Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Healthy People 2020 Evaluation Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Healthy commonwealth 2020 Evaluation - Assignment ExampleObjectives and topic areas push aside never be included without appropriate sources of data. The aim of this data technology has created easy access to the stakeholders.On the other hand, Healthy People 2020 suffer an oblige social economic weakness. The fact that the health of a person is greatly influenced by the environment is square(a) but historically, the world has not been fair enough to embrace social and environmental consciousness in nursing. Poor health is known to be threatened by illiteracy and poverty which are much prevalent in America. In as much as Healthy People 2020 is present to outgrowth the health status of the citizens, it has been incapacitated by the level of poverty and illiteracy in the US (Mischkovsky 2010). whence it cannot carry out its full functions before addressing this problem. Moreover, this is a kind of problem that cannot be corrected employ national policy implementation making it a harder problem to deal with.The US government can ensure the success of the program by providing social economical opportunities to its citizen so as to unravel the crisis from its derivation given that it is a data based program that requires one to have some technical computing machine skills (Nolan,

Monday, April 29, 2019

The Long Road to Brown Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Long Road to cook - Essay ExampleThe display case started in 1951 when the long dozen parents of the town with the assistance and representation by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) started a lawsuit in the US District Court for the District of Kansas over the racial segregation in the schools controversy that divulge facilities were inherently unequal and the segregation itself had a negative effects on the training of African American children (Cozzens, Brown v. Board of Education). After the decision of the lower court was announced, the Browns and NAACP discrete to appeal to the Supreme Court where the key representative and actual winner of the case was Thurgood Marshall. The case challenged the separate but equal doctrine, established by the case of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). According to the concept of the doctrine separate ordinary facilities of equal quality did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution which pro vided for the equal protection of the laws to all citizens of the US. unity of the apprehension was that because of the precedent, the court would tend to rule in favor of the Board of Education (Cozzens). When the case of Brown v. ... The protest demanded the adequate facilities for black Moton school which were extremely unequal in comparison with white Farmville school. The borrow was supported by NAACP that urged the students and their parents to demand the desegregation in the court (Student Strike at Moton advanced). Starting from 1930s NAACP were seeking to challenge the separate but equal doctrine by applying the outline to bring the topic of injustice to the lower courts and then appeal the cases to the Supreme Court. In the particular case NAACP argued that the segregated education was bringing the message of inferiority which could discourage the Black children to study. Those who wanted to keep the status-quo were arguing that since the segregation was inherent eleme nt of the way of life in those places, the segregated education should have been well-kept because it prepared Black children to face the segregation further in their lives (NAACP builds the case). The Brown decision followed by the negative reaction in the South. In several states there were records of violence. In Virginia the Senator Harry Byrd launched the Massive bulwark campaign against the school integration. This campaign gained the support of more than 100 schools on the South. On the community take aim the reaction took the form of the White Citizens Council in order to preserve the Southern way of life applying various methods from public condemnation to legislative lobbying. The importance of the question over how black students would be admitted to schools lied in the quality education for Black children. The integration was a means that guaranteed the proper funding and facilities to all children regardless their race. The better education would obviously put an en d to

Sunday, April 28, 2019

The impacts of motivation on works and staff,which encourage employees Dissertation

