteps of his father and entered politics. It was in the age of seventeen that he was offered the position of adjutant general of Kentucky. He opposed this idea by citing his age, however in autumn he was appointed the governor. It was a demanding position for Harlan, but keeping in mind his age he was only paid $250 annually. This contract formed the basis of his political career (John Harlan). After winning the elections, Harlan was working as a country judge before the start of the Civil War. Harlan won the election for the country judge on the Know Nothing ticket, which was a Native party who was enjoying their esteem from the time span between downfall of the Whig Party and the rise of the Republican Party. Despite of the fact that it was a slave state, Harlan was a part of the Union at the time of the War. It was at that time that Harlan joined the American troops as lieutenant Colonel. He left the army in the year 1863 at the time of his fatherâ₠¬â„¢s death. He was assigned the position of Attorney General of Kentucky in the year 1864, and also supported George McClellan’s campaign against Abraham Lincoln in the same year in which the Presidential Elections were being held. In 1876 he led the Kentuckian delegation at a convention after Benjamin Bristow (his law partner) ran to be nominated for the presidential elections. The presidential elections of the year 1876 were same as the year 2000 i.e. they were fiercely contested. As a result of the election of 1876 an electoral commission came into being. Hayes was declared the winner of the elections after which he appointed a commission to figure out that which of the two Louisiana governments was more lawful than the other. Harlan was an active member of one of these two Louisiana governments. The Louisiana commission appointed came with the result that the Democrats formed a more lawful government in Louisiana. The problem with the result of the Commission was that th e board responsible for certifying the electoral victory of Hayes also announced the result of the Louisiana’s contest declaring the Republican as the winners. During his career as a Justice he struggled to remain dedicated in winning the civil rights for the colored population and tried to enforce social equality among the population. He also worked for getting regulation of the giant industry that emerged in that century. Harlan had abiding faith on the judicial system and the Federal Government that they would equally spread the economic opportunities in the country, without any racial discrimination. His characteristic made him stand out from his colleagues and gave him his separate identity. He opposed the drawbacks of the system on several occasions, which exposed him to several passionate and dissenting opinions. He also faced rejections from several legal scholars until the mid of the 20th century when his views gained acceptance and were considered prophetic by the c itizens. Justice David Davis resigned and became the Senator of Illinois at the time of tussle concerning the electoral commission. Hayes wanted a Southerner to be appointed to this position and Harlan perfectly fitted the position. At the age of 44 he was subsequently appointed the Justice to the court. Harlan’s legacy lies in his rebellions. He took opposing side in the Lochner v New York case, where he spent the maximum working hours for the labor class in order to eradicate the institution of slavery from

Bridge Discuss the complex relationship between Eddie and Catherine Essay Example for Free

Bridge Discuss the complex relationship between Eddie and Catherine Essay The play is set in a slum area in Brooklyn.Between 1861 and 1920, 30 million people immigrated into America. Many people settled by the ports as there was a steady supply of work from the ships and Eddie Carbone is one of these longshoremen.  Eddie is the forceful, irrational protagonist with many complex emotions while his niece (by marriage only) is rather naà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ve and open. As they live in the same house, they spend most of their time with each other and get on well together as family.   Eddie and Beatrice (his wife) took Catherine in when her mother died and therefore, Eddie feels a great sense of responsibility; I promised your mother on her deathbed. Im responsible for you.  To Catherine, he is like a paternal figure, and she does love and respect him that way. At first, I also believe that is how Eddie thinks of her.  He provides a good home for her, puts food on the table and sees her through education, I think truly wanting the best for her- to go up in the world. His aspirations are high;  I broke my back payin her stenography lessons so she could go out and meet a better class of people.  His social aspirations for her are obviously higher than his own community- but does that mean he is snobbish of his own class? I think, perhaps slightly.  Eddies protectiveness of Catherine can be just like a normal fathers, as he says about her new skirt;  I think it too short, aint it? But often, this protectiveness can turn into dominance and possessiveness over his niece and his attitude towards her becomes unnatural. Eddie is never completely at ease. He tells her shes walkin wavy, but this is because he is subconsciously sexually attracted to her. He criticises her appearance and behaviour because she is attractive to other men and he does not like that. I think, in a way, he believes she is his and he wants her all to himself- i.e. if he cannot have her, no one can. I think to aid this, he tries to keep her a little girl, when actually, she is becoming a woman;  Youre a baby.. when you stand here by the window waving outside.  The word baby is mentioned constantly as if it will eventually persuade Catherine that she is one. This environment would be suffocating for her.  However, Beatrice isnt blind to all this;  You gonna keep her in the house all your life?  Eddie (insulted); What kinda remark is that?  She has not had sex with Eddie for quite a while and I think she knows it is because of his desire for Catherine. When Alfieri makes a joke about Catherine not being able to marry Eddie, he doesnt laugh, as he starts to realise his sexual feelings for Catherine are becoming more apparent. When Beatrice finally says;  You want somethin else, Eddie, and you can never have her!  He is stunned with silence, but I think deep down, he knows it is the truth.  Eddies positive and negative elements are often intertwined, but I think his intentions for Catherine were good; however the feelings he acquired for her should have been dealt with differently. Catherines attitude to Eddie is entirely different though. Eddie who lays down the laws heavily influences her, but she seems totally unaware of her sexual appeal generally, but especially to Eddie. Beatrice actually has to tell her about it;  but youre a grown woman and youre in the same house as a grown man. So youll act different now, heh?  Although Catherine is rather innocent, but I think that is because she is overprotected, so, in effect, there is a viscous circle. Catherines attitude to Eddie is, totally non-sexual, but after Beatrices talk, she does start to become aware of what could be going on, perhaps a little.  It didnt even cross her mind that she was a potential rival to Beatrice;  He said you was jealous?  When Catherine falls in love with Rodolfo, Eddie cannot stand this, and does everything in his power to stop it, as his subconscious desires tear him apart slowly. He even calls the immigration bureau and risks his respect (which means so much to him) for her.  I feel that both Eddie and Catherine were partly to blame for the tragic end of their relationship and in general. However, Catherine gained her confidence and independence a little more toward the end of the play. Eddies possessiveness and dominance over Catherine suffocated her into staying a baby, but I feel she could/should have been more self- aware, especially of the situation around her.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Diaspora Placed By Amitav Ghosh English Literature Essay

