Thursday, February 28, 2019
In this essay I harbour chosen to study and discuss an article ab step to the fore national military force in Britain. The aspects I hurl chosen to concentrate on atomic number 18 the law response to crustal plate(prenominal) ab purpose, recent govern workforcet initiatives and the pecuniary and logistical problems demonstrated by wowork force who are trying to escape from groundless domestic situations. The statistics relating to domestic violence are very move. According to the Womens Aid website, one chance of domestic violence per minute is reported, with an alarm two deaths a week perpetrated by a menstruation or former companion. In addition to this, they report that one in quatern women have suffered some shape of violence in the home. The statistics, from the British abuse lot 2012, alone represent reported violence, and associations who support women that have suffered violence, queer that many more(prenominal) incidents go unreported(Walby & Allen, 2004). So what the definition of domestic violence? The brass definition of domestic violence is Any incident of large(p) behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional), between adults who are or have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.Domestic violence is not a stark naked phenomenon. in the first place the 1970s it was something that happened, but was kept firmly behind closed doors and set as a private matter. The rise of feminism in the 1970s and the work done with battered women in refuges at that eon, led to a heightened awareness of the problem. Studies completed by feminists at the time claimed to have form a link between the dominance of men in conjunction and the way that incidences of domestic violence were ignored or denied. Conservatives at that time debated the findings and claimed that violence towards women had more to do with the fragmentation of family life and dysfunctional fa milies. They in like manner claimed that the statistics were flawed and that actually men were likewise victims of domestic violence. Straus and Gelles 1986(cited in Giddens), suggested in their report that men were less likely to report domestic attacks, so it was not possible to make a fair comparison. Feminists retaliated by pointing give away that attacks on women were organism regularly beaten by their husbands, whereas men were unremarkably only attacked as a one off incident, and that often the cleaning woman was defending herself or responding to repeated attacks. (Rawthorne 2002,cited in Gibbens).Feminists could also argue that the police force forceitself is a patriarchal. The fact that the police force is liquid antheral dominated with only 36,443 female officers out(a) of a total of 137,139, indicates that it is stock- chill out a male dominated profession, which may make it difficult for the legal age of officers to empathise with the plight of women in an abusive situation. So why does domestic violence occur? Dobash and Dobash (1980) found that one of the major factors that cause domestic violence was the husbands belief that the woman was failing to spare the house properly. With an increase in the number of women working it would not be unreasonable to expect men to do their share of housework, but a study by Arlie Horschchild(1989)(cited in Giddens), found that in reality, working women nevertheless do most of the daily chores and it is considered to be their responsibility. Feminists argue that violence against women is symptomatic of a patriarchal societys attitude to women.Mackinnon (1989) claimed that the subordination of women is the telephone exchange reason for mens violence to women and children. Functionalist theorists such as Talcott Parsons (1956) (cited in Giddens) stated that one partner in the family should stay at home to assume the effective emotional role. In the vast majority of households, that mortal is u sually the woman. Feminists argue that this disadvantages women as they then do not have an income of their own to modify them leave if they need to. In recent eld reported domestic violence figures have decreased but unluckily they have started to increase again. Professor Sylvia Walby (UNESCO Chair in Gender look for at Lancaster University), published a report in February 2012 that stated a rise in the number of cases of domestic violence, and voiced concerns about accompaniment cuts to womens refuges and services. She fears that the recession, combined with local politics cuts to services that keep women safe, may be leading to the current increase.Evidence in the past has indicated that wedding abuse is more prevalent between low-income couples (Cherlin 1999 cited in Giddens). William Goode (1971) felt that whilst men on higher incomes can control women by holding the old bag strings, men who are unable to exert this financial control use violence instead. If this is th e case, the recession may well lead to many more incidents of domestic violence as couples struggle financially and men face redundancy. The article I have chosen features a lady who was being abused by her husband and how she tried to get away from her situation. It is disturbing to read that that the policecompletely failed to assess the situation adequately and leave the women unsupported and vulnerable to further attack. Logic would suggest that as this lady had two small children, the man should have been the one made to leave. instead the policeman involved implied that by staying, she was inviting further violence The police also did not offer to remove the lady and children to a place of safety, or arrange any sort of support for her.In response to this kind of incident, the Association of Chief Police Officers has worked with the CPS to produce a charging checklist (appendix 1) to enable police officers to get a clearer picture on how to obtain a watertight conviction in cases of domestic violence, and to ensure that the officer has imagination about the safety of the complainant. Importantly, the form also records previous incidents of a comparable kind. This would have helped Sabina Akhtar (also mentioned in the article) who was murdered by a former partner, disrespect some(prenominal) appeals to the police to help and protect her. The British Crime Survey found that, while for the majority of women leaving the violent partner halt the violence, 37% said it did not. 18% of those that had left their partner were further exploited by other forms of harassment. 7% who left said that the worst incident of domestic violence took place after they had stopped living with their partner. world-wide figures show that 44% of female homicides are perpetrated by a current or former partner, compared to only 6% of men.(Human rights website).Unfortunately, the current system of allowing bail bond to the perpetrators, gives them the opportunity to re-off end. The current government has acknowledged that domestic violence is still a big problem in this country. The Home Secretary has allocated more than 28 million for specialist services to tackle violence against women and girls until 2015. Problems caused by cultural beliefs such as forced marriage and female genital mutilation, have been given a higher profile with specific units being set up to help the victims of such crimes. They have chosen some(prenominal) key areas to focus on, the first being early intervention This is aimed at young people to ensure that they realise the importance of healthy relationships and understand that they have the right to say no. This campaign has been heavily denote on the television and in schools. Professionals are being trained to identify early signs and risk factors of domestic and sexual violence, child sexual abuse, and deadly practices.The system itself disadvantages women experiencing abuse. There are problems with the way domestic violence is enter and dealt with by the police. According to the article there are currently eleven cases that being investigated by the Independent Police Complaints Commission. The police are criminate of failing to take womens fears seriously and of failing to provide egis for women who are being abused on a regular basis. The government and the police have acknowledged that attitudes to women and domestic violence are still in need of change. Under the new government initiative, the police have been given new powers to help domestic violence victims break the motorbike of abuse including piloting Domestic Violence Protection Orders which allow police to ban alleged abusers from returning to the victims home for several weeks. In conclusion, it appears that the problem of domestic violence is starting to be brought out into the open.The sad fact is that even if a woman leaves her abusive partner she still is not safe. She often has to give up her home and sometimes even her family to get away. There also the question of financial support. actually often, abusive men control the finances as they use this as another way of keeping control of their partner. According to the Refuge website, men have been known to force women to give up their jobs, take out loans in their name, and generally run up debt. This makes it harder for her to leave because not only has the woman got no money to support herself and her children, but she also has debts against her name. Although the government has made dealing with domestic violence a priority, they are also cutting funding to councils and other associations. It remains to be seen how effective their new policies are and whether they continue to provide funding to enable the services to function.
El Nino has been a re hailring phenomenon for centuries. What exactly is El Nino? The term El Nino refers to a massive warming off the coastal pissings of Peru and Equador that frequently extends more than 90 degrees of longitude. It is related to the Southern Oscillation, the atmospheric component of this phenomenon (Gottschalk, 1998). Because El Nino and Southern Oscillation ar often coupled, the term ENSO is utilise. (Garrison, 1999) This event commonly break down up to a year but can last up to one-third years. El Nino occurs every several years.The areas that are near affected by this event are all ocean areas at tradewind latitudes in both hemispheres. (Garrison, 1999) El Nino has been linked to flood and droughts all everywhere the world. El Nino causes significant ex diverges in biology and brave when it occurs. During an El Nino musical rhythm there are many biologic changes. During an El Nino thermocline is low and and so there is less photosynthetic activit y following in a decrease in the primary life forms.The warmer peeings that are brought by El Nino hold less oxygen demanding the fish to go somewhere else. Cook 1998) Although upwelling may occur during an ENSO event, the source of upwelled water is nutrient-depleted water in the thickened surface layer approaching from the west(Garrison, 1999). This does non help the fisherman to make money or eat during an ENSO event. This biological decrease similarly hurts the economy because the fishermen in the areas affected are non catching the right standard of fish to make money. Biological change is due to the climate and weather change during El Nino. The surface winds that break down the ocean currents are a major(ip) controller in weather.During El Nino when the easterlies weaken and retract eastward during the early stages, the upwelling slows and the ocean warms along with the moist behavior above the ocean. The change in the ocean temperatures causes a major rain section oe r the western Pacific to move eastward. In this way small changes in the ocean and wind currents continue to puff out each other until a full-blown El Nino occurs. The increased desiccation intensifies coastal storms, and pelting inland may be much high than normal(Garrison, 1999).The impacts of El Nino upon climate in temperature show up approximately during wintertime. Most El Nino winters are not that cold over western Canada and move over the unify States, and wet over the Southern United States and from Texas to Florida. (Whipple, 1998) According to Helvarg (1998), El Nino occurs at minute intervals ranging from two years to a decade, and no two events are ever exactly alike. The 1982-83 El Nino was a surprise because it was not proceeded by a period of stronger easterlies on the Equator. It also occurred late in the calendar year.The economic impact was large. The Equador and Peru fishing industries suffered heavily. Up to a hundred inches of rain fell in Equador and Peru. The new vegetation swarmed grasshoppers, which increased the toad and bird population. Further west they found instant wind patterns and this shifted typhoons and sent them to Hawaii and Tahiti, which was unaccustomed to severe weather. The total amount of damage was $8 billion. This years El Nino 1997-1998 has been the strongest ever established (Helvarg, 1998). This El Nino drought had more of an impact than its rains.El Nino also infuriated snap and storm activity in the Southeast. In Alabama 34 state were killed and some 5,000 acres of trees knocked down in April when deadly tornadoes struck (Helvarg, 1998). This record braking tornado event was spawned by the collision of warm, moist air that lingered over the warm Pacific and a polar front that had dropped from the north. (Garrison, 1999) In move of Northwest U. S. there where massive clear-cut logging operations keep up to take place on mountain slopes, El Ninos rains and galactic surfs contributed to what has become a pattern of landslide and flooding.In the Hawaiian Islands El Nino weakened the tradewinds that normally bring rain, resulting in a three calendar month long winter drought. This damaged crops and sparked wildfires that depleted hundreds of acres of endangered native-born species. (Helvarg, 1998) Conditions from this year El Nino did not return to normal until late limit of 1998. (Garrison, 1998) Estimates of worldwide 1997-1998 damage exceeded $25 billion(Garrison, 1999) According to Garrison(1999), the contrasting colder events that occur are known as La Nina. As conditions to the east self-possessed off, the ocean to the west warm rapidly.The renewed thrust of the trade winds lots this water upon itself, depressing the upper curve of the thermocline too more than vitamin C meters deep. According to Whipple (1998), weather from El Nino and La Nina are not symmetrical. Scientists pitch only recently recognized La Nina events. Since World War II there turn in been onl y one La Nina for every three El Ninos. Delivered along with El Ninos wrath has been increased idiom on the need to come across this often destructive weather phenomenon (Gottschalk, 1998). If we understand El Nino we can better prepare and find better equipment to prognosticate it.Buoys were arranged in the ocean to understand and figure ocean currents better. These buoys were situated between New Guinea and the Galapagos Islands. Each buoy measures surface wind, air temperature, humidity, ocean surface temperature and subsurface temperature down to 500 meters. The data is then transferred to weather centers all over the world. The data is then analyzed and used for climate forecasting. Scientists are also trying to predict El Nino by National and Oceanic Administration weather satellites. From these satellites they have been able to cutting off shifting patterns of sea surface temperatures.NASA satellite images also help us to see the shifting patterns of storms over the equ ator. NASAs EOS provides ocean sea-surface vector winds. This will be launched in the year 2000. This is called SeaWinds microwave radar. Adding to the El Nino data chew will be MODIS with its sea-surface temperature and ocean color sensors, Jason 1 for sea-surface height, and TRmm for tropical rainfall. On the ground, the EOS Data and culture System (EOSDIS) ground will focus on processing, analyzing, and disseminating information gathered by this orbiting army of satellites (Gottschallk, 1998).Over the years, several NASA missions have studied the effects associated with El Nino. Earliest efforts at mapping sea surface temperatures and cloud cover were done using two unalike satellites in 1978. Since then there have been many improvements made. The number of transmit was increased from 4 to 5. These channels allow the instruments to view in parts of the electromagnetic visible and infrared spectrum. This increases the amount of readily available information on El Nino. All the se things above help to better predict El Nino and to allow the countries the will be affected to prepare for it.This is grand for the developing countries because the economy is very sensitive to climate change. Rice and cotton are two primary crops of Peru and are highly sensitive to rainfall (Encyclopedia). Therefore, if the farmers were told that El Nino were coming they would know whether to plant more rice or cotton in a year. Tropical countries have the most to assoil from predictions but non-tropical countries require a more accurate prediction of El Nino. Countries such as Japan and United States will benefit in the strategic planning in areas such as agriculture, the management of water resources and the reserves of grain and fuel oil.Scientists and governments are working together to purpose and build a global system for predicting El Nino and other irregular climates. Governments should make climate predictions available daily like they make weather forecasts availabl e to the public today. The ability to prepare how climate will change leads to better management of agriculture, water supplies, fisheries and other resources. By doing all these things muckle are going to become better adept to all irregular rhythms of climate.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
In a rapidly changing world where individuals and communities live 24 by 7, communicate with different cultures at increasing internet speeds, small-armeuver devil to three jobs a day just to support a standardized lifestyles, leaders take the toll a level higher. express is evident in leadership brought about by both indispensable and external elements. But separate out and leadership cannot be taken apart. These two elements interact and connive to bring out the best and the worst in the individual who is mandated to show the vision and lead the way no subject atomic number 18a what.Stress levels rocketed in 2005 all around the world, whether economic activity was filling up or slowing down, said Andrew Godfrey, partner at agree Thornton. Keeping up with fast growth or combating recession are both equally trying, although Asian business leaders are chthonic particular strain, as their businesses and markets continue to show phenomenal growth. (BBC, 2006)But fanny C. Ma x well up relates adversity that causes stress as great opportunities for leaders to bristle the limits of their potential. When leaders find themselves stressed out, their wisdom is challenged because it is those very moments when an individual gives in to his weaknesses. But for leaders who are experienced enough they would very well know what to do when they find themselves in the middle of a stressful situation.Congruently, leaders would often times cause stress themselves as they conception for more efficient, effective and economical ways of leading the community or the team. In this light, stress becomes a tool of the leader to forge tender paths, new solutions and innovations to help the team reach their goals. In many ways, stress and leadership has always been in tandem with each other. The relationship among these two concepts has essentially led to greater heights of civilization, socialization and chumminess between individuals, groups and cultures. At best, stress and leadership has always forged man to develop into the best possible leaders an individual can become.ReferencesBBC News. (2006, February 17) argument stress levels double BBC News Retrieved October 30, 2006, from http//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4720684.stmBlanchard, Kenneth Ph.D. and M.D. Spencer Johnson. 1983. The One wink Manager. Berkley TradeMaxwell, John C. 2003. Real Leadership The 101 Collection. Maxwell indigence Inc. Georgia.
Multiple-choice Chapter 6 Which of the remarking is not true for a capability? A) it tin cannot be traded B) it changes over time C) it can be easily described in detail D) it can meliorate honour Which of the future(a) is not a necessary condition for the hard-hitting implementation of a pay for performance system? A) employees must be able to control the pace of production B) there should be a lower bound on product qualityC) managers should receive a soaring bonus for the piece rate work of their employees D) team members should have nearly the very(prenominal) preferences for effort Which of the following is not an performance in the value chain? A) outbound procurement B) trade placeing C) technology development D) trading operations Chapter 7 A key assumption underlying theories of good consolidation is A) Opportunistic behavior B) Suppliers and buyers have the same size C) Suppliers and buyers be regain in the same country D) Firms are boundarylessIn the strat egic sourcing framework, heartys vertic whollyy commingle when A) the firms need to control and its ability to perform an occupation are both spicy B) there is high uncertainty environ the transaction with the supplier C) the need to control and the ability to perform the activity are uncorrelated D) the supplier has invested in high technology 14. The twain most studied types of uncertainty that influence vertical integrating decisions are A) exchange rate and volume B) labor cost and technological C) secular cost and labor costD) volume and technological The standard theory of vertical desegregation over the industry life cycle states A) vertical integration occurs primarily in the early and late stages B) vertical integration increases in the shakeout C) vertical integration increases through with(predicate)out the life cycle D) vertical integration decreases over the life cycle Chapter 8 Which of the following is generally a motivation for the formation of technology p artnerships among large firms? A) coalition formation in the context of standards competition B) sharing complementary technologiesC) interfirm learning of process innovations D) all of the above In which industry are partnerships based on homely sharing prevalent? A) data communications B) semiconductors C) biotechnology D) pharmaceuticals When does the ability of a potential partner to cooperate effectively become apparent? A) when it promises to follow the rules of the alliance B) when it is certified by an appropriate agency C) when the ne iirk of partnerships in the industry develops D) all of the above Chapter 9A nationally segmented industry is 1 in which A) country specific favour and firm specific return are both high B) country specific advantage is high and firm-specific advantage is low C) country specific advantage is low and firm specific advantage is low D) none of the above Which of the following countenance technological spillovers within a region? A) manageria l transfers B) labor pooling C) regional associations D) all of the above Porters diamond model contains which of the following factors? A) technological spilloversB) cultural constraints C) export policies D) demand conditions Chapter 10 Which types of new moving in will a commodes financial capital precede the most to? A) larger businesses in mature industries B) smaller units in outgrowth industries C) larger businesses in growing industries D) smaller units in mature industries diversification paths of firms in the same industry vary across countries because A) the resources and capabilities of the firms in the same industry differ systematically across countriesB) countries differ in the institutions that commit diversification opportunities C) countries are located in different geographical locations D) the firms pass on management teams differ systematically across countries When an science announcement occurs, acquisition targets often tend to A) Enjoy a positive li neage reaction B) Suffer a negative stock reaction C) Maintain their stock price D) Outsource more Chapter 11 Traditionally, firms that have grown through unrelated diversification have faced which of the following problems?A) the businesses were managed to support short corporate financial goals B) the complexity of the business portfolio exceeded corporate managements capability C) there was no enduring economic rationale at the level of operations for the business units to be in the same corporation D) all of the above A transfer using a mandated market price is most effective when the downstream unit A) is attempting to make its market position based on a cost advantage B) is attempting to establish its market position based on a value advantage C) has already achieved a dominant market position D) has failed to achieve a dominant market positionVertical integration, as represented among profit centers in a multi-business firm, is A) always spiffing to transactions in the m arket B) never superior to transactions in the market C) not necessarily superior to transactions in the market D) none of the above Open questions Describe the two key strategic motivations for international expansion? Why do multinationals show up? How have Zaras practices and policies regarding its boundaries contributed to its growth and performance? What was the source of tension among Stephen Davies and Christopher Carson in the BRL Hardy case? What are its strategic implications?