The impacts of motivating on works and staff,which march on employees to work in Saudi nonpublic sector - Dissertation ExampleSABIC controls over 10% of the international petrochemical market (30). It has entered into enunciate ventures and partnerships with foreign organizations like Shell, ExxonMobil and numerous other American, European and Asian companies (Cordesman, 2006). SABIC is a true reflection of the inclination of the government of Saudi Arabia to involve private sector investment and participoation in the growth and development of the nation. As such, 70% of SABIC is owned by the government while the remaining 30% distributed among private owners (SABIC, 2011). The government push plans to divest the various company holdings and accelerate the privatization process. In the light of the Saudi Arabias policy to encourage Saudization or to ensure that the private sector organizations employ a substantial number of local anaesthetic employees (), it is meaty to study the factors that help in attracting recruitment and which keep the local employees motivated and loyal to the company. While the Saudization computer program was initiated as early as 2006, with the objective of increasing the private sector local workforce to 30%, the contemporary statistics reveal that the actual fraction of local employees in private sector is less than 10%. ... mean that there is a low level of motivation among the local employees either to get selected in the private sector, or to work in such an organization. This is very little enquiry undertaken within the private sector to understand why the sector lacks in local participation, or what makes it attractive to the expatriates and not the local workforce alone Al-Eisa, Furayyan, & Alhmeoud, 2009). However, this is a major issue that the government of Saudi Arabia is facing, and hence there is a need to study the problem intricately so as to S SABIC provides a dynamic environs where the changes that facilit ate privatization are visible as can be seen in the recent changes to its human imaginativeness policies and packages. The organization employes a vast majority of both local and foreign workers and has been tasked with keeping the workforce practised and qualified as well as motivated to work. A research into the policies, practices and Human resource strategies in SABIC are expected to provide insights about how organizations in Saudi Arabia, especially, the private oraganizations, can motivate and halt their employees. Research Objectives In the light of the above background, the following research objectives are found useful for the current research -To examine the factors that affect employees and staff motivation in Saudi Arabian firms - To define the percentage of motivation in achieving job satisfaction in Saudi Arabian petrochemical organizations. -To find out whether employee motivation is related to higher performance and low employee turnover in the context of Saudi Arabia Research Methods The research is conducted using both primary and secondary methods. The secondary method consists of an exhaustive literature survey and look back where topics like employee motivation

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Medical Law, Morality and Legal Duties Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Medical Law, Morality and heavy Duties - Essay ExampleThe discussion seeks to answer the question Does the righteousness on abortion and euthanasia rebound honorable obligations of society, or communal outlooks? Harts claims that legal duties must be effectively genuine as common public standards of official behaviour. Although a positivist, in that respect are connotations of morality Harts theory, which requires that legal duties correspond to moral obligations in order to have legal effect. If reference is to be do to social norms which provide the basis of validity for legal duties, the propose coincides rather well. Positivists do not disavow a connection between law and morality they argue that legal duties are not bear on by moral obligations. However, heated public debate on abortion and euthanasia strongly advert otherwise. save, it could be argued that despite the fact that many whitethorn disagree with it, the law in the UK prohibits euthanasia. Does this mean that the criminalisation of euthanasia would reflect moral obligations? It can be accurately stated that perhaps the most historic moral obligation is to preserve the sanctity of life. In this respect, legal duties have been created by moral obligations. Yet the law on abortion permits what could be termed as the killing of a human being. How can the law allow acts which essentially obliterate the moral obligation to preserve life? The conflicting elements provided by this proposition highlight the complexity of the interplay between legal duties and moral obligations not every situation is able to be dealt with similarly, despite the fact that it may essentially be based on the same moral or legal basis.9 It is not a simple application of moral obligations to legal duties or vice versa there is a complex interconnection between conflicting rights and clashing elements. Yet the fact that some may not agree with legal duties in relation to these aspects does not necessarily reduce their validity as law per se. Indeed, Kelsen states that the science of law does not prescribe that one ought to obey the commands of the creator,10 though Hart refers to notions of candidness in order to argue the importance of legal duties.11 If one applies this issue to the courtroom, the attention appears to turn to moral obligations as bases of legal duties. Presented with often vague legislative provisions of law, judges must apply much(prenominal) vague terms to complex, real-life situations. Therefore, a law which prohibits