Diaspora Placed By Amitav Ghosh English Literature Essay RECONFIGURATION OF DIASPORA IN THE CIRCLE OF REASON AND THE GLASS PALACE BY AMITAV GHOSH. Objective: To trace the the notions and feeling of diaspora placed by Amitav Ghosh in his two novels. Diaspora, etymologically derived from the Greek term diasperien where dia means across and sperien means to sow or scatter seeds, diaspora can perhaps be seen as a naming of the other which has historically refereed to displaced communities of people who have been dislocated from there native homeland through the movements of migration, immigration or exile. First used to describe the Jews living in exile from the homeland of Palestine, diaspora suggests a displacement from the homeland, circumstances or environmental location of origin and transfer in one or more nation states, territories or foreign countries. The term diaspora then has certain religious significance and pervaded medieval writings on the Jewish, to describe the plight of Jews living outside of Palestine (586BC.). Another early historical reference is the Black African diaspora, beginning in the sixteenth century with the slave trade, forcibly exporting West African out of their native land and dispersing them into the New World, parts of North America, South America , the Caribbean and elsewhere that slave labor was exploited through the middle passage. These early historical references reveal that diaspora is not always voluntary. Diaspora in, the rapidly changing world we now inhabit, speaks to diverse persons and communities moving across the globe from Kuala Lumpur to Sydney , Harare to Toronto , Paris to Marrakesh or even Calcutta to Trinidad, just as earlier in the twentieth century it mapped the movements of Palestinian refugees from Jerusalem to Amman or Beirut and Pakistani refugees from Karachi to Der-es- salaam. In thinking through the category of diaspora and its link to geographical entities such as nation states, it is thus crucial to consider the important role of nation formation and constitution during the post world war II era. While cultural and literary interrogate contemporary form of movement, displacement and dislocation from travel to exile. Mass migration movements, the multiple waves of political refugees seeking asylum in other countries, the reconfiguration of nation state, particularly in central the concept of nationhood take account of the specific geopolitical circumstances that precipitate the movement of people. The term diaspora used to describe the mass migration and displacement of the second half of the twentieth century, particularly in reference to independence to movements in formerly colonized areas, waves of refugees fleeing war-torn states and fluxes of economic migration. Diaspora has been particularly loosely associated with other terms, particularly transn ationalism, to describe the disjunction and fractured condition of late modernity, however , diaspora needs to be extricated from such loose association and its historical and theoretical specification made clear. While diaspora may be accurately described as transnationalist, it is not one and the same with transnationalism. Transnationalism may be defined as the course of citizens, thoughts, possessions and capital across nationalized territories in a way that undermines ethnic group and nationalism discrete categories of classification, money-making organization and political constitution. But there is a some what slight difference between diaspora and transnationalism, however, in that diaspora refers specifically to the movement forced or voluntary of the people from one or more nation state to another. Whereas transnationalism speaks to larger, more impersonal forces specifically those of globalization and global capitalism. Diasporic subjects are distincted by hybridity and h eterogeneity- artistic, linguistic, cultural, national and these subject are defined by the transversal of the borders demarcating nation and diaspora. Diaspora does not, however, transcends difference of race, class, gender and sexuality nor can diaspora stand alone as an epistemology and historical category of analysis, separate and distinct from interrelated categories. More complexly, diasporic scholars have suggested innovative and nuanced ways of thinking across the once demarcated terrains of identity and exploring the imbrications of ethnic and national categories, while offering insight into the cultural construction of identity in relation to nationality, diaspora, have, gender and sexuality, of course, class inflicts, if not haunts the formation of all these categories. To that end, class disrupts and complicates often in productive ways the intersection of race, gender and sexuality. Diaspora has been theorized from many diverse points of departure- East Asian, South Asi an, South East Asian, Asia Pacific, Carribean, South American, Latin American, African and Central European. Recent uses of homeland, rational ethnic identity and geographical location to deployment of diaspora conceptualized in term of hybridity or heterogeneity. While diasporic studies has emerged as an important new field of study , it is not without its critics. The term diaspora has been critiqued as being theoretically celebrated while ethologically indistinct and a historical. Some scholar, arguing that diaspora enters into a semantic field with other terms and terrains, such as that of exile, migrant, immigrant and globalization, have assented that diaporic communities are epitome of the transnationalist moment, other critics have resisted and critiqued such celebratory models of thinking diaspora, noting that such celebration are often a historical and apolitical, failing to note the different contexts allowing or prohibiting movement globally or even locally. For example, Bruce Robbins(1995) offers a close readings of four journals diaspora, boundary 2, social text and public culture that have broken new ground in stimulating and supporting work in the international area, the non specialist area beyond area studies, and each of the m see the work it publishes as in some senses adversarial(P97). In his analysis he describe diaspora as one of the four journals which has gone furtherest through never without qualification toward celebrating transnational mobility and the hybridity that results from it as simple and sufficient goods of themselves (P98). While Robbinss description of diaspora as a journal that celebrates transnational mobility is itself somewhat problematic, the article importantly as how and why do reputed academic journal contribute to and also map out terrain of intellectual engagement centering around the question of nation formation and migration within a transnational frame? And how do these journals valorize certain types of the theorization of nation specifically those centered on global mobility over others? Analogous of the problematic use of the term border within branches of area and ethnic studies in general, the term risks loosing specificity and critical merit if it is deemed to spea k for all movement and migration between nations, within nations, between cities and within cities. Some feel separated when they are out of their country while there are some people who feel separated and alienated even in their own country, and colonial power was one of the major reason for their alienation. Many Indian writers have contributed to the rich tradition of English literary studies. Writers like Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao and R.K.Narayan ,were the ones who made Indian English literature recognized and all were subjects of the British rule in India. Writers like Nirad. C.Chaudhari chosen the English coasts because his views were not willingly accepted in India. Salman Rushdies imaginary homeland encompasses the world over. Salman Rushdie, V.S Naipaul, Amitav Ghosh, Anita Desai, Rohinton Mistry, Vikram Seth have all made their names while residing abroad. These nonresident Indian writers have tried to discover the feelings of displacement in all of their literature. In one of his interviews, Amitav Ghosh said that I dont think migration signifies one thing. There are so many reasons why migrations take place it could be economic, social, political or even related to education. Amitav Ghosh is one of the well known face in English literature. His work received great critical acclaim: winning several awards and major nominations. His work deals with remarkable themes set against historical backdrops. His writings reveals about his subterranean connections and patterns. But his all the various ideas that inform his work are basically his characters whose life engages us and take us to some magnificent imagined places and times. Some of his novels are: The Circle of Reason (1986), Shadow Lines (1988), The Calcutta Chromosome (1995), The Glass Palace (2000), The Hungry Tide (2005), Sea of Poppies (2008). THE CIRCLE OF REASON The Circle of Reason is the first novel of Amitav Ghosh. The Circle of Reason is remarkable for many reasons. Its theme is different from traditional concerns of Indian English fiction. It challenges a direct and simple