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
After several terrorist attacks, nightclub submit focused and learned a plow almost Muslim extremist, Jihad and countries of the Middle East in general. Almost every solar day the news contains stories or so how orthodox Muslims and al-Qaeda recruits young shining students to postulate the suppression of Muslims whole over the world. This is similarly the issue which is blithered about in this short taradiddle My son the fanatic by Hanif Kureishi. Ali is one of those promising students. He got straight As and was remarkable at cricket, melted and football, had lots of friends and a lovely girlfriend.He was solely integrated in the English society. Then suddenly he accommodates an orthodox Muslim and gives all of his belongings away, possibly because he is the type of Muslim who believes that only by neglecting the material world you are a true Muslim, or its because all of those things is a symbol for the western world which he is severe to escape from. Ali also chang es his attitude. He disperses with his friends and his girlfriend and begins to talk harsh and disrespectfully towards his acquire Parvez.He and his father used to be manage brothers, We were not father and son we were brothers (P. 194 l. 14-15) They used to talk about everything but after Alis transformation, its really awkward when they are together. Parvez takes Ali to a restaurant and tries to break the silence but Ali was extremely reluctant to talk and started lecturing Parvez on all his wrongs in flavour according to the Koran. He no longer talks to Parvez as his father but similar he is somebody that he must convince to become a Muslim. Parvez is the father of Ali. He is born in Pakistan but is now a taxi driver in England. He loves living in England is completely integrated in the western tillage.He does everything he poop to score a normal life for his family. He works a lot to give Ali a first-class education. However, Ali drops out of school and Parvez is bother ing his head about it. He talks to his friends about and they concludes that he must be taking drugs, however, after a few days with that theory, he finds out that Ali has become an orthodox Muslim, it consequently breaks Parves heart. Parvez isnt Muslim but believes that you should live your life the way you want to, but still respect others. He believes that if you would like some pork or a drink you should be allowed to have it.This and his friendship with the brass Bettina clash with Alis orthodox belief. Parvez has the amazing superpower to see something good in everyone. Even when Ali disgraces him at the restaurant he still believes in the good in him. Bettina is one of Parvez regular customers collectible to being a brass and therefore working late, when Parvez like to work. She is an extremely good friend of Parvez and he can talk to her about things he wouldnt even discuss with his wife he could talk to her about things hed never be able to discuss with his profess wif e. (P. 195l. 1-2) Nevertheless Bettina is, for Ali, a symbol of everything that is wrong about the western society. Ali energy also think that Bettina has something with his father that his father doesnt have with his mother. Bettina also helps Parvez trough the tough times when he dont write out what is going on with Ali. I think the reason that the writer has elect a prostitute to be the wise one is to show how Parvez can see something good in everyone, even those who you see as the shtup of the society.The ending drastically shows how frustrated and powerless Parvez is feeling. He has no paper of what to do. Everything he has worked for is just tossed out the window. To sum up the themes of this short story its all about clash of cultures. We have the western culture which we see in Bettina and Parvez meeting the Islamic culture which is represented by Ali. It also takes up the theme about the relationship between father and son, and furthermore how a fathers expectations can make a son go the opposite direction.
Introduction One of the greatest things about nurse is that we digest the opportunity to sh atomic number 18 with different purifications and learn about them. Our patients are complex they each defecate their religion, culture, and life choices. Delivering health advice and not acute much about a patients heathen context will influence how the patient may perceive the nurses advice.The word that I did my research on was published in 2011, by Perez-Avila, Sobralske and Katz the name of the term is No Comprendo Practice Considerations When fondness for Latinos With Limited English Proficiency in the United States Health fearfulness System. In the United States, Latinos practice the largest minority. Most of this community has limited English proficiency the purpose of this hold is to teach us how Hispanics feel when catered to by English that language health shell out staff.Summary of the Article The name in my opinion was well written, it provides minute information in reference to limited English proficient citizens in the United States. An example of how detailed the study is One study revealed that only 37% of patients with LEP know it is their legal right to have health operate offered in their language by a bilingual provider or through the use of professional interpretation services (Katz & Pares-Avila, 2011, pg. 160).The author could have done a better job by providing more cultural information in reference to Hispanics their believes and aesculapian practices. Hispanic families believe that the flummox of the family is the boss however the spouse takes bursting charge of the children. I must subjoin that this is changing as women are becoming more functional in the work force and as professionals. The article focuses on how due to the neglect of communication and cultural competence, a certain percentage of Hispanics do not benefit from the best possible care.In fact, the article states that Hispanics have more excess tests done to them due to the lack of communication with health care providers. umteen health care professionals decide to document that the patients medical history is not available, rather than finding an interpreter to assist them. The article does a nice job describing how this lack of cultural knowledge impacts the Hispanic culture. I chose this article because I find it interesting and of great servicing to any nursing and health care professional I am Hispanic myself and constantly looking for better moods to help my community.I personally see my grandmother struggling whenever she needs to see her physician, as she sometimes does not understand what him and his staff are telling her. On another(prenominal) note nursing is an ever changing career and the Hispanic culture is growing at an enormous rate, becoming culturally competent does not only provide the patient with good care but merchant ship make the nurses job easier and more rewarding. I do feel that at that place should be more research on this subject the best path to learn about a patients cultural beliefs is to adopt the patient.I think that the population that the author intended to target is health care professionals however, I know that any immigrant can benefit from reading this article. deduction Culture competence is a quality that any nurse should have. The article that I decided to research refers to the impact that language and different cultures have on a patients health. It is the duty of health care professionals to attempt to learn about different cultures and to be sensitive to the way patients feel about their beliefs.Once the nurse understands a patients beliefs, the plan of care can be adjusted to fiddle the patients individual needs. Reference Pares-Avila, J. A. , Sobralske, M. C. , & Katz, J. R. (2011). No Comprendo Practice Considerations When Caring for Latinos With Limited English Proficiency in the United States Health Care System. Hispanic Health Care International, 9 (4), 159-167. doihttp//dx. doi. org/10. 1891/1540-4153. 9. 4. 159
Thank you for the opportunity to assess your gross revenue data in request to provide recommendations for increasing your sales. The psychoanalysis and recommendations to a lower place atomic number 18 based on the data you provided, which covers a period from May 2004 through June 2006. The analysis below is based on this data alone. Therefore, our recommendations should be tempered by your familiarity of business realities and your commercialise. Please let us know if we posterior solution all questions concerning the analysis or the recommendations provided.Discount AnalysisAnalysis An analysis was carried to understand if there is a descent among the percentage of discount rate offered and the number of aims from customers or the number of items ordered by customers. Orders were grouped by the percentage discount offered, with the results checkern in the below representic. Most of the orders were placed without any discount, followed by orders placed at discounts of 5% to 25%. It can be chance uponn that for discounts in the range 5% to 25%, there is not a great deal of a different or a direct coitionship between the discount offered and the number of orders or quantities placed by the customer. Based on this, it can be concluded that there is no significant relationship between the discount take and the extra orders by a customer. graphicRecommendation Based on the information above, I recommend that the political party should not allow very high discounts for orders such as 20% or 25%, and it would be equal to obtain the same level of sales by giving lower discount such as 5% or 10% for volume discounts. The surplus funds unploughed will add to the receiptss and profits of the company, and can be used for new(prenominal) items.Revenue Share AnalysisAnalysis- An analysis was performed to find out which countries created the biggest grocery for the company and also to review each salespersons performance in relation to each anoth er(prenominal). A majority of sales come from Germany and USA, with Austria, Brazil, and France in that order followed by other countries. It would be better for the company to focus on customers in these areas. The top salesperson are Peacock followed by Leverling and Davolio. The salesmen can be identified to receive provisional training for better on going performance. GraphicRecommendation Since markets are becoming increasingly competitive, I recommend that the company concentrate on its major markets and increase market share there. It is suggested that the company select its major markets, USA, Germany, Austria, Brazil, and France and therefore focus its selling and customer management efforts in these demographics to continue success in a competitive market.Sales Trend AnalysisAnalysis Revenues per month per rural area were considered and plotted as can be seen in the below graphic. From the graph below we can see that the company has gradually added more countries to i ts identify areas and has shown a consistent growth in revenues. Looking at the revenue movement of two of the companys biggest markets, USA and Germany, we can see that there is a trend of orders peaking and falling down in a span of every three to four months. This essentially shows that customers are tell in large quantities and thusly not ordination for some time, and then ordering after a certain gap. One aspect that has to be examined is if these spikes and troughs are to do with discounts that are given on quality due to which customers are ordering in bulk and then not ordering at all. GraphicRecommendation The spikes and troughs in the sales over a regular basis and time period need to be analyse further. These spikes and troughs could be the result of price discounts that the company is offering due to which customers are buying in bulk and stocking up on products. This could lead to variance in enquire, leading to excess demand or no demand that would lead to non -efficient production by the company. Root cause analysis should be performed, and if it is established that volume discounts are leading to this phenomenon, it is recommended that the company minimize discounting and go away with the customers using a partnership model to ensure a immobile demand.Category AnalysisAnalysis About 21% of total sales come from Beverages making it the largest category of products, followed by dairy products, confections and meat/poultry. The other categories are relatively smaller and the company can see at increasing their sales and offer them as combinations with merger products that would help in increasing the category and overall sales of the company. GraphicRecommendation To mend revenues and margins, the company will have to increase the revenue contribution of every product category. I recommend that the company go into its customer requirements and see if it can cross sell product items, so that it can larn more revenue from each customer . This will ensure that the company is able to offer competitive prices to customers and grow its business using its existing customers.The leap out project allowed me to fully understand and bring together all of our final stage Course Objectives and apply my learned skills into a real world scenario. I believe I have a better knowledge and advance of MS Excel spreadsheet formulas, charts, tables, graphs and a better understanding of data analysis, then ever before.
Monday, February 25, 2019
Weve each experienced push around at some point in our lives. tho intimidate is more than on the dot a part of growing up. It is a form of aggressiveness or violent behavior shown to children who atomic number 18 quiet, faint or unsociable. Bullying can often be started with rumors and can re stem in very sombre and unimaginable consequences such as suicide. Since browbeat is such a prevalent problem in todays world, a solution is necessary to stop this atrocious act from being committed. Bullying occurs when kids arent unbigoted of each some other, at that placefore they will start parting on matchless a nonher.There are different types of bullying. The most common form is cyber bullying. This one and verbal bullying are one of the most hurtful types someone could eer experience. Ive experienced both, at the age of twelve. I was new to the school, just like twenty other students but for some reasons, they had decided to pick on me. It was a typical Tuesday, when I e ntered the classroom, every(prenominal)one was surrounding one of my classmates laptop. care any other curious student would, I went to see what was red on.On this boys screen was a picture of me he had gotten from Facebook, with the passport of a horse replacing mine. Everyone was laughing. My response to this was violence, which actually motivated them eve more since I was responding to their provocation. If bullying goes on for a desire while, there can be negative effects. 86 percent of students said that bullying causes students or teens to turn violent. I can totally relate to this statistic. At first, I tried ignoring name calling and hurtful comments ab proscribed my looks.But as it grew bigger, I had become aggressive as a way of traffic with frustration. Researchers from Finland discovered that victims suffer from anxiety disorders, such as depression, panic disorder, and so on Sometimes the disorders can also cause difficulties with the victims family and friends. I had become very distant and arrogant with my family, especially with my mother. I would release all the strain I had gotten from school onto her. I also felt lonely and sad. My self-consciousness had decreased and so did my social life.In some cases, the bullying may be so severe and may go on for so long that the victim may actually commit suicide, which is called bullycide when related to bullying. There are many strategies you can use to stop bullies and to help others. As a victim, you need to stand up for yourself. The best way to deal with bullies and bullying is to ask other people for help. Victims may go to friends, teachers, parents, or other adults for help. After my mother found out about what was happening she talked to the bullies parents and everything had ceased the beside day.Another important part of dealing with a bully is remaining stabilise and not letting the bully bring forth a reaction out of you. Bullies want to feel a sense of power over their victi ms. However, bullies barely have this sense of power if you give it to them. Dont Make sure that you die hard calm. Bullying is a universal problem faced by kids of every age. It happens in schools, neighborhoods, and homes every single day. It can end into very serious circumstances and can ruin someones life. Bullying is not worth suffering for so dont wait for it to get worse, dont be scared to ask for help or help others.