Friday, April 26, 2019

The European sovereign debt crisis during 2010-2011 Essay

The European sovereign debt crisis during 2010-2011 - Essay ExampleHistorically, when a sovereign nations organizational debt exceeds the annual GDP of the country, the risk increases proportionately that the country will default on all or a portion of the debt requirements, particularly in the circumstances where the debt instruments are held by foreigners or in an opposite(prenominal) currency than the national coin. The ability of sovereign nations to generally print money without formal external keep is well established and the example of Zimbabwe is an extreme example of this, but the United States has as well as reached a debt aim that is over $15.5 trillion USD or near 100% of the annual GDP outlook, while the economy is also declining and recessionary,. The U.S. Federal Reserve may also print money to bailout banks in the U.S. and abroad, as it has done by-line the Lehman bankruptcy, but the Eurozone situation is more complex. Nations like Greece now have their debt valu ed in Euros rather than fluid dram and the sovereign is no longer able to print money, deflate the currency, and cover government debts in the bearing of the U.S. central bank. Instead, it appears as if Greece will either default or be bailed out by other Eurozone members, while Wall Street and stock markets around the world react daily to these events and news stories as they herald serious consequences for the international economy that is interconnected during the era of globalization. Political Dynamics of the Eurozone Economy The Eurozone is a policy-making experiment that involves a common currency (the Euro) and a number of sovereign nations that retain their political autonomy in budgetary and domestic affairs while moving together towards ever great unity in government on the supra-national level. This dichotomy has led to the nations of the Eurozone abandoning their national currencies, but still in operation(p) domestically with differing levels of economic productio n, taxation, social expenditures, and national debt levels. The U.K. and Switzerland remain outside of the Eurozone and under their own traditional currencies, the chock up and Swiss Franc. Germany, France, and other Northern European nations are generally seen as being economically stronger than the Confederate European countries, with the acronym PIGS being used for the countries Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain with the worst economic outlook, budgetary problems, and largest national debt requirements in comparison to GDP. Ireland has been considered a part of this group by some (PIIGS), as the country experienced generally the same problems in an overheated banking, real estate, and finance sector which formed a bubble and popped, leaving the taxpayers and national government responsible for the bailout. Yet, while Ireland and Iceland have already crashed previously before the 2008-2009 meltdown in their national economies out-of-pocket to the problems in financial regulati on and overextension of risk taking via leverage in investment banking, the

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Comparison and contrast on short story using literary element Essay

Comparison and contrast on short theme using literary element - Essay ExampleIn many cases, the same symbol thunder mug be used for completely different effects. How one symbol can be used for twain different ideas is revealed when one compares a short floor such as William Faulkners A go for Emily in which a door represents the danger of a closed mind to another short story such as Where are You Going, Where Have You Been? by Joyce Carol Oates in which a door reveals the whoremonger of security.William Faulkners short story A Rose for Emily features the story of Miss Emily, widely considered the town curiosity because she is unbending in her ways and adamant about keeping everything exactly the same. This represents a kind of stupidity in keeping with the treatment she had received from her father, who insisted she always remain his little girl and always remembered her senior high birth status. The world of the present is strange and unrecognizable to Miss Emily, so she st ruggles continuously to keep it in the reallym of the safe and normal she knows her mind is closed to new possibilities. Miss Emily Grierson is introduced as a char who has never been provided an opportunity to become comfortable or familiar with the world outside of her fathers old world ideals. None of the young men were quite good enough to Miss Emily and such. We had dour thought of them as a tableau Miss Emily a slender figure in livid in the background, her father a spraddled silhouette in the foreground, his back to her and clutching a horsewhip, the two of them framed by the back-flung front door (437). This created a situation in which Miss Emily got to be thirty and was still mavin (437), alienated from her society behind the closed door of her home.Miss Emilys inability to relate to the real world outside this alienation is first manifested completely when she refused to acknowledge her fathers change of adduce upon his death. Miss Emily met them at the door,

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 29

Leadership - rise ExampleIn turn, the followers are able to connect effectively with their attracter without fear of any(prenominal) punitive measures against them. In this leadership model, a leader should be able to enhance positive interpolate among his followers. It focuses on the personality of the leader instead of the actions of the same leader. To effect change and impart it among individuals requires a forget me drug of assertiveness which is a must trait that a leader should posses if not learn.The film depicts Coach Carter as having idealized influence over his followers, which is simply the trust people have in him. Transformational leadership as seen in the film builds and maintains mutual trust between follower and the leader. Further, Carter has given his followers more self-direction and voice in making decision concerning them. This makes them feel important since they know that their leader cares about them. This builds a harmonious relationship between employ ees and top management (Bass 36-38). In order to create an atmosphere of trust, the leader can give workers more autonomy, interact with them and create a situation of idealized influence head off misconceptions about their relationship with the management.Transformational leadership facilitates and redefines peoples vision and explosive charge. It also renews peoples loading and restructures their systems to accomplish a certain goal. Thus, a mutual relationship stimulates and elevates follower to become leaders. In addition, it whitethorn also convert leaders to become incorrupt agents. Transformational leadership should therefore be grounded on moral foundations. As seen in the film Coach Carter posses this qualities since he advocates for things that would lead to attainment of the peoples mission and vision.Transformational leadership has been renowned for fostering capacity development to bring higher personal level of inscription among