appreciation. In fact, it needs a different types of approach to be grasped fully. The book itself is sort of a paradox. It exuberates restlessness with extreme control and poise. The new thrust and lift that came to Indian English fiction duing late eighteenth and nineteenth century is partly due to this path breaking work. It is daring in its experimentation with form, content and language of the novel. The novel, although not strictly organized, is episodic in nature or we may call it picaresque. The novel is a journey in irregular. Traditionally the protagonist Alu should have gone from tama (darkness) to satwa (purity). Ghosh freely mixes a chain of thoughts. He superbly mixes past, present and future of his book. He describe one incident and if the incident links itself to any past happening, he immediately goes to that past incident. Through whole novel he played with changing consciousness. So the whole fabric of the novel keeps floating, goin backward and forward. In any case present is born out of past. So why should one not go to the great reservoir of memories, dreams and desires i.e past. The novel is crowded with characters. Alu is the only constant factor who lives by trial and error method, falls at times, stand up again and finally moves on to realize his potential, if he has any. The novel, without becoming a melancholic case history, underlines the troubled times, t hrough which all of us are living. Like a typical ended novel, it ends without providing readymade solution. There is a soothing effect at the end. Different threads seen to draw together yet there is no effort at preaching. In a typical picaresque fashion, Alu moves from Lalpukur in India to Al- Ghazira in Egypt and then to a small town in north eastern edge of the Algerian Sahara. The first section of the book contains many instances of migration. One of the instance from the book is that of Balarams birth year 1924, which forces author to think about the mass Indian migration to West. The People of Lalpukur, for example, had seen vomited out of their native soil(p 59) in the massacre connected with the partition of Indian. Within the novel people witnessed one more time that the spectacle of people being thrown miles away because of the civil war that led to the emergence of Bangladesh. The journey of Alu, although, does not bring any kind of satisfaction or success. It celebrat es the sense of unquiet wanderings. Its goes on and on searching a vision suitable for present timer. It is like chasing a phantom that ultimately vanishes into the thin air. The Circle of Reason has both historical as well as mythological elements . Mythical references have been moulded to reflect contemporary condition in a true new historicist fashion. Here ghosh nicely weaves ideas, characters and metaphors through magic and irony and develop his fictional motifs. Characters in the novel are not far from metaphors, they become metaphors. The charcters as well as different situation of the novel stand for rootlessness. Sometimes, I also wonder of our fascination about the idea of rootlessness. The present piece of work seems obsessed with his idea of migration. Migration, diasporic feeling, rootlessness and a new kind of sensibility born out of these factors what is new, typical and unique of our age is loneliness and sense of vacuum that comes with the individual migration or m igration of comparatively smaller groups. In real sense everyone is away from the roots- where have all the roots gone. There is nothing in this novel that can ordinarily be called a home. Sometimes novel seems confused and one is not sure about the city or village. Its goes back and forth from Bangladesh to Calcutta, then Middle East to Kerala. The story moves in very uncertain atmosphere. The novel can be called an eternal chronicle of restlessness, uncertainty and change. The novel basically tells three stories. The first part deals with the story of Balaram. He is rationalist and is very much influenced by Louis Pasteur. He has no involvement with people and he is equally cynical. Alu (Nachiketa), the protagonist, is a nephew of Balaram. He is a only one who survives in the family. The second part of the novel tells another tale. An earthly, zestful trader tries to bring together the communities of India and Middle East. But those efforts remain unrealistic. The third part in the story of Mrs. Verma, who, outrightly rejects the rational thinking. At the end of the novel, these three are in the search of newer horizon, unformed hopes and ideas. On an allegorical plane Alu is someone rooted in identity. But as we will see by his torturous wandering, Alu seems only to satirize his name. Ghosh divide man as mechanical man and other type of man can be easily assumed, thinking man. In this thinking, Ghosh, is talking about the Man on the loom or even furth er the idea behind on loom and not just the instrument. It is also the idea behind history. Loom united human race at times, it divides at other. It brought victories to some, subjugation to others. This passage is significant in its historical perspective, simply because the author here goes not to mere events or states of being but to themes that run then. The anti colonial note against the monopoly of hand shine cloth in obvious. There the relation of loom to computer, the most advanced achievement of Man at machine, is beautifully and factually established. Through this book Amitav Ghosh portrayed his diasporic feelings, loss of homeland and rootlessness which were clearly understandable and warmly felt. THE GLASS PALACE Tracing Indian lives in Burma, Amitav Ghoshs The Glass Palace (2000) recall Burma as a part of British India. Ghosh, who is from India, attempt to bring the suppressed history of subaltern in this novel. The Glass Palace is therefore condemned to record in exit ential dilemma. Where in the subjects is inevitably partitioned, a confused refugee never quite focus nor contained within the frame. Ghoshs characters, in this most spacious of his fiction, literally include both kings (Thebaw, Queen Supalayat, The Burmese Princess) and commoners ( Dolly, Raj Kumar, Saya John, Uma) but what unities them all is the unavoidable narrative of colonial dislodgment. If any single motif frames the grand picture, it is the occurrence of the English soldiers. That these soldiers as turn out more often that be Indian sepoys and some time ever, Indian officers- compound the puzzling effect. As Ghosh tells us , that smoke of dusts tend to hang over the imposing scenario. Whole cities are on the run and it is often impossible to see far given the apprehensive conditions. The Glass Palace of his title, it turn out, indicates both the magnificient half of mirrors which form the centre piece of the Mandalay residence of Burmese royalty are the name of a small photo studio where the books action appropriately ends. A writers business was to write and problematic values could, in his view, be interrogated as effectively in chapter sixteen. The rest of the forty eight chapters of The Glass Palace concern, during period of history both harrowing and exciting, the interaction between three families: of Dolly and Raj Kumar in Burma, of Uma and her brother in India and of say John, Raj Kumar and Matthew in Malaysia. Ghoshs novel, one can argue that coincidence represents what post modernist would call break in the logic of narration, just as post colonialism mark a disjunction from the earlier trajectory of colonialism. Migration in this book of Amitav Ghosh is the real experience: the protagonist suffer from it to larger extent as the role was assigned to him. Ghosh tries to focus on the reason of Indian involvement in imperialism and also takes in the economic perspective. Many Indians who were in the roles of businessmen and soldiers were involved and victims who throughout helped the British to conquer and sustain their empire. Other characters of the novel struggled for the Indian independence and few even revolted against the Britishers. In the light of emigration as a worldwide phenomenon it is indeed, Ghosh in his novel The Glass Palace managed to confine the past and what it must have meant to move to abroad settled down there and then be thrown out of there by war. It gives out the feeling of conquered and exploited and the terrible pressures and tensions of those people who were part of more than one ethnicity and culture, an almost usual result of the movement of people and the British empire set in motion. In his writings, Amitav Ghosh portrayed his diasporic feelings, loss of homeland and rootlessness which were clearly understandable and warmly felt while going through his work. Selected Bibliography Ghosh, Amitav , The circle of reason, publish (ravi dayal publishers) 2003 Ghosh, Amitav, the glass palace, new York, random house inc,2002 The Indian Diaspora: Dynamics of Migration,(sage publication)2004 Robbins, Bruce, Internationalism in Distress. Essays : The Imam and the Indian (2002) Exile literature and Diasporic Indian writers by Amit Shankar Saha Interviews: Migration of the reality of my times by Amitav Ghosh to India e news.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