Annotated Bibliography on adolescent Pregnancy B. T HCS/465 October 23, 2011 Annotated Bibliography on Teen Pregnancy Clinical Digest. (2009). antagonism is a predictor of rapid cite puerile maternity pubertal onset age and conflict management key considerations in ginmill strategies. Nursing Standard, 23(24), 16. Retrieved from http//www. cinahl. com/cgi-bin/refsvc? jid= 530&accno=2010217733 This phrase provides data from actual interviews with juveniles that have has rapid repeat pregnancies within 24 months of the last pregnancy experienced and those individuals who did not.The study shows earthshaking differences in aggression behaviors and how recognizing these behaviors early on could servicing prevent teen rapid repeat pregnancies in the future. This is a peer-reviewed article and was re lookuped by clicking the peer-review nook during the search process. Kelly, L. , Sheeder, J. , & Stevens-Simon, C. (2004). Teen Home Pregnancy Test Takers more disordered or more wi shful? Pediatrics, 113(3 Part 1), 581-584. Retrieved from http// www. cinahl. com/cgi-bin/refsvc? jid=783&accno=2005077833 This article provides insight from a study of teens that used home pregnancyTests. Were these individuals more concerned with contraception mishaps? or the usurps that child rearing would have on their futures? The study include 340 individuals who were racially and ethnically diverse who were sought out because of visiting deuce-ace different teen clinics for various reasons. The reasons included pregnancy testing, sexually contagious disease testing, obtaining contraceptives and general health visits. This is a peer-reviewed article and was researched by clicking the peer-review corner during the search process. McKay, A. , & Barrett, M. 2010). Trends in teen pregnancy rates from 1996-2006 a comparison of Canada, Sweden, U. S. A. , and England/Wales. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 19(1-2), 43-52. Retrieved from http//www. cinahl. com/cgi-bin/refsvc ? jid=1558&accno= 2010691048 This article provides statistical data concerning teen pregnancy and abortion rates covering a ten grade time period. Research concerning teen pregnancy and abortion is important to apprehensiveness socioeconomic factors and trends in teen sexual and reproductive health. Trends have change magnitude in teen pregnancy meaning ither a stronger support constitution for teens to encourage control over sexual activity is available or there is an increase in contraceptive usage. This is a peer- reviewed article and was anchor by clicking the peer-review box during the search process. Medoff, M. (2010). The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates. Social Indicators Research, 97(2), 177-189. Retrieved from http//dx. doi. org. ezproxy. apollolibrary. com/10. 1007/s11205-009-9495-9 This article provides research from state-level data for the geezerhood of 1982, 1992, nd 2000 concerning teen pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and new laws and policies affecting the set of abortions and how these new laws and policies are deterring unwanted pregnancies. This is a peer-reviewed article and was found by clicking the peer-review box during the search process. Monahan, D. J. (2002). Teen pregnancy prevention outcomes Implications for social move practice. Families in Society, 83(4), 431-431-439. Retrieved from http//search. proquest. com/docview/230165951? accountid=35812 This article provides detailed information concerning study group demographics, nowledge and go out behaviors, and adolescent attitudes and how these details affect teen pregnancy and intervention programs. are prevention programs helping decrease the amount of teen pregnancy seen for each one year? What are these programs offering teens to help them make more dependable life choices? This is a peer-reviewed article and was found by clicking the peer-review box during the search process. Sen, B. (2003). Can Beer Taxes Affect Teen Pregnancy? Evidence Ba sed on Teen Abortion Rates and Birth Rates. Southern Economic Journal, 70(2), 328-343. Retrieved from http//www. utc. du/Outreach/SouthernEconomicAssociation/southern-economic- journal. hypertext mark-up language Data from the years of 1985, 1988, 1992, and 1996 were used in this interesting article on beer taxes and teen pregnancy and how they are related. The article provided statistical data viewing that higher tax rates on beer have shown to contradictly affect teen pregnancy and abortion rates. This is a peer-reviewed article and was found by clicking the peer-review box during the search process. Witte, K. (1997). Preventing teen pregnancy through persuasive communications Realities, Myths and the hard-fact truths.Journal of Community Health, 22(2), 137-137-54. Retrieved from http//search. proquest. com/docview/224047307? accountid=35812 This article provides interesting data concerning the use of pregnancy prevention campaigns and what they communicate to teens and adolesc ents. Campaigns according to the study should provide more negative and hard-fact truths to communicate teen pregnancy, sexual activity, and abortion in order to help combat future teen pregnancy and abortion rates. This is a peer-reviewed article and was found by clicking the peer-review box during the search process.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
The Causes of solid ground state of war I cosmos warfare I is essenti all(prenominal)y a good deal more complicated and complex than a round-eyed list of causes. darn there was a series of events that directly lead to the fighting, the actual opening causes are much deeper and a department of unbroken debate and discussion. Ultimately, countries all over Europe made joint abnegation agreements that would pull them into battle. Therefore, if unmatched field was attacked, allied countries were bound to defend them. before globe fight 1, the following alliances existed * Russia and Serbia. * Germany and Austria-Hungary. France and Russia. * Britain and France and Belgium. * Japan and Britain. Austria-Hungary declared state of struggle on Serbia, in which Russia got tangled in to defend Serbia. Germany, seeing Russia rallying, declared contend on Russia. France was accordingly d tendern in against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany attacked France through Belgium, p ulling Britain into war. whence Japan entered the war. Afterwards, Italy and the get together States would enter on the side of the allies. Imperialism is when a country boosts their power and riches by bringing additional territories under their control.Before World War I, Africa and move of Asia were points of controversy amongst the European countries. This was particularly true because of the raw resources these areas could provide. The growing aspiration and want for greater empires led to an step-up in disagreement that helped implore on the world into World War I. As the world got into the twentieth century, an arms race had begun. By 1914, Germany had the greatest increase in multitude buildup. Great Britain and Germany both greatly increased their navies in this time period.Further, in Germany and Russia particularly, the military establishment began to have a greater influence on public policy. This increase in militarism helped push the countries obscure to war. Much of the ocellus of the war was based on the desire of the Slavonic peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina to no longer be part of Austria-Hungary, but kinda be part of Serbia. In this way, nationalism led directly to the War. provided in a more general way, the nationalism of the various countries throughout Europe contributed non only to the beginning but the extension of the war in Europe. distributively country tried to prove their dominance and power.The instantaneous cause of World War I that made all the aforesaid(prenominal) items come into defend (alliances, imperialism, militarism, nationalism) was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. In June 1914, a Serbian ultranationalistic assassinated him and his wife while they were in Sarajevo, Bosnia which was part of Austria-Hungary. This was in remonstration to Austria-Hungary having control of this region. Serbia cute to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina. This assassination led to Austria-Hung ary declaring war on Serbia. When Russia began to conform to together due to its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia.Thus began the blowup of the war to include all those involved in the mutual apology alliances. Works Cited * Beck, Roger B. World History Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL McDougal Littell, 2005. Print. * Duffy, Michael. setoffworldwar. com. First World War. com. 22 Aug. 2009. Web. 22 May 2012. . * World War wizard Causes. Causes of World War One. Historyonthenet. Web. 22 May 2012. . * What Really Caused World War 1? WW1. Web. 22 May 2012. .Causes of World War 1The Causes of World War I World War I is essentially much more complicated and complex than a simple list of causes. While there was a series of events that directly led to the fighting, the actual origin causes are much deeper and a part of continual debate and discussion. Ultimately, countries all over Europe made joint defense agreements that would pull them into battle. Therefore , if one country was attacked, allied countries were bound to defend them. Before World War 1, the following alliances existed * Russia and Serbia. * Germany and Austria-Hungary. France and Russia. * Britain and France and Belgium. * Japan and Britain. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, in which Russia got involved in to defend Serbia. Germany, seeing Russia rallying, declared war on Russia. France was then drawn in against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany attacked France through Belgium, pulling Britain into war. Then Japan entered the war. Afterwards, Italy and the United States would enter on the side of the allies. Imperialism is when a country boosts their power and wealth by bringing additional territories under their control.Before World War I, Africa and parts of Asia were points of controversy amongst the European countries. This was particularly true because of the raw resources these areas could provide. The growing competition and want for greater empires led to an increase in disagreement that helped press on the world into World War I. As the world got into the 20th century, an arms race had begun. By 1914, Germany had the greatest increase in military buildup. Great Britain and Germany both greatly increased their navies in this time period.Further, in Germany and Russia particularly, the military establishment began to have a greater influence on public policy. This increase in militarism helped push the countries involved to war. Much of the origin of the war was based on the desire of the Slavic peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina to no longer be part of Austria-Hungary, but instead be part of Serbia. In this way, nationalism led directly to the War. But in a more general way, the nationalism of the various countries throughout Europe contributed not only to the beginning but the extension of the war in Europe. Each country tried to prove their dominance and power.The instantaneous cause of World War I that made all the aforementioned items come into play (alliances, imperialism, militarism, nationalism) was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. In June 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated him and his wife while they were in Sarajevo, Bosnia which was part of Austria-Hungary. This was in objection to Austria-Hungary having control of this region. Serbia wanted to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina. This assassination led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia. When Russia began to gather together due to its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia.Thus began the expansion of the war to include all those involved in the mutual defense alliances. Works Cited * Beck, Roger B. World History Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL McDougal Littell, 2005. Print. * Duffy, Michael. Firstworldwar. com. First World War. com. 22 Aug. 2009. Web. 22 May 2012. . * World War One Causes. Causes of World War One. Historyonthenet. Web. 22 May 2012. . * What Really Caused World War 1? WW 1. Web. 22 May 2012. .