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Market Segmentation in Sports Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Market Segmentation in Sports - Essay ExampleBy combining the aspects of merchandising and trade into a sports range, sports merchandising is the way expert sports teams and organizations market and distribute their products to the purchaser. The vast preponderance of the marketing take on for sports team is accomplished throughout the playing of the teams games. Professional sports are able to create an implausible inwardness of experience throughout their games since their uniforms, team colors, and logos are on exhibit for the course of the game to both(prenominal) those in attendance, and the people inspection the game on television. Teams use dissimilar tactics and marketing maneuvers to adjoin attention and sales in their apparel. We will spotlight on the merchandising efforts of the Wanderer Football nightspot (WFC), the leader in expert sports organizations in merchandising in America. I will look at the largely merchandising effort as well as how the league markets its elf through a admixture of dissimilar avenues (Stephens, Tim. 2002).Sports and the sess media enjoy a symbiotic relationship. On one hand, the mass media, more than anything else, were responsible for turning organized sports from a relatively minor element of culture into a full-blown favorable institution in America. On the other hand, sports has been the vehicle for bringing dramatic attention to new mass media forms, which in turn have brought new sporting experiences to the public. No doubt, this marriage of sports and the mass media in regular army has enabled each to flourish. Sports sellers are interested in the relationship between sports and the mass media and in how to use the media to gull their messages at sports consumers. In a sense, sport marketing offers a form of narrowcasting, whereby a large radical of consumers with common interests is brought together through sports rasets and programming. The more specific the analysis of the sports-media relationship, the more targeted is the message, and the more effective and decent is the sports marketing strategy in USA (Buccaneers Online). 3. MethodologyMarketing Strategy What strategic issues confront the sports marketer The list is endless, and this section batchs with three of the entries on the list. Licensing products has generated vast amounts of revenue for some teams as marketers take expediency of brand equity in teams and properties. In a sense, the majority marketing engages segmentation of one motley or another. This section examines one method of segmentation and in the process provides a great deal of high-quality advice about segmentation plan.When looking at the merchandising effort of professional sports teams, you must look at the top dog in this, the Wanderer Football Club (WFC) in America. Football is king in the industry in America for a lot of reasons, none larger than the vast attractiveness and reckon of the sport. In a survey by ESPN/Chilton sports, two-thirds o f all Americans consider themselves to be football fans. Maybe even more shocking is

Welfare to work programs Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Welfare to work programs - Term Paper congressmanIt is a requirement for any recipient of CalWORKs who is able-bodied to participate in the activities of the welfare in format to continue receiving support.There are many raisers of these programs, for instance, voluntary organisations as well as private companies. They bring home the bacon this by securing contracts in indian lodge to find employment for the claimants. The payment largely depends on the results and the providers take the gamble until they get the required results. The welfare for work law was put in place in order to limit the time one receives welfare, thus the need to participate in the welfare activities for 32 to 35 hours per week, for every week. The introduction of this new welfare system has sparked different and varying viewpoints and understanding of the informants of the program. The understanding of the informants almost the policy differs greatly from that of the policy makers and the state adminis trators. The informants pointed out the numbers of positive outcomes and benefits of these programs. They pointed out that employment improves their self-image and their self-confidence. The fact that they are able to be productive and get a source of livelihood from it gave them as continues to realize them a sense of achievement and purpose in life. Being employed makes them proud of themselves rather than upright receiving welfare and support that they concur not worked for. The informants also alluded to the fact that the employment programs they receive help them provide materially for their families. They are able to pay for their bills, as well as buy material possessions for themselves and their children. Informants have also highlighted the fact that the day care programs helped their children gain proper socialization. Moreover, they were contented with the fact that working make them value the little time that they spend with their children. In nut-shell informants vi ew the employment programs in terms of the concrete benefits that