William Harveys Discoveries and Effects on Society

William Harveys Discoveries and Effects on Society The Renaissance, which means rebirth, was a time of much literary and humanistic growth dating from 1350-1600 AD. During this period, scholars and intellectuals alike began to show interest and respect for the arts, literature, science and architecture again. The humanistic growth of this time refers to the scholars of the renaissance, known as Humanists, who put themselves and humankind at the centre of their world and culture rather than God. The Renaissance originated in northern Italy but eventually took over Europe, with clergymen and bishops moving to Italy to study   what was known as the New Learning. The invention of the printing press during this time also meant that books could be mass produced, quickly and cheaply for the first time, making them more widely available to humanists and those in the public that could afford such commodities. This led to increased learning in this time, which in turn led to great scientists and scholars being born who changed the way we loo k at the world, even today. (colaisteeanna.ie, 2011) William Harvey, alongside Galileo, Kepler and Bacon was a very important individual in the advancement of science in the renaissance period, who is credited today as being one of the most influential English physicians in history. He is mostly known for his research into the circulatory system and was the first person to discover and accurately describe how blood was transported throughout the body by the heart. Harvey was known for never fearing to go beyond what science had accepted in his time and for pushing the boundaries of Renaissance science, never having any fear to experiment on things that would be considered major taboos at the time. His exploits however would lead to the public and other physicians to write off his work completely. William was born in Folkstone, Kent, England in the year 1578 to Thomas and mother of nine, Joane Harvey. Williams father, Thomas, was quite a successful merchant who would go on to become the mayor of his town which meant that William lived a quite comfortable life growing up. As a child and young teen Harvey was taught the classics and latin, which would later aide him in his ventures to Europe where Latin was widely used for academic work. In 1597, Harvey attended Gonville and Caius College in the University of Cambridge where he studied and completed a bachelors degree. Upon completing his degree, Harvey thought it best to move on to study medicine in the highly prestigious University of Padua in northern Italy. At the time Italy was known to be one of the great centres of intellectual activity in Europe. It was in Padua that Harvey would go on to study and be tutored under the great and famous surgeon and scientist Hieronymus Fabricius. Fabricius was a dedicated anatomist who wa s revolutionising medicine in the renaissance period who had discovered that veins in the human body contained valves, although to use of these valves were unknown to him. His beliefs in the workings of scientists such as Galen were so strong that he didnt want to challenge these views which meant that Fabricius would never go on to further his studies in this area. Fabricius discovery would later inspire Harvey to further these studies. Harvey would then go on to receive the degree of M.D from the University of Padua in 1602, where on his diploma it was written [Harvey] had conducted himself so wonderfully well in the examination, and had shown such skill, memory and learning that he had far surpassed even the great hopes which his examiners had formed of him. They decided therefore that he was skilful, expert, and most efficiently qualified both in arts and medicineâ‚ ¬Ã‚ ¦ (Famousscientists.org, 2015). He would then go on to return to England to join and perform well in his ex ams at the Royal College of Physicians. During the renaissance period, the scientist and anatomist, Galen, was widely renowned as the greatest physician to ever have lived. Galen believed that the body was made up of bodily fluids called humors, these included blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm. Galens views were unanimously agreed upon and people of the time saw these humors in the same way that DNA and genes are viewed in modern science today. For example if somebody was optimistic or positive it would suggest, in Galens teachings, that the humor, blood, was the primary bodily fluid to make up said persons body. The same would be applied for someone who was bad tempered who would be thought to be mostly made up of yellow bile. Although these findings were widely accepted, Galen was never able to prove them outright as at the time, dissecting human bodies was forbidden and was widely believed that it would lead to the dissector not going to heaven upon death. It was these accepted views that would lead future scien tists, such as Fabricius, to not want to challenge Galen or conduct any sort of experiments that would be considered taboo at the time. (World Science Festival, 2014). Although Harvey was very curious and would go on to investigate Fabricius studies further as he was not a believer of this ideology, which meant that he wasnt afraid to conduct experiments such as dissecting and other procedures that would have been considered unthinkable at the time. His practices though, did not come without his critics, who believed in the workings of medieval scientist and anatomist Galen. It would be Harveys eventual rise through the ranks of the college of physicians and his marriage to Elizabeth Browne, daughter of the physician to the queen at the time Elizabeth the First, however, that would give Harvey the time and space needed to conduct his controversial experiments. His marriage into a family of power and his expertise as a fellow physician to his new father in law would lead to him becoming the physician extraordinary to Queen Elizabeths successor, King James the first. Harvey would begin through human dissection to open up arteries and begin to study blood flow and blood like nobody had ever before him. Harveys work was based on a range of experiments and observations, including applying ligatures to arms to compare the flow of blood through arteries and veins and to establish the role of valves and some live experimentation on the hearts and vessels of fish and snakes. (Underhill, 2015)   Harvey also used mathematical data to prove that the blood was not being consumed (Ribatti, 2009). Harvey continued to experiment until he was able to provide concrete evidence to publish for the public to view. In 1628, at the age of 50, Harvey published his findings in latin under the title: Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibusor in English as On the Motion of the Heart and Blood. It provided new evidence on blood circulation for the first time since Galen, who had believed that blood was produced in the liver from food and pumped to the lungs. It has been shown by reason and experiment that blood by the beat of the ventricles flows through the lungs and heart and is pumped to the whole body. There it passes through pores in the flesh into the veins through which it returns from the periphery everywhere to the centre, from the smaller veins into the larger ones, finally coming to the vena cava and right atrium. (Ribatti, 2009) Harveys findings went completely against the works of Galen   which sparked outrage in the scientific community as Galens work was regarded as untouchable at the time. The medical community grew hostile against Harvey and began to send hi m threats and insults. Always a believer of his work though, Harvey would never stop trying to defend his findings. Unfortunately this abuse did not end and his practice began to suffer because of it. Eventually it forced Harvey into isolation where he lived out his life as a recluse to avoid any unnecessary attention on himself. This wasnt the end for Harvey however as a new generation of budding medical students were on the rise, who were ready to disregard old teachings and pursue modern medical studys which Harvey pioneered with his research. Harvey would continue to give lectures to the new generation of scientists, detailing his methods and findings and who would then go on to use these findings and methods in their own research which would eventually make the works of Harvey mainstream, eventually making him into a more influential scientist than Galen, whose work is still used today. His sceptics outrage ended in 1661, four years after Harveys death, when scientist Marcello Malpighi discovered capillaries which finally gave factual evidence and proved Harveys theory of blood circulation. William Harveys discoveries and their eventual acceptance meant that medical practises in general improved greatly during the end of the renaissance period and beyond. His discoveries in the circulatory system and his students further studies into his field allowed for new, more complex operations to take place. This had a big effect on heart surgeons as before Harvey, nobody really knew much about the functions of the heart. This allowed for a greater, although still very low survival rate for cardiac patients as new experimental operative methods were used through trial and error. The next 100 years would prove vital for advancements in cardiac related research as followers and accepters of Harveys work would lead major breakthroughs that have lead up to where modern heart and circulatory surgery is today. To conclude, William Harvey was a very influential scientist who lived in a time and culture where people outright believed the views of medieval medicine. A time where the medical community was unwilling to challenge the views of the greats such as Galen. Harvey showed the scientific community that no matter what your views or stance on a particular science is, that if you keep an open mind you may just be proven wrong in the end. William Harvey was the landmark scientist of modern medicine who paved the way for what we consider modern medicine to be today. Harvey was the inspiration for a whole generation of anatomists and physicians in his time and for future centuries to come. Who to this day is used as the benchmark for how influential a physician can be. Thanks to Harveys willingness to abandon old wisdom and observe and test for himself, we have our modern understanding of physiology. (www.discoveriesinmedicine.com , 2006) References: Harvey, william first, blood, body, Harveys contribution, Harvey publishes his findings (2006) Available at: http://www.discoveriesinmedicine.com/General-Information-and-Biographies/Harvey-William.html. Ribatti, D. (2009). William Harvey and the discovery of the circulation of the blood. [online] Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2776239/ Underhill, S. (2015) 6.2 circulation Galen and Harvey. Available at: https://natureofscienceib.wordpress.com/2015/11/18/6-2-circulation-galen-and-harvey/ World Science Festival (2014) Misunderstood geniuses: William Harvey. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7NOU4McjtXs colaisteeanna.ie. (2011). The Renaissance. [online] Available at: http://colaisteeanna.ie/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/History-Revision-The-Renaissance.pdf Famousscientists.org. (2015). William Harvey Biography, Facts and Pictures. [online] Available at: https://www.famousscientists.org/william-harvey/