Our world is constantly wrought with the concept that evidence can allow ace to achieve all of our desires and dreams. But this ever-present idea is utterly misleading. One cannot rely on deduction because energy is truly authorized(prenominal). Everything that we hold to be true, has not been proven wrong. According to William Phelps, a sense of proof will achieve the impossible. However, Bertrand Russell believes it is important to always direct a bit of doubt in 1s life. Nevertheless, deal are torn between extra confidences and doubtless. While some(prenominal) whitethorn be certain of everything or doubt in any littler thing, the human brain should balance these two factors in order to fork out a well and steady mind. Throughout our daily lives, everyone necessitate some sort of inference in order to build up ones self esteem. However, the certainty should be to an extent. Living in a world full of confidence is not always the right last thus it can guide into fai lure.Although, strong beliefs, or a station of mind that leads to certainty is not wrong at all, especially in todays society, it has been proven that ones visualization of things is the honorable factor of the outcome of the activity one is slightly to do. It develops a sure-footed and certain mentality. This way, one is able to give out positive vibraharp and inspire others to be the best of themselves ad eventually achieve about anything even that that seems impossible ().The mindset of believing in achieving the impossible is want everyone needs to develop a strong character. Relying too much of certainty may not be so good, since it makes you close minded. This is because you are certain of what you say is right, you dont even listen to other tribes opinion, which brings tension around you. Over analyzing things and always going for whats right wont necessarily make you perfect or certain, instead it could guide you into a tough failure, since at some order you fool t o make mistakes.Thus, in order to prevent a big upcoming failure one should balance out the certainty they have in themselves. Nevertheless, doubt is an extremely huge necessity one needs among their lives. One of the most important components of doubt is trialand error. One cannot be certain something will make sense or work if the venture one has, has not been tested whether by experimentation or refutation. For instance, if doubting Thomas Edison was absolutely certain he had created a means to harness electricity and produce light without testing his theory over 50 times, his certainty would be invalid. However, his influx of doubt and therefore his willingness to augment and change found upon that doubt, enabled him to produce what could probably be the most important scientific baring yet.Another example of the importance of doubt is perhaps the most controversial topic among us-religion. Whether or not one has faith and is certain of that faith, is refutable. in that loc ation are hence, two sides to this cause. Because nothing has been definitely proved that a higher, controlling power exists. On the other hand, there has been research of evolution passim time, but it still hasnt necessarily proven a certain answer. However, even in this process of comparing the two sides one doubts because one is extrapolating that either could be true.If either is true, we are still uncertain about it. In conclusion, the use of doubt has brought upon many manages, changes, and ideas whether for better or worse. This debate of uncertainty or certainty has been entrenched in our cultures consciousness by chance since its inception. But if we were to deny that the geniuses of our times did not doubt, we are making a vast ad unintelligent assumption. Even so, throughout time, certainty has too come to a great importance in our lives. Without the doubts of all our last(prenominal) generations and the little certainty they used to carry our world would not be any thing like the way it is. One thing is certain doubt and certainty are two factors that are an absolute necessity.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
What do we know close the history of ripple communicate? Has have words wireless been successful in facilitateing Ameri pecks deal with ethnic changes? Throughout history, intercommunicate has been a major(ip) source of communication where we were able to hear the slowst tidings and catamenia events of the conviction period. Through wars, depression, Presidential debates and changing times we were able to delve on the receiving set and take heed to a radio twaddle designate that panned in on these events. We were able to hear discussions that offered opinions in which we could either run or disagree and radio talk channelises provided a means by which we could be informed on the latest tenders and events, even originally television existed. 1Can We twaddle The Power and Influence of slop Shows by Gini Graham Scott, offers that both radio and TV bring on grown up at a time when America and the whole origination hold been going through an unprecedented period of turmoil and technologic upheaval. Radio, came of age later World contend I during the 1920s and 1930s, when America was transformed from an isolationistic power focused on material growth to a ingredient of a world community which experienced major growth to a member of a world community which experienced major cultural changes and a worldwide depression. policy-making forums continue to be a disassemble of talk radio programming in the past and present. In the past, in the counterbalance place telephones were invented there was no easy way to communicated with radio personalities, besides when telephones emerged, move sticker talk radio shows evolved and offered a means to communicated with the radio personalities which made talk radio so much more(prenominal)(prenominal) interesting than before, especially where regime was concerned. We were able to pick up to the opinions of the public on semipolitical issues, not expert the ones from radio personalities on th e talk radio programs. 2 David Barker, Author of the book, Rushed to concept disgorge Radio Persuasion, and American Political Behavior, talks about move back talk radio shows and delves into the question, is political talk radio a affaire of the past. Barker says some lease asked whether this new medium can distribute as an agent of deliberative democracy, spurring Americans to form pseudo-communities, where policy choices be debated in an open forum, thus bringing American governance impendent to a democratic ideal. We often wondered if talk radio programs would fade in familiarity and just be father a thing of the past times. More than incessantly talk radio has boomed since Howard Stern came on the scene with his outrageous behavior, with comments that were so bold that his personality grabbed the attention of America. He talks about everything from women to government activity and doesnt stifle his views on either. Now is a good time to evaluate the effects of polit ical talk radio because the medium is no longer a fad and shows no signs of fading. address radio offers a setting for new media to be discussed, while people can listen from the convenience of their spots or automobiles. Given the prominent place of talk radio send in to the highest degree markets we have now had the time to critically evaluate the effects of a medium that is not disappearing. Are news trends changing on talk radio? 3The website, that answers this question is www.pbs.org/now/ administration/talkradio.html. It shows that password trends atomic number 18 changing. A recent poll showed than an increasing contribution of younger Americans get their news from late night television, and a declination 2002 Gallup Poll showed the percentage of Americans who got their news from talk radio has nearly double since 1995, from 12 percent to 22 percent. Was AM talk radio popular by the 1980s? 4 By the 1980s, AM radio was close to death. more or less listeners had tossed it on the trash heap of technology in favor of FMs clarity for music. It was Rush Limbaugh who reinvigorated AM radio and gave it a new purpose, paving the way for m any talk show hosts who jointly resurrected a bandwidth most were all too happy to ignore. Religious stations have always been around, in talk radio history? 5Soul gibber is a weekly one-hour radio show that has been broadcasting continuously since February of 1996 on Koop 91.7 FM, in Austin Texas. This is just one of many of the religious programs that have broadcasted since radio first arrived on the scene and strong religious beliefs have maintained its stance with Americans. Soul talking to articulated spiritually from a pluralistic, universal perspective with relevance to current and social and moral issues. The show offers a venue for listeners to share their sacred and ethical beliefs at the radio table, to be encouraged and spurred to action through positive expressions of faith, in a playful setting. Whats Cookin with Soul Talk Radio? A sacred ranch to leaven the world Soul can be laid at www.soultalkradio.com/. How much do we know about early talk radio? 6 Early radio news was usually nothing more dramatized documentary of events. Live recordings were unheard of and technology difficult if not impossible. earlier than simply report events, radio producers felt dramatizing the events would bring the news home more effectively. By 1928, Roy Edward Larsen was the General Manager of Time Magazine. It was Larsen, who, as Circulation Manager, change magnitude sales of the magazine from 25,000 to 200,00 in a few short years. Media theorist, marshal McLuhan, referred to Larsen as an electric man, sensitive to the latest modes of communication and its impact on society. Larsen involved Time in radio as early as 1924 with a sustaining quiz program called Pop Question. Then in 1928, in cooperation with Times Radio Executive, Fred Smith, he began issuing throughout the countrified over 33 stations daily release of ten clear news briefs drawn from the pages of Time, Larsen called News Casts. The following year they supplemented these News Casts with electrical transcription dramas, ten minutes in length, called News performing which featured professional actors and sound effects of current news. What was one of the first talk radio programs? In the year, 1931, The University of Chicago Roundtable broadcast by NBC, where University scholars engaged in intellectual discussion and the show slightly resembled the late phenomenon of talk radio. Archives, provide talk radio shows from the past.7 The account are back Thanks to the technical wizards of World Talk Radio, all previous shows are once again available for your listening. World Talk Radio brings you the most renowned Civil War experts and entertaining enthusiasts ever assembled. Check the archives each week for a new and captivating exploration of politics, personalities, and array campaigns. Civil War Talk Rad io is provided to listeners by World Talk Radio and the show host and guests. There is no charge to listen or download, but all contributions and donations are said to be welcomed. You can sour contributions at, Contribute to Civil War Talk Radio, Civil War Talk Radio, World Talk Radio, www.worldtalkradio.com/show.asp?sid=150 Talk radio has come a long way in history to finally world capable of displaying and discussing photography. 8 mental picture Talk Radio Where you can really charm photos on the radio, the dynamic internet talk show for everyone kindle in photography hosted by Howard Lipin and Michael A. Garcia Cr. vulnerabilitygrapher, providing you the best information and ideas anywhere to help you make your photography more enjoyable and better than ever. With nearly 60 years of day-to-day photography experience between them, Howard and Michael bring Photo Talk Radio alive with practical hands-on, simple to understand, How Do I Do That? tips and in depth interviews wi th photo industry leaders and photographers. Their rush is to keep you informed, inspired and coming back for more. In the ever-changing world of photography, Photo Talk Radio, The Worldwide Voice of Photography, and the place Where You unfeignedly Can See Photos On Radio is the go-to resource for everyone interested in photography from the enthusiast to the pro. Photo Talk Radio, World Talk Radio, www.worldtalkradio Talk Radio shows have been a part of a stage for political opinions, not excluding the war with Iraq. 9 This week should be remembered for beginning the fifth year of the war in Iraq and for the halting efforts of one chamber of Congress to make Year 5 the last. But, right now, Washington is delighted to be put off by a new crisis in full boil. Its not the controversy over health care for veterans. That one blew up in late February and grew rapidly to national proportions before receding. It will be back, but for the moment it has to become a subject of multiple inve stigations and editorial hand-wringing. 10 many an(prenominal) books feature information on talk radio such as a book written by Eric Bogosian, The Essential Bogosian Talk Radio, Drinking, in America, Funhouse and custody Inside. The Author writes, Reading Talk Radio today is confusing. number one of all, there are two Talk Radios The play and the film. Eric Bogosian also says, Talk Radio was not based originally on any radio personality. Despite its title, Talk Radio is not an in-depth, researched, generic documentary. There is no radio station set up like the one in the play. Instead, he wanted to use the format, one few people had any sense of in 1987, as a launching pad to talk about egos and the mass media in general. He loved the notion of this gigantic landscape of people, the callers. He goes on to say, I had listened to numerous talk-jocks, particularly bobsled Grant and Gary Dee and drew from my pre-teen experience of the legendary Alan Burke and Joe Pyne, two TV talk guys from the sixties with razor blades for tongues. But, when the motion picture came out, the strangest thing happened, a new guy had showed up and was making big waves soon after the movie came out his name, of course Howard Stern. Radio talk shows have provided entertainment for ourselves and our ancestors and I couldnt imagine not being able to turn on my radio to listen to a group of people discussing the latest issues or simply just an off-the-wall subject, for the sheer thrill of entertainment purposes. Talk radio will always be around and with satellites on the scene, radio is becoming even more popular than ever with more and more money being spent on new and updated radio systems and monthly and yearly subscriptions.Scott, Gini Graham, 1996, Can We Talk?, The Power and Influence of Talk Shows insight Books, Inc.Barker, David, 2002,Rushed To Judgment Talk Radio Persuasion and American Political Behavior Columbia University Press2007, Now, Talk Radio, Politics and Econom y, www.pbs.org/now/politics/talkradio.htmlDeitz, Corey, 2004, Right Wing Conservative Talk Show Hosts, Bashing AM And FMWhats Cookin With Soul Talk Radio? A Spiritual Feast To Leaven the World Soul,www.soultalkradio.com/March of Time, www.otr.com/march.htmlContribute to Civil War Talk Radio, Civil War Talk Radio, World Talk Radio,www.worldtalkradio.com/show.asp?sid=150Photo Talk Radio, World Talk Radio, www.worldtalkradioElving, Ron, 2007, Gonzales A Timely Distraction For aAll Sides? NPR, reflection Washington, www.npr.org/templates/story/story/php?storyId=9030022Bogosian, Eric, 1994, The Essential Bogosian Talk Radio, Drinking in America, Funhouse and Men Inside, Theatre Communications Group, From Authors Notes, p.312345678910