Monday, April 22, 2019

Critically evaluate the main ideas and theories in 'The Communist Essay

Critically evaluate the main ideas and theories in The communistic Manifesto by Marx and Engels - Essay Examplehe communist manifesto and it implications to our moodrn times, let us case into the theories of big(p)ism and communism that served as the foundations of the manifesto.Capitalism is one of the most widely discussed theories in the Communist manifesto. Here, Marx discussed at length the effects of capitalism in relation to working class. Marx considers capitalism as a specific mode of production whereby productivity is dictated by the people who controlled the mode of production (Burnham, Peter (2003). Marx sees the worldly-minded corporation as advanced form of social organization whereby the people who controls the wealth also controls production (Marx and Engels, 1948). To signal the value of commodities, Marx presented the idea that value of use of commodities is different from their trade value in the market. He believed that capital is created to when one purc hases commodities to create another commodity that can command a higher value in the market.According to Marx, labor becomes like any other commodity under a capitalist nightspot in the sense that labor earns less value for its service compared to the value that the capitalist derived from labor. A in effect(p) example of this scenario is a person who offers his or her service to a big manufacturing company in exchange for minimum wage. Marx argued that the difference in the value of the service rendered by the employee and the value derived by the employee from the service rendered by the employee is surplus value which the capitalist earned on the expense of labor. (Marx, 1909). Under this principle, since labor has less figure out and power over production, labor is continuously exploited. All throughout the discussions in the communist manifesto, Marx struggled to present how the labor sector is exploited by reason of its status in society which gives it less bargaining power s compared to the bourgeois.For anti-capitalists, the Communist manifesto represents the history of the struggle of the proletariat and

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Invisible racial discrimination in the UK hotel industry Essay

Invisible racial discrimination in the UK hotel industry - Essay drillAmong many other calamities, this has resulted in increasingly strict immigration conditions. Although some initiatives have been taken to boost the relations with the minorities, the racial discrimination inherent in the social mindset and practices persists. The U.K. has one of the highest levels of racially-motivated violence and badgering in Western Europe, and theproblem is getting worse. (Human Rights, 1997 cited in Shah, 2010).This paper discusses the experience of ethnic minority workers in the hotel and catering industry. Research provides evidence of racism faced by the ethnic minority in Britain in various walks of life in general and the hotel and catering industry in particular. The hotel and restaurant industry is cognize for its harsh working environment, specifically for the employees who are from ethnic minorities or migrant community, in terms of viva voce contracts, minimal training, long wor king hours, late-night working, unpaid overtime, unpaid official leave, delayed salary payments, discriminated recruitment, biased promotions, blood line insecurity, bullying, insult and abuse.Racism, as practiced in the British society, can take both visible and covert forms. Indirect discrimination is where there is a requirement, condition, provision, criterion or practice which has an adverse impact onone group disproportionately. However, such discrimination is not unlawful if it can be justified by the employer. (PJH Law, 2009).Indirect discrimination can be regarded as invisible racism. It occurs as a result of regulations or practices which have a detrimental effect on people from a certain race. One deterrent example of invisible racism is the condition by a hotel HR department to hire only those employees residing within a one-mile radius with the hotel in the center, knowing that the majority of ethnic minority resides outside the defined limits, indirectly avoiding a pplications from the ethnic

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Project Web Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

spew Web - Essay ExampleSocial networking indeed has changed our lives and we cannot deny this fact. People of all ages worldwide physical exertion Facebook to share with their friends of whats going on in their lives business pile consider it as an prescribed tool for business communication politics use it as a public relations election and students forget doing their homework but they never forget to refresh their Facebook pages. Social networking has definitely changed communitys understanding of communicational standards. Event though communication has become much easier with appearance of social networks, facilitate they also have caused a lot of social and personal problems for people.The very first thing that has a big influence on peoples lives with appearance of social networking is availability of other(a) people for purposes of communication and quick access to their lives current events. From one side the opportunity to get to know both your acquaintances or unkn own people better satisfies human curiosity about other peoples being. Still in some way social networks have encouraged people to strive to deliver their private lives as more public as it is possible. However, it seems like the tendency to disclose personal look is supposed to help people with low self-esteem to become more comfortable with socialization. Still mental researches on people with low self-esteem showed that usage of Facebook makes them feel even more uncomfortable and worthless for many reasons such as seeing somebody elses success or receiving unpleasant feedbacks from other users of social network services (Forest & Wood 595). First of all, the consequence of revelation of private life makes people unconsciously compete with each other on a matter whose life is better, so they a lot tend to show not exactly what is really going on in their lives but what they involve others to know about their lives. This frequently multiplies fake personalities and dishonest y in human communication. Another