Monday, August 19, 2019

Armour :: Essays Papers

Armour Armour in chivalric ages was truly one of the most important aspects of life. A family could spend all the money that they had arming one of their boys. The modern day equivalent to a fully armoured knight would be a tank for the United States Army. A knight's armour was important for a number of reasons. He needed it to be good looking, protective, and well maintained. Armour could take on several forms not just the typical metal suit. It came in the form of hardened leather, chain mail and hanging metal. Chivalry could not be upheld if it were not for Armour. Armour was a key tool of the chivalric period because a knight could not uphold the code of chivalry without it. A knight was judged by the armour that he wore and how he appeared in it. There were strict rules as to how the armour was to be applied to the knight and what the squire was supposed to bring to the field of battle. This is clearly evident in the following passage taken from the SCA web site (http://www.sca.org/chivarts.html ) entitled To Arm A Man GRAFICAS First you must set the sabatons and tie them to the shoe with small points that will not break. And then the greaves and cuisses over the breeches of mail. Then place the taces upon his hips. And then the breast and back plates, the vambraces and rerebraces {the arm defenses}. And then the gauntlets. Hang the dagger on his right side, his short sword upon his left side in a round ring that it may be lightly drawn. And then put his cote upon his back. The bascinet follows, laced to the cuirass in front and back that it sits just so. And then his long sword in his hand, a small pennant bearing the figure of Saint George or Our Lady in his left hand. Now he is ready to take to the field. What an Appellant shall bring to the field:

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Literature Reflects Life in The Gilded Age :: Literature Essays Literary Criticism