A calculate is a plan for financing an enterprise or politics during a certain(prenominal) period, which is prep ard and submitted by a responsible executive director to a phonation body (or other duly constituted agent) whose approval and authorization are necessary before the plan may be executed. In the persona of Uganda, it is a financing plan for one year prepared by the electric chair and approved by Parliament. Some scholars apply argued that budgets are a waste of time and valuable resources.But this statement is not simply true as the budget motion has some very reclaimable roles in public administration as shown below- Financial control. political relation of necessity to be able to exercise control over the ministries and departs i. e. to beat sure that the ministries are keeping to plan and that necessary actions smoke be taken to put them back on track when needed. Government needs to have control tools to make sure that financial plans and targets are u niverse achieved, and the best tool is the budget.The budget is a plan set tabu in numbers, which enables the government to exercise control. The difference between what is budgeted to happen and what rattling happens is termed a variance. A favorable variance means that ministry or segment is doing salubrious while an adverse variance shows those that are not. Allocation of scrimpy resources. One of the great(p)gest tasks of government is the allocation of scare resources. This is often done by means of the budget. Resource allocation refers to the distribution of resources, and in particular finance, from the center to off-base levels.Beca occasion the budgetary fulfill is often participatory, it enable the various ministries and local governments to spot their needs and present them to the centre. Programme Coordination. The budget outgrowth serves very well to coordinate government departments and ministries. It is at this budget process that the government can get to know who is doing what and at what cost. Government can for example be able to tell that water for irrigation has been covered under the Ministry of Agriculture and should whence be omitted from the Ministry of Water and Environment.Communication. The public budget serves as a confabulation tool to a variety of audiences. The general public, civil society, and legislators all percolate information from the budget process. Once the budget has been approved by the general assembly and signed into law, the ministries and other agencies become the information recipients. Importantly, each of these actors perceives the budget differently. budget also communicates upwards. Ministries and various agencies must prepare a budget that persuades the electric chair that they book him and his manifesto.At this level of the process, the information in the budget document must explain why a program deserves continued maintenance, how it meets the pre locationnts policy priorities, and how well it is using the resources it has been given. After a ministry budget has been incorporated into the national budget the primary audience for communicating information shifts from the executive to the legislative branch of government. The primary goal at this microscope stage is to bequeath information to legislature with the recommendations and analysis that serve as the innovation for their decisions.Perhaps the most important purpose for public budgeting is to communicate a ministrys intentions and performance to the citizens. The media also plays a major role in presenting budgets to the citizens. The key events in the budget processes and budget documents must serve to support a mass communication task. Successful communication helps to build legitimacy for the government and its programs. Budgeting as a Governing Tool. Public budgeting has become an progressively central galvanizing force for both the administrative and policy side of governance.This process begins w ith the preparation of program-level, agency-level, and then ministry-level requests for the coming fiscal year. This budget process presents a political platform for the selection of policy choices and for the allocation of resources to support those choices. The development of a national budget provides the foundation from which to organize a coordinated response to these complex problems and needs. Financial Accountability. Reflecting its roots, the budget process provides the tools to go steady financial accountability.Legislative oversight and audit functions are important activities that provide an opportunity for ministries to award that they have complied with legislative directives. This compliance provides assurances to both elect officials and to the public that the ministry and its programs are serving the public pursuit. Influence on the frugality . The spending and taxation policies of the central government and local governments have economical impact. Of cours e, the central government, with its sh11 trillion for 2012/2013 has far more impact on the parsimony than billions the local governments spend.From an economists point of view, the budget serves the following combination of economic objectives * funds social service programs for those in need, thus increase the demand for private sector goods and services * reflects tax policy that affects headache and individuals * reflects and funds the enforcement of commercial, transportation, land use and environmental regulations that affect the business humour * funds education and other training programs that enhance the countrys human and economic resources * funds routine purchases (like stationary) and capital projects (like Bujagali dam) that stimulate economic activity * serves to redistribute wealth across the countrys residents and * Supports the government as the largest single employer. Public Budgeting as Political tool. The budget process presents a series of opportunities for elected officials and interest groups. The perspectives and needs of elected officials and interest groups may frequently contrast with the values and hopes of most public administrators. accord these contrasting needs is a useful key to understanding the budget process. Elected officials must respond to their constituents needs and demonstrate a record of leadership. MPs must demonstrate an ability to use government to solve problems in their constituencies. Survival of an MP rests on this ability. In contrast, civil servants often rely on public service and professed(prenominal) values to guide their sense of action and accomplishment. For example, at the ministry of finance, the minister (who is not elected) and budget analysts are primarily committed to acquiring the resources necessary to admit the efficient and effective delivery of programs, not delivering on promises to constituents.The budget process provides leadership opportunities to bridge and reconcile these competin g perspectives. The promises of an election campaign must be quickly translated into policies and programs. Campaign goals and visions must be translated into legislation and directives that can correct and reorient the ministries. The budget also provides an opportunity for the executive to engage with the legislature. When executive and legislative branches are divided, compromise is usually necessary to meet the constitutive(a) duty shared by the Executive and legislative branches i. e the prexy must present a budget to the legislature and the parliament is constitutionally required to enact a budget. Waste of time.On many instances, however, budgets may appear of a waste of time when they are not adhered too. In Uganda for example, The Monitor newspaper reported that the budget for Sate House had jumped from Shs66. 1 billion approved in September last year to Shs204. 4 billion. On the day to day running, there always unforeseen consequences that governments have to cater for and often need extra resources beyond what is budgeted for. An example in Uganda was the Bududa landslides, In the US we have seen incidences such Hurricane Katrina that devastated New Orleans in 2005. But that is only a perception. Budgets play a very big role in public management and administration.
Friday, February 22, 2019
Using the documents and your knowledge of the period, evaluate this statement.From 1781 up until 1789 the United estates presidential term was found off of the principles of the Articles of coalition which were created after the Revolutionary War. The articles of conspiracy created a land which limited its exceeders from much of the violences needed in order to successfully govern the country. This lead to m whatsoever state disputes, and political struggles. On the contrary, the Articles lay up a framework for the U.S. governance that lead to a voiceless centralized government and the prosperity of the United States. The limits put forth by the Articles of confederacy led to state and political disputes, and external affairs, but it too had significant and effective characteristics to support a government.The Articles of coalitions strong views of a republic and steps set up to avoid autarchy lead to umpteen disputes in the states. Fresh off of the war for license with Britain, the founding fathers wrote the Articles of Confederation to ensure that their new independent country would non resemble the Autocracy that they had just liberated themselves from, so the created a republic. Their primary attempt, the Articles of Confederation, caused some(prenominal) problems throughout the country. A major problem causer was the clause that bulk vote had to be achieved in order to pass a law. This was a major problem between states for instance a letter from Rhode Island to relative stated, I enclose their unanimous resolution to reject the recommendation of sex act, respecting their impost on imported goods(document a) . Rejections of laws were a major problem between states at the cartridge holder because some laws would benefit states in the south but not the brotherhood making it re wholey serious to pass a majority vote. iodin states interests could effect anothers simply by rejecting to vote.Another majorproblem with the government the articles set up was their inability to make any revenue. Since the national government did not have the power to tax states they had very little. The quote by a former soldier of the revolution, Every flesh of public creditors must know the inability of congress to pay their demands, unless equipped by the means of several states (doc C) shows Congress lack of money and their inability to supply the people with what they need. In order to successfully run a government money is needed and the articles of confederation made it very difficult for congress to make any. In John Jays letter to George Washington, his fear of the government collapsing due to lack of money and power make known the problems the Articles of Confederation have brought upon the nation. We are going and doing wrong, and therefore I look in front to evils and calamities, but without being able to guess at the instrument, nature or measure of them(doc G) Jay predicts that if the country stays on the path it is heading, the rich and tidy will obtain more power then the government leaders to the complete failure of the articles of confederation. While many changes were made by the Articles of Confederation in order separate their habits from that of Great Britain, it caused many disputes between the states and federal government. later the Revolution and the Creation of the Articles of Confederation, foreign affairs began occurring quite frequently. After the war with Britain, exports between the United States and Britain decreased from around 6 meg dollars to around 4 million and stayed their consistently from 1784 to 1792 (Doc B) . The decrease of trade was a major problem for a new country in the start-off stages of development, and also the population was rising each year which lead to a greater demand of trade goods and foods. Another foreign affair that arose was loyalists who had left(p) the country for safety wanted payment of debts owed to them before the war. Under the articles of confederation they were not required to receive former debts and Britain was required to cede all territories in their limits to the U.S. (doc D) The demands ensuing to the war lead Britain, France, and Spain to restrict U.S. trade with their territories. opposed affairs also arose with Spain for they had control of much of the land west of the manuscript River. Another speech by John Jay, this time to Spains diplomatic minister Diego deGardoqui, tells of Americans ambitious of expanding westward and that the jump to use the Mississippi and its territories are imminent. take care Gardoqui disagrees and feels the people are 15-20 years away from wanting to move west.(doc F) Since their is no restriction in the Articles of Confederation to move west, like their was by Britain in the Proclamation of 1763, this causes a problem between Spain and the U.S. The Articles of Confederation lead to many foreign affairs following its establishment in 1781.Though many problems ar ose stemming from the Articles of Confederation it also had its positive affects towards the united states government. The main goal of congress when writing the document was to limit the power of the federal government and conk the power in the hands of the people. It may have limited the power of congress to much too large of an extent but it succeeded in limiting the government. Also the fundamental dependables of the people, policy on foreign affairs, and establishment of a democratic republic created a sturdy framework for the U.S. Constitution which is still prominent today. The belief that the Articles of Confederation made a substantive structure for the Constitution was shown by Rawlin Lowndes in his speech to the South Carolina State of Representatives.The quote by Lowndes, I solemnly called on the house to handle whether it would not be better to add strength to the old confederation, sooner of hastily adapting another asking whether a man could be looked on as wise , who, possessing a magnificent building, upon discovering a flaw, instead of repairing the injury, should pull it charge(doc H). Lowndes describes the Articles of Confederation as a magnificent building that has minor flaws that slow could be repaired into a strong basis of government. The Articles of Confederation have the right concepts, they just need some improvements to overcome the many problems associated with them.Between 1781 and 1789 the Articles of Confederation set up an effective means of government that worked well for the unretentive time it was in use, but it also developed problems between states, politics, and foreign affairs. In the documents, problems were brought up describing the limited power congress had, and the troubles between the U.S, Britain, and Spain. Theseproblems lead to the reformation of the Confederation after 1789 in which the U.S constitution was born.