Friday, April 19, 2019

Analysis of Industrial Relations Law Research Paper

Analysis of Industrial transaction Law - Research Paper ExampleHer self-professed aim was to shift the balance of power in effort and restore management prerogative in the workplace. The extent to which her policies succeeded in transforming the character of production politics and industrial performance has been the subject of intense debate. One line of argument suggests that, in contrast to the Donovan reform outline which failed to deliver significant performance gains in the 1970s, Thatchers policies appear to have done the trick (Metcalf 1989). The potent cabal of rising unemployment, tougher labor laws, privatization, and de standard allegedly gave birth to new industrial relations practices in the workplace and a corresponding improvement in productivity and competitiveness.The analysis which follows challenges this perspective. It argues that the system of industrial relations and employment order which came to dominate key sectors of the economy after 1945 was not con ducive to industrial modernization not, it should be stressed, for the reasons cited by proponents of the conventional wisdom, but because the trade unions and opposite regulatory mechanisms were too weak to force firms to abandon progressively outmoded business practices. The presence of a relatively cheap, disposable, and malleable labor force inhibited the process of high wage, high productivity emergence strategies and helped entrench a relatively low wage, low productivity industrial system from which it is now proving difficult to escape. There is also a second sense, which concerns the academician dissect of industrial relations and its relationship to economics. Much more so than in other European countries and the coupled States, there has been a sharp demarcation line in Britain amid the study of the institutions of job regulation and the study of their economic consequences. This may seem an academic point, but it is not without consequence, for this unwelcome div ision of academic labor has served to impede theoretical innovation and entrench established ideas, particularly the conventional wisdom. It is relatively uncontroversial to note that in the three decades after 1945 British industrial performance exhibited significant deficiencies as compared to other leading capitalist economies. Relevant performance measures in this context include outturn and productivity growth rates, the balance of trade, and investment in technology, plant, and people. The evidence of British underperformance is most striking in the case of manufacturing. Comparisons of output and productivity movements across time, sectors, and countries are fraught with measurement problems (Nolan and ODonnell 1995). Nevertheless, the evidence--whatever its shortcomings-reveals a substantial and enduring shortfall mingled with Britains record and that of other leading economies. Fig. 5.1 charts the movements in manufacturing output and exposes a significant and growing gap between Britain and the other countries. For the period shown, domestic output has remained more or less stagnant.

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Background of Chrysler Group LLC Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Background of Chrysler Group LLC - Term Paper exemplarFormed in 2009, the group has been able to develop very many makes of vehicles that have been a study hit in the automotive industry (Breer, 2009. 34). These cars include the jeep, Fiat, the Dodge. However, among all the vehicles produced by the club, Chrysler is the most reputable. The Chrysler from its initial geezerhood back was at a competitive level with other decent makes of cars from rival companies. The companies include widely distributed Motors known for its elegant Cadillac that has been able to survive market limitations and still performing well. The other rival ships company was Ford Motor Company (Rall, 2011). At that time, the company was known for its car, the Lincoln. Ever since the beginning of the competition, the companies have worked knockout to outdo each other in the market. However, Chrysler has always managed to come up on top. Witnessed from the 2009 season when the saving was trending down, the car was able to sustain its sales levels while Ford and General Motors decreased their performance at a 4.5 and 3 percent margin. On November 4, 2009, the Chrysler group set out a road function or rather a plan that would ensure that the Chrysler increased its sales in the industry by a possible triple. The company had planned to achieve a break-even result for the Chrysler by the end of the fiscal twelvemonth 2010. The company had also decided to attain a $1 billion authorise boodle for the Chrysler. The company decided to do this by diversification of its markets. The plan has been on the right track. This is from the results from the financial year ending 2011. The general net income of the company was 212 million dollars for the third quarter of the year. Of the total amount that the company makes in a specified amount of time, the Chrysler contributes up to 65% of the income. Thus, from their financial report produced around January of 2012 showed that the Chrysler do 138 mi llion dollars in sales (Walter, 2011). Further scrutiny of the reports shows that the company had 56 million dollars in net loss by the end of the financial period.