Literature Reflects Life in The Gilded Age As immigrants began to flood into America in the late 1800's and early 1900's, they had hopes of a miraculous new life in the Land of the Free. They may have thought that they would not have to live in cramped and unsanitary conditions as they had in their old homes. They may have had hopes of finding a great new career that would skyrocket them to fame and fortune and allow them to live like the Carnegies, Rockefellers, and Morgans did. It could be possible that all their hopes were assured once they caught sight of the New York City skyline, expanding as far as the eye could see and stretching like arms spread welcoming home a loved one. The sun may have been shining bright and golden, bathing the not-so-distant city in a fantastic light. At a distance it was quite possibly one of the most exquisite sights that their eyes had ever come upon. However, the land that looked so beautiful and grand from the distance was actually filled with greed, corruption, and opportunists. That is h ow America can be described during the Gilded Age. The wrapping was pretty, but the present was awful. Such wealthy entrepreneurs as the Rockefellers and Carnegies helped to make America the beauty that she was on the outside, but to an extent they also contributed to the rotten inside. America's new European residents lived in cramped apartments and worked in unsafe factories. The factories housed the latest technology of the Gilded Age, the assembly line. The mass production that the assembly line brought about made the rich richer, but did nothing to help the poor. They were working long hours in sometimes extremely dangerous conditions. Injuries and even deaths would occur due to faulty machinery or exhausted employees, but these occurrences were often ignored or covered up to avoid any bad publicity. As the immigrants flooded the big cities seeking jobs, other Americans headed west with the expansion of the railroad. However, nobody seemed to take into consideration that they would be intruding on the American Indian's territory. It also seemed that no one cared. America was gree dy for land that lay to the west and would be quite deceitful in getting the land that they wanted. The American Indians were pushed further and further west, and their tribes began to dwindle.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Brian Quinn

Dear Ms. Brummel: I have been involved in training clients and designing custom solution with Microsoft products for many years.  Ã‚  Ã‚   I would like the opportunity to see new Microsoft technologies first hand.   Specifically, I am writing to you about the System Administrator (Job code: XXXXXXX) and System Engineer ( Jobcode: 180703) positions I found while browsing the careers section of your website. I am a System Engineer specializing in Novell Netware and Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory.   For the last eight years, I ran a successful consulting business focusing on end-user training and Microsoft Systems support and administration.   Some of my former and current clients include: Onesoft Corporation, Novell, Oppenheimer Funds, Cal State Hayward, Energy Commission, Brigham Young University, Department of Justice, Franklin Covey and Anderson Consulting. In the course of pursuing my business interests I have acquired several professional certifications including: Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer , Microsoft Certified Trainer, Microsoft Certified Desktop Technician, Cisco Certified Network Associate( CCNA )and Novell Engineer.  Ã‚   I have 14 years of experience in the IT field; my previous employment is further detailed in the enclosed resume. I feel I can bring my extensive field and training experience to exceed the expectations for a person in the positions available.   I would like to speak with you at your convenience to discuss how I can contribute to Microsoft’s continued success.   I can be reached at (916)789-1779 any time. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Sincerely, Brian Quinn

Anne Hutchinson and Puritan Leadership

Anne Hutchinson and Puritan Leadership Anne Hutchinson was a strong willed and intelligent woman that lived in 1637 in the Massachusetts Bay colony. She opposed both John Winthrop, governor of the colony, as well as the Puritan church leaders who had a different set of beliefs from her, and made up the court of elected officials that assisted the governor. She was banished from the colony in 1638 on charges of blasphemy, because she claimed to have direct and divine inspiration from the Holy Spirit, in a Puritan community it was thought that only preachers and other church leaders could see God, this idea was known as the covenant of works.Anne Hutchinson was a believer in the covenant of grace where God could show himself to anyone at anytime. Anne Hutchinson had a bold personality, many problems with Puritan leadership and their beliefs, and was banished from the colony on charges of blasphemy in a controversial trial. Anne Hutchinson was a very confident and bold woman, and unlike many other women in colonial lifestyle she spoke her mind. Her intellect was very strong, and she outwitted Governor Winthrop and the jury of her trial for many days.She believed very heavily that men and women were equal in the eyes of God, and thought that the covenant of works being preached by the Puritan preachers was incorrect. Anne Hutchinson was an excellent speaker, which was demonstrated in her court trial where she bashed most of the charges against her with her high intellect. Hutchinson also led discussions on the sermons from the Puritan preachers with other women after church using her interpretation of what God was really trying to say.Anne Hutchinson was a strong believer in predestination an, idea developed by John Calvin. Predestination is the belief that God has already chosen those few people for salvation. In her interpretation Anne Hutchinson thought that actions did not matter towards salvation because God had already made his choice, this theory is also kno wn as the covenant of grace. She opposed the Puritan Ministers who for the most part thought and preached that if you do and achieve certain things then God will save you, ideas from the covenant of works.That is why she held discussions on sermons for her followers, after she received divine inspiration from God, because she felt that Puritan preachers were not interpreting God’s word correctly. After openly and publicly disagreeing with the teachings of the Puritan preachers and holding her discussions about their sermons Anne Hutchinson was taken into court by Governor John Winthrop on counts of disturbing the peace and slandering the ministry. After a long and back and forth trial Anne Hutchinson was charged with blasphemy and sentenced to banishment from the colony.The trial was controversial because she really had not done anything illegal, but because of the notion that women should be submissive to men in the colonies, and her defying the church were strongly frowned open especially by men. It was also a male dominated society, so Anne Hutchinson did not ever really have a chance for a totally unbiased trial. Such as the one Roger Williams received, he was tried for some of the same things Hutchinson was tried for, but because of his gender probably received more of a fair trial because of his gender.Williams was not banished from his colony, where Hutchinson was banished from the Massachusetts Bay colony on the charges of blasphemy. She was convicted of this because in the beliefs by the Puritan preachers only preachers and other church leaders could receive any type of divine inspiration, so being a woman it was impossible for her to receive any divine inspiration. Anne Hutchinson was still very important though as she helped found the colony of Rhode Island with her beliefs.She was a very strong confident woman taking care of her 15 kids in the Rhode Island wilderness. And even though she did not receive a totally fair trial, because in that time period it was frowned upon for anyone to speak out against the church especially a woman she had a lasting impact on the way men thought about the intelligence of women. Anne Hutchinson was a woman who had a bold personality and although being a Puritan herself believed that Puritan preachers were wrong, and was eventually banished to Rhode Island for it.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Err Booklet Abc