To worst, Or Not To Spank COM/156 October 30, 2011 P atomic number 18nts put one across different ship mien of operose their nipper. Anything from grounding them from things, making them do extra chores, time come ins and vital them. The approximately legal of these, is beat up. In a explore project by Marjorie Gunnoe, boorren who were spanked among the successions of 2 and 6 grew up to be happier and thoroughly-ad undecomposeded as teenagers. tremendous a boor is non ab subroutine. It is a manner of vindicatement. You should altogether mathematical function your hand to spank your fry.Showing your claw they have through with(p) wrong, by snappy, go away teach them to non do what it is that they did, again. You should never use a belt, shoe, switch, or any other foreign object. Those would be considered weapons, and that would be tike curse. alert is non a hateful means of penalty. It shows the squirt they have tangle withe wrong and need to be pu nished. It is an effective means of penalization. Children submit not to do the same wrong again. A claw willing grow up happier and good-adjusted by rakish them. The feud of merry is worldwide.Opinions differ on pro- visible punishment and anti- collective punishment. People who ar against embodied punishment believe that spanking is child abuse. They say on that point atomic number 18 remediate ways of knockout a child. People who are for corporal punishment believe that spanking is a good haoma of punishment, notwithstanding they withal know there are different ways of punishing a child. Parents who spank their children find it is more effective as a punishment. A research done by Marjorie Gunnoe, psychology professor at Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan, states that spanking is more effective on children ages 2 to 6 forms old. It has also been state you should not spank a child under 18 months old or a child everywhere the age of 10. Spanking a child o ver the age of 10 earth-closet have a negative effect and reserve a child more aggressive growing up. The Ameri whoremonger College of Pediatricians, or ACP, reviewed the research on corporal punishment and concluded that spanking, as discipline, can be effective on children when it is used straight-lacedly, but should not be only when relied on to keep your children in line. Spanking your child out of anger, or with anything other than your hand, leaving welts and/or bruises, is considered to be child abuse.Spanking should not be impulsive, spank only with your hand once or twice, and the child should be forewarned of the spanking and reason for the spanking in rear for it to be successful. The saying, Spare the rod, vaunt the child comes from a biblical truism (Proverbs 1324) He who withholds the rod hates his son, but he who loves him disciplines him diligently. What this means is, if you dont punish a child when they do wrong, you will spoil them. This goes way back. You want to punish your child for their wrong, and make sure it is effective fair to middling to get the point across.If you dont effectively punish your child, they will think it is okay to keep doing the wrong. Kosciusko County (indium) Department of Child work sees hundreds of cases per year involving child abuse and/or neglect. Of those cases, there is physical abuse such as punching, hitting, kicking, and biting. Yet there are only a fistful of cases involving an out of control resurrect spanking their child. Tiffany Malone, a social worker for the DCS, has seen umteen an(prenominal) cases of abuse and neglect. She stated, You can spank your child as farsighted as you do not leave any label, and you do not spank them with anything except an open hand on the buttocks. It has also been said you can spank your childs feet. been charged with Battery on a minor for leaving excessive marks on their child. In the Indiana Supreme Court case Willis vs. State, Sophia Willis is rais ing an unruly child and spanked him some(prenominal) times with a belt or extension cord, which decease to marks on the childs arm (from missing the buttocks. ) She finish up receiving 365 days in jail, and had to do 357 of those suspended to probation. The judge stated, This is a stumblebum area of the law. Because you know that a persons flavour was not to do a wrong thing. It has also been said, The law is well settled that a leaven has a right to administer proper and mediocre chastisement to his child without being guilty of an assault and battery. By keen our boundaries and limitations, we can successfully correct our children in a dictatorial way. By spanking them. The mixed reaction by so many is just misunderstanding. No one has to spank a child. When nothing else works, spanking is a last ditch effort. It may be a debatable form of punishment, but it does work. Older children that look back on their young long time are happy they were spanked.They grew up happ ier, did well in school, and did well as they grew up. There are different laws in different states. some apologize corporal punishment, some do not. Some countries have criminalize corporal punishment all together. As long as there is no anger or foreign objects involved in spanking a child, it is not considered child abuse. Some psychologists, DCS workers, parents, and motor lodges condone spanking. There are court cases stating it is a parents right to decide whether or not a spanking should be administered.It is also the parents tariff to react, without vengeance, appropriately while administering a spanking to a child. A parent should not be found guilty of punishing their child no matter. Unless there is a sinister demeanor involved, a parent is totally capable of punishing their own child without chastisement from others. Children are our succeeding(a) and we want nothing but the best for them. By spanking our children, we are teaching them right from wrong and making their future that a great deal brighter and worthy looking for. Citations/References http//www. lifesitenews. om/news/archive/ldn/2010/jan/10010507 http//www. mlive. com/news/grand-rapids/index. http//www. cerm. info/bible_studies/ local/spanking. htmssf/2010/01/is_spanking_children_ok_calvin. hypertext mark-up language http//www. tldm. org/News11/AmericanCollegeOfPediatriciansSpanking. htm Tiffany Malone- Kosciusko County Child Protective Services, Warsaw, Indiana http//www. in. gov/ tribunal/opinions/pdf/08290801mgr. pdf http//www. in. gov/judiciary/opinions/pdf/06100801rdr. pdf http//www. in. gov/judiciary/opinions/pdf/05311101msm. pdf http//www. in. gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar41/ch3. htmlTo Spank, or Not to SpankTo Spank, Or Not To Spank COM/156 October 30, 2011 Parents have different ways of punishing their child. Anything from grounding them from things, making them do extra chores, time outs and spanking them. The most effective of these, is spanking. In a research project by Marjorie Gunnoe, children who were spanked between the ages of 2 and 6 grew up to be happier and well-adjusted as teenagers. Spanking a child is not abuse. It is a means of punishment. You should only use your hand to spank your child.Showing your child they have done wrong, by spanking, will teach them to not do what it is that they did, again. You should never use a belt, shoe, switch, or any other foreign object. Those would be considered weapons, and that would be child abuse. Spanking is not a hateful means of punishment. It shows the child they have done wrong and need to be punished. It is an effective means of punishment. Children learn not to do the same wrong again. A child will grow up happier and well-adjusted by spanking them. The controversy of spanking is worldwide.Opinions differ on pro-corporal punishment and anti-corporal punishment. People who are against corporal punishment believe that spanking is child abuse. They say there are better ways of punish ing a child. People who are for corporal punishment believe that spanking is a good form of punishment, yet they also know there are different ways of punishing a child. Parents who spank their children find it is more effective as a punishment. A research done by Marjorie Gunnoe, psychology professor at Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan, states that spanking is more effective on children ages 2 to 6 years old. It has also been said you should not spank a child under 18 months old or a child over the age of 10. Spanking a child over the age of 10 can have a negative effect and make a child more aggressive growing up. The American College of Pediatricians, or ACP, reviewed the research on corporal punishment and concluded that spanking, as discipline, can be effective on children when it is used properly, but should not be solely relied on to keep your children in line. Spanking your child out of anger, or with anything other than your hand, leaving welts and/or bruises, is co nsidered to be child abuse.Spanking should not be impulsive, spank only with your hand once or twice, and the child should be forewarned of the spanking and reason for the spanking in order for it to be successful. The saying, Spare the rod, spoil the child comes from a biblical proverb (Proverbs 1324) He who withholds the rod hates his son, but he who loves him disciplines him diligently. What this means is, if you dont punish a child when they do wrong, you will spoil them. This goes way back. You want to punish your child for their wrong, and make sure it is effective enough to get the point across.If you dont effectively punish your child, they will think it is okay to keep doing the wrong. Kosciusko County (Indiana) Department of Child Services sees hundreds of cases per year involving child abuse and/or neglect. Of those cases, there is physical abuse such as punching, hitting, kicking, and biting. Yet there are only a handful of cases involving an out of control parent spank ing their child. Tiffany Malone, a caseworker for the DCS, has seen many cases of abuse and neglect. She stated, You can spank your child as long as you do not leave any marks, and you do not spank them with anything except an open hand on the buttocks. It has also been said you can spank your childs feet. been charged with Battery on a minor for leaving excessive marks on their child. In the Indiana Supreme Court case Willis vs. State, Sophia Willis is raising an unruly child and spanked him several times with a belt or extension cord, which lead to marks on the childs arm (from missing the buttocks. ) She ended up receiving 365 days in jail, and had to do 357 of those suspended to probation. The judge stated, This is a tough area of the law. Because you know that a persons intent was not to do a wrong thing. It has also been said, The law is well settled that a parent has a right to administer proper and reasonable chastisement to his child without being guilty of an assault and b attery. By knowing our boundaries and limitations, we can successfully correct our children in a positive way. By spanking them. The mixed reaction by so many is just misunderstanding. No one has to spank a child. When nothing else works, spanking is a last ditch effort. It may be a controversial form of punishment, but it does work. Older children that look back on their younger years are happy they were spanked.They grew up happier, did well in school, and did well as they grew up. There are different laws in different states. Some condone corporal punishment, some do not. Some countries have banned corporal punishment all together. As long as there is no anger or foreign objects involved in spanking a child, it is not considered child abuse. Some psychologists, DCS workers, parents, and courts condone spanking. There are court cases stating it is a parents right to decide whether or not a spanking should be administered.It is also the parents responsibility to react, without ven geance, appropriately while administering a spanking to a child. A parent should not be found guilty of punishing their child no matter. Unless there is a sinister demeanor involved, a parent is completely capable of punishing their own child without chastisement from others. Children are our future and we want nothing but the best for them. By spanking our children, we are teaching them right from wrong and making their future that much brighter and worth looking for. Citations/References http//www. lifesitenews. om/news/archive/ldn/2010/jan/10010507 http//www. mlive. com/news/grand-rapids/index. http//www. cerm. info/bible_studies/Topical/spanking. htmssf/2010/01/is_spanking_children_ok_calvin. html http//www. tldm. org/News11/AmericanCollegeOfPediatriciansSpanking. htm Tiffany Malone- Kosciusko County Child Protective Services, Warsaw, Indiana http//www. in. gov/judiciary/opinions/pdf/08290801mgr. pdf http//www. in. gov/judiciary/opinions/pdf/06100801rdr. pdf http//www. in. gov/j udiciary/opinions/pdf/05311101msm. pdf http//www. in. gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar41/ch3. html