Bi: DESCRIBE THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF YOUR EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT AS SET OUT IN YOUR CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT OR EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENT My employment is conditional to a clear CRB disclosure carried out by my employer; it is subject to the employer receiving 6 personal and professional references through a strict vetting initiative. It is essential to drive and carry valid insurance, tax and MOT certificates including business class one insurance.Any holiday is to be requested a minimum of one month prior to the date and is at the discretion of the manager. Sickness is to be reported as soon as possible to ensure clients visits are reallocated in a timely fashion. I must ensure that during my employment, my outside interests do not engage with a conflicting business to the company, ensure confidentiality at all times, remain loyal to the business and within a six month period of leaving do not solicit business from Home Instead Senior Care.Bii: DESCRIBE THE INFORMATION WHICH NEEDS TO BE SHOWN ON YOUR PAYSLIP/STATEMENT It will need to include, yours and your employers names, a breakdown of your payment, deductions including PAYE tax, NI and any pensions, Tax paid to date – PAYE & NI, date of pay, tax period, your tax code and NI number. The last details will include your Net pay and state how much holiday you are still entitled to. Biii: IDENTIFY TWO CHANGES TO PERSONAL INFORMATION YOU MUST REPORT TO YOUR EMPLOYER Change of address and change of name (surname if you marry and change it) Biv: DESCRIBE THE PROCEDURE TO FOLLOW IF YOU WANTED TO RAISE A GRIEVANCE AT WORK.YOU MAY DESCRIBE THIS IN WRITING OR PRODUCE A FLOW CHART OR DIAGRAM Bv: EXPLAIN THE AGREED WAYS OF WORKING WITH YOUR EMPLOYER IN RELATION TO THE FOLLOWING AREAS; 1. DATA PROTECTION The company will hold details of the employee and clients in both paper and electronic form under the Data Protection Act 1998. This will remain confidential at all times. As the employee I agree in my contract to adher e keep any information confidential at all times regarding client information, only passing on where necessary to the people involved. Failure to do so will result in disciplinary or dismissal. 2. GRIEVANCEEmployers will raise any grievances when necessary in a professional manner and employees are encouraged to raise grievances without fear at all times. Employees and the employer follow the grievance policy at all times. 3. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT When conflict arises CareGivers are asked to not approach the subject in front of clients and to try and resolve calmly, if to no avail they are to seek assistance from a senior member of the team. 4. ANTI-DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICE Employees are encouraged to work in a non-discriminatory manner and to report any issues as soon as they arise. This is for employees, employers and clients. 5.HEALTH & SAFETY Employees are given health and safety training before commencing work in the community and are encouraged to report any issues immediately. 6 . CONFIDENTIALITY Employees are to adhere to the confidentiality policy at all times or they could face disciplinary action or possibly dismissal. Confidentiality is essential with clients as it helps to build their trust although vital information should be passed on where necessary to the correct people. 7. WHISTLEBLOWING Whistleblowing encourages and enables employees to raise serious concerns within the company rather than overlooking a problem or ‘blowing the whistle' outside.Employees are advised to speak to their designated senior CareGiver or a member of the management team with any issues rather than other colleagues. Bvi: EXPLAIN HOW YOUR ROLE CONTRIBUTES TO THE OVERALL DELIVERY OF THE SERVICE PROVIDED Being a senior CareGiver means I am partly responsible in ensuring the quality of service remains at a high level by carrying out regular spot checks on CareGivers and completing Quality Assurance questionnaires with the clients to make sure they are satisfied with the care the y are receiving. Where any issues arise actions are taking to resolve them.Bvii: EXPLAIN HOW YOU COULD INFLUENCE THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE PROVIDED BY: A) FOLLOWING BEST PRACTICE WITHIN YOUR WORK ROLE; This would encourage anybody I am training to work to high standards that I personally would set and would ensure clients are kept safe and happy at all times. This could also promote the company through word of mouth. B) NOT CARRYING OUT THE REQUIREMENTS OF YOUR ROLE. This could put yourself and clients in danger and could have a damaging effect on the companies business. The level of care would decrease setting low standards and would leave clients vulnerable to all sorts of risks.Bviii: DESCRIBE HOW YOUR OWN WORK MUST BE INFLUENCED BY NATIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS CODES OF PRACTICE, NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL STANDARDS, LEGISLATION AND GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES. The national factors give you guidance, standards and rules to follow in your work practice. Legislation tells you what you must/must not do. Codes of Practice and Occupational Standards form the values of the company; legislation states the level and quality of care, government initiatives impact the clients more directly. If the above aren’t followed the level of care would be poor and unsafe for clients to receive.Without guidelines, laws and rules carers wouldn’t know what is and isn’t acceptable within their care duties and could also be putting themselves at risk. Bix: A) IDENTIFY TWO REPRESENTATIVE BODIES WHICH INFLUENCE YOUR AREA OF WORK. Care Quality Commission B) DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF THE TWO REPRESENTATIVE BODIES YOU HAVE IDENTIFIED. CQC licenses services if they meet essential standards and will constantly monitor whether they continue to do so. They formally review services if they receive information that is of concern and as a result decide they need to check whether a service is still meeting one or more of the essential standards.They also formally review them at lea st every two years to check whether a service is meeting all of the essential standards in each of their locations. Their reviews include checking all available information and intelligence they hold about a provider. They may seek further information by contacting people who use services, public representative groups and organisations such as other regulators. They may also ask for further information from the provider and carry out a visit with direct observations of care.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Computer Security Essay