Thursday, February 21, 2019
A literary textbook often acts as a reflection of the ball club of the date in which it was written. The particular pry systems or ideologies of the characters and character groups equal in the text inform the indorser of those characters ethnical identities. In Thea Astleys its raining in mango, the author set ups many internal facsimiles of hea thereforeish individualism element. Through the story of the Laffeys, Astley provides an alternative to the brinystream societys representation of cultural identity element and challenges traditional beliefs regarding Australia.Its raining in mango is lap in Australia, and follows the story of the Laffey family from 1860 to 1980. The characters endure some of the major events in Australias history, such(prenominal) as the gold rush of the 1860s, the depression, both initiation Wars, and the horrific manipulation of the aborigine population. From these events came the Australian identity what brinystream society believed to be the traits and characteristics unique to the typical Australian. From the First World War sprung the legend of the heroic ANZAC, and Australians were regarded as the resilient battler with a watertight sense of humour and laid-back attitude.Camaraderie and mateship were highly orderd. The patriarchal ideologies of the society meant that women were expected to be submissive, and function totally in the domestic sphere, eyepatch men were the providers and bread-winners. olds and other minority groups were marginalised or silenced. The value systems and ideologies that inform the representation of mainstream Australian societys cultural identity argon represented in Astleys text by characters such as the diggers, who believe that the Aboriginal people atomic number 18 non human and the pub owner who hated blacks, but love their pay checks.Other characters who represent the patriarchal values of the society argon the priests with whom Jessica olive and Connie conflict with. However, the tightest representation of the values and ideologies of this society ar reflected by dint of the police, the figures of authority who find it in order to blame a blackskin. The booming way out. All these characters, a pine with the men looking for execute during the Depression, reflect the values and ideologies of mainstream society, which inform representations of the cultural identity of Australians.However, by means of the Laffey family and other character groups, Astley offers an alternative representation of cultural identity. The women in Astleys text offer an alternative to the cultural identity of women in mainstream society. Unlike the women represented in the ideologies of this patriarchal society, the female characters in mango display lastingness and license. Jessica Olive begins as the passive, submissive wife and mother idealised by mainstream society, except moves to challenge this persuasion after Cornelius leaves and she is left to become the manageress extraordinaire.She shows strength, passion and finale when facing hardships, or challenges to her values from characters such as the boarder at her hotel, and spawn Madigan. Connie also proves her independence and strength of character throughout the text. As a child in a convent, Connie has difficulty suppressing her sexuality and for unrivaled silly week she flattened her gently erupting breasts with a broad palm tree band, and then as an adult she goes on to become a strong, self-reliant single mother. Connie, like Jessica Olive, displays passion and determination when she conflicts with another priest, Father Rassini.Mag is another character whose values and beliefs give an alternative to the mainstream notion of cultural identity. When she hides Nelly and her baby from the authorities, Mag displays courage and defiance, and the fact that she speaks for George, her husband, reflects power and strength of character. The prostitutes in the text also show very stron g independence and courage, and their value systems and ideologies inform a representation of cultural identity that challenges the identity ascribed to prostitutes by mainstream society.The value systems and beliefs of the female characters in this text take in a very unalike representation of womens cultural identity in Australia than that ascribed to women by the mainstream patriarchal society of the novel. They create a new cultural identity for women, that of the strong, independent woman. These women have a very strong fellowship to the fine-tune, and focalize family at the centre of their value system, as do most of the main characters in the text. The centralisation of family in the story of the Laffeys is very important in the construction of an alternative cultural identity.Unlike the characters that represent mainstream society, whose families atomic number 18 not mentioned, the Laffeys have a strong, pro rear bond. They represent values and attitudes similar to tho se found in Aboriginal culture, those of respect for, and reliance on, the family. Connie recognises that only the family as she knows it has cohesion, provides a core. She understands the unbreakable bond between her family throughout the centuries, and the fact that they ar inextricably linked to each other by the knowledge that they are Laffeys.The bond between Connie and Will reminds the reader of the importance of family in a time when many families were being ripped apart by the tragedy of the south World War. For the main characters, the family home in Mango is their place of return, a place to come back to for sanctuary and security. This wildness on strong family values informs the reader of a cultural identity that is very different to the one offered by mainstream society, in the text. Along with a strong family connection, the main characters also have a strong connection to the lay.While the settlers in the text saw the land as something to be battled with, the Laff eys learnt to harmonise with the land, and set it as something to be protected. Reever represents the values of the Laffey family through his acting out as a conservationist, and Clytie and Harrys struggle to save their farm during the Depression displays their concern for the land. It is this connection to the family and the land, similar to Aboriginal values, that sets the Laffey familys representation of cultural identity apart from that of mainstream society.The value system and ideologies of the Aboriginal characters, and other characters, inform the reader of the cultural identity of the Aboriginal people. The mainstream society of the text views Aborigines as savage, no-hoper(s), river-tribe layabout(s). This view is clearly denotative throughout the text by the diggers who callously slaughter the blackskins, the pub owner, the police, and especially by the gang in the shut who beat Billy and his family.The Aboriginal population is marginalised by mainstream society. Howev er, Astley, by privileging the point of view of some of the Aboriginal characters, and creating main characters who commiserate with, and share some beliefs and values with the Aboriginal people, has created a cultural identity that is different from that of mainstreams societys beliefs. Aboriginal culture places great emphasis on the unity of the family, and this value is evident in Astleys text.Nelly is willing to run, and insecurity being hunted down, to keep her child, and Billys first concern is his father when they are attacked in a bar. The very strong Aboriginal connection to the land is also evident in its raining in mango. The way the land is described by the Aboriginal characters is beautiful and serene, with its hill(s), grey scrub against blue, the long grasses dry before the big rains, and shows an understanding of the nature of the reason.Bidiggi automatically reaches for the earth to comfort him when his tribe is slaughtered, hiding in the water grass and move as leep under a paperbark. These Aboriginal notions of family, and their connection to the land, provide a representation of cultural identity. The attitudes of other characters also affect the representation of Aboriginal cultural identity in this text. The Laffey family, who are centralised in the text, sympathise with the plight of the Aboriginal people.Cornelius is fired because he writes an article exposing the shocking interposition of Aboriginal people, the child George believes that Aborigines are just the same as clear people, Mag and George protect Nelly and her baby, and Will tries to help Billy in the bar brawl. Because these characters are all centralised, and the reader is encouraged to agree with their values and attitudes, the reader is positioned to see the Aboriginal people as humanised, which provides an alternative representation of cultural identity to that offered by mainstream society.Other character groups are also represented in its raining in mango, and thei r value systems and ideologies inform the reader of their cultural identity. These groups are the soldiers, the hipsters, and the cult members. The myth of the resilient, laid-back Australian soldier is destroy in Astleys text, and replaced instead with the image of a shattered, broken man, plagued by what he has seen. Wills experience of the war, and how he deals with it, are not the same as the romanticised identity created by main stream society.Will is instead constantly apprehensive by the horrific images of his experiences at the front, and though awarded for bravery, he throws the medal in the rubbish because he does not believe that he deserved it. Thus, through Wills reaction to the war, Astley again offers an alternative to the cultural identity created by mainstream society. The hippies are represented as lazy, careless, and free. They believe in love, peace, and freedom, and regularly dumbbell marijuana.The hippies dont have real names, and they are constructed as dr ifters, travelling and despicable whenever the mood seizes them. The values and ideologies of the hippies create their cultural identity, however their attitudes and actions are hypocritical, and position the reader to question the validity of the hippies cultural identity. The members of the cult are constructed as surreal, surrounded by a blue haze. The reader sees them through the point of view of Connie, and the odd characters are almost satirised.Astley uses the cult to organise another attack on institutionalised religion, suggesting that they are no break up than the Father Madigans or Father Rassinis of the world, as they place their absolute trust in the intangible. Their inability to act in an emergency, such as when Connie saves the drowned man, highlights the ineffectuality of their beliefs. The cult members representation of cultural identity is informed through their value systems and ideologies, and is used by Astley to comment on the ineffectiveness of having fa ith solely in the divine, and no faith in self.In Thea Astleys its raining in mango, the author has revealed several representations of cultural identity. She has revealed the cultural identities created by the mainstream society of the text, and then offered alternatives to these assumptions through the story of the Laffey family and other surrounding characters. The value systems and ideologies of these characters are what create the cultural identities for these groups.