Encryption is method of scrambling data in some manner during transmission. In periods of war, the use of encryption becomes paramount so those messages are not intercepted by the opposing forces. There are a number of different ways to protect data during transmission, such as Substitution (character for character replacement) in which one unit (usually character) of cipher text (unintelligible text or signals produced through an encryption system) is substituted for a corresponding unit of plain text (the intelligible text or signals that can be read without using decryption), according to the algorithm in use and the specific key. The other method is Transposition (rearrangement characters) which is the encryption process in which units of the original plain text (usually individual characteristics) are simply moved around; they appear unchanged in the cipher text for their relative location. Study Case (Bank of Shenandoah Valley) While both encryption and authentication method are providing some measures of security, the implementation of security itself has totally a different approach. Before any methods chosen, the two most important factors in security implementations are having to be determined. The level of security needed and the cost involved, so the appropriate steps can be taken to ensure a safe and secure environment. In this case Bank of Shenandoah Valley is in type of business which a high level of security is required, therefore, I would suggest the use of encryption method with a complex algorithm involved. Although an authentication method is a secure method as well, is not as complex as encryption method of complex algorithm since it has been used in military during the war where a high levels of security are a must. During the war, the use of encryption becomes paramount so those messages are not intercepted by the opposing forces. This is a perfect example of how reliable an encrypted message can be while used within its appropriates guidelines. 4- Describe the three different database models – hierarchical, relational and network. For data to be effectively transformed into useful information, it must be organized in a logical, meaningful way. Data is generally organized in a hierarchy that starts with the smallest unit (or piece of data) used by the computer and then progresses into the database, which holds all the information about the topic. The data is organized in a top – down or inverted tree likes structure. At the top of every tree or hierarchy is the root segment or element of the tree that corresponds to the main record type. The hierarchical model is best suited to situations in which the logical relationship between data can be properly presented with the one parent many children (one to many) approach. In a hierarchical database, all relationships are one – to -one or one- to – many, but no group of data can be on the ‘many’ side of more than one relationship. Network Database is a database in which all types of relationships are allowed. The network database is an extension of the hierarchical model, where the various levels of one-to-many relationships are replaced with owner-member relationships in which a member may have many owners. In a network database structure, more that one path can often be used to access data. ‘Databases structured according to either the hierarchical model or the network model suffers from the same deficiency: once the relationships are established between the data elements, it is difficult to modify them or to create new relationships. Relational Database describes data using a standard tabular format in which all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables that are the logical equivalent of files. In relational databases, data are accessed by content rather than by address (in contrast with hierarchical and network databases). Relational databases locate data logically, rather than physically. A relational database has no predetermined relationship between the data such as one-to-many sets or one-to-one. Case study ( D’Angelo Transportation, Inc.) There are a number of factor which ought to be discussed during discussion: O How much of the system should by computerized? O Should we purchase software or build based on what we are using in the current system. ( make versus buy analysis) O If we decide to make the new system, should we design an on-line or batch system? O Should we design the system for a mainframe computer, minicomputer, microcomputers or some combinations? O What information technologies might be useful for this application? Some of the security issues, are consist of the level of security required and the cost involved in this conversion. A database system is vulnerable to criminal attack at many levels. Typically, it is the end user rather the programmer who is often (but not always) guilty of the simple misuse of applications. Thus, it is essential that the total system is secure. The two classifications of security violations are malicious or accidental. One of the most emphasized and significant factors of any program development is the early involvement of the end-users. This provides the programmer as well as the end-user with important functionality of the new system and help them to adapt to the new working environment more efficiently and effectively. The continuos training of the staff is essential in meeting the objectives of the organization since they will be provided with needed skills and expertise necessary to deal with daily issues using of new system.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Comparing Numeracy Theorists

There are several theorists that link to mathematical development; their views are very distinct as to how mathematical understanding develops. One theorist that is linked to this development is Jean Piaget, in his research he discovered that children’s thoughts develop through taking in information. His researches also lead him to believe that children learn in stages according to an estimated age range. These stages are as follows: * Sensori-Motor – age 0-2 years (using senses) Pre-Operational – age 2-7 years (using symbols and language) * Concrete Operational – age 7-12 years (logical thought) * Formal Operational – age 12+ years (abstract thought) He also devised the concept of schemas for children to develop, for example some children relate to the rotation schema where they learn by rotating things such as turning taps on and off, watching the wheels on toy cars and stirring water and other resources in a circular motion.Another example of a s chema is transporting, these children will enjoy moving object around the room in different ways for example moving blocks from one side of the room to the other in a bag. Another theorist linking to mathematical development is Jerome Bruner, he believed that children learned by doing and then reimagining what they have done by drawing, writing and copying symbols such as numbers.Bruner believed that children in stages, these stages are as follows: * Enactive – age 0-1 – learning through doing physical movements * Iconic – age 1-7 – developing mental images * Symbolic age 7+ using symbols such as language to transfer thoughts He believed that a child is prone to learning and there are certain procedures for the child to follow for cognitive process.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Asian American History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Asian American History - Essay Example Women were the backbone of the Korean culture in preserving and nurturing children. Many women emigrated from Korea because men wanted and chose Korean wives from pictures. Picture brides became a widely known Korean culture in the 1880s, and during World War II but women’s place in the society were restricted to the kitchen and bedroom. Japanese immigrants inhabited Hawaii and received as hardworking laborers in lumber camps, fisheries, farms and railroads (Takaki, 1987). They emigrated to the U.S because of drought, overpopulation and rebellions in Japan. Japanese American that lived and worked in Hawaii enjoyed a less form of discrimination because of the low population of Caucasians. Some Japanese moved to California in search of better jobs and improved living conditions. However, tension arose in California because of the competitive advantage of the Japanese compared to the Caucasians in manual work. Japanese-American women were subjected to an intense form of racial di scrimination that restricted them from public resources and healthcare service (Takaki, 1987). Asian American families that moved into the U.S in the 1880s and during World War II were subjected to discrimination in terms of race, ethnic background and work. These families could not access public transport, use public facilities and take their children to school. Korean American History between 1882 and World War II The U.S system did not allow Koreans to vote because they U.S could not grant immigrants naturalized citizenship (Paik-Lee, 1990). Korean American women were among other oppressed women in the U.S that did not vote because women in the U.S were considered inferior to men. These Asian American women were not given equal opportunities in education or high profile careers. American system in the 1880s discriminated against Koreans in the sense that they were not allowed to use public resources with Caucasians, which included hospitals, schools and transport (Paik-Lee, 1990) . The first generation of women born in Korean families in the US struggled for the needs of children and women and sustained the Korean culture. Picture brides from Korea were to serve as wives that preserved the Korean population (Paik-Lee, 1990). Some women provided social services for the elderly and destitute Korean population. Consequently, Korean American women assisted other female immigrants in childbearing and nurturing. Preservation of the Korean Identity in the U.S Korean-American women struggled to preserve their culture, rear children and support their husbands through hardships in the U.S during the 1880s and World War II. However, during World War II, they were often mistaken for Japanese women because many Caucasians could not differentiate between the two groups (Paik-Lee, 1990). Most Korean American families ended up in Internment Camp called Manzanar, in California. Women suffered under the U.S system that barricaded these camps and isolated the immigrants from t he rest of the American population. Korean American women underwent racial profiling through all U.S systems and understood that they were exiles rather than permanent citizens. This notion was solidified when the U.S government refused to grant the immigrants natural citizenship. The women that were born in Korea were also products of immigrants that lacked equal rights with other American citizens. Dire conditions in the U.S that