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Tradeoff Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Tradeoff Analysis - Essay ExampleAs the Baderman Island facilities manager, the main reparation task before me is to escape $10,000 handout per calendar week due to the miserable look into of the Visitors Center roof. The only solution of which is the replacement of the roof. The architect has offered deuce-ace options are here to be employ for the replacement1. The inductance appeal of mineral pitch shingles is $20 per square foot is $20, so the make sense monetary value for 10,000 square foot roof is estimated to be $200,000 Asphalt shingles. It will take one week in the installation of the roof. It simply means that the installation period will cause $10,000 more loss due to not being visited by the clients. Hence, the total cost reaches $210,000 in case of installing of Asphalt shingles roof. In addition, the installation will remain valid for the next twenty years, and no cost will be required during these years.2. In case of the installation of tiles, per square cost wi ll be $50 per square foot, with total cost $500,000 for 10,000 square foot roof. In addition, it will take three weeks for the completion of installation process, which will cost $30,000 additional loss as it will remain closed for the visitors for the next three weeks. The aggregate cost will be $530,000, while the lifecycle is expected to be 40 years.3. The architect has given the estimation of $35 per square foot for the installation of composite tiles with the total cost $350,000 for 10,000 square foot roof. Since it takes two weeks to install composite tiles, so additional $20,000 will also be included in the expenditures making the grand total of $370,000, and the expected lifecycle is 30 years.Hence, the installation cost of mineral pitch shingles is $160,000 lower than the composite tiles, while its installation cost is expected to be $320,000 lower than the installation of tiles on roof. Moreover, the installation cost of composite

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Two radio and two television genres Essay Example for Free

two tuner and two video medicational genres EssayIn at to the lowest degree one point in the day, either-one finds themselves tuned into one broadcast station or another, be it radio or television Be it for entertainment, relaxation, to be informed or unspottedly a nitty-gritty of escapism. For whichever reasons it is, radio and television play an active social function in our everyday life whether we atomic add 18 aw be of it or not. Using South Afri butt joint mannequins, this engagement seeks to discuss two radio and two television genres.It is virtually impossible to discuss the issue genre before defining this term. Both the Oxford dictionary as considerably as Creeber (2001), defines genre as sheath or kind. genres allow for the types or kinds of things to be categorised. For example in radio broadcasting, there argon mingled antithetical architectural plans aired, such as twaddle dispositions, medication shows, news broadcasts, drama shows and so o n. Each of these shows argon categorised into a particular genre ground on their citationistics. The two radio genres that will be discussed are palaver shows and music shows. The phenomenon of genre is not exclusive to radio and television alone. In fact according to Greeber, it genre has played an important occasion in the study of literature, theatre, film, television and other art and media forms (Creeber, G 2001 pg.1). wireless-Talk GenreRadio stations like SAFM and 702 are near entirely dedicated to the genre of tittle-tattle show however almost every radio station incorporates this genre if not at least for a few minutes. The success of talk shows lie in participation by the audience. The audience is urged to confabulate into the radio station and either view their opinion on the peakic of discussion or find inquirys to either an officiator or a panel. On SAFM for example, there was a program entitled The Life and mea original of Dr. Bayers Nordea. The show was as the title implies, discussing and talking about Dr. Nordeas life.The show hosted family, colleagues and friends, who spoke about his life. Listeners excessively got the prospect to add their comments, thoughts, as well as pose questions to the panel. The show was also officiated by the host or disk jockey (D.J) of the show, who not only directed most of the discussion, but also made sure that the show, ran smoothly. The nature of talk shows is such that the audience phones in either agreeing or disagreeing to the topic or question organism discussed. This opens the door for others to voice their opinions. According to Barnard (2000), phone-in encourages a free flow of opinion and conversation within the safety of an artificially created community (Barnard, S 2000).With out this element, the talk show would be deemed unsuccessful. Talk shows do not follow a particular protocol, meaning that any topic can be addressed. The mere action of a D.J. posing a question relating to any to pic and receiving feedback from the audience constitutes the genre of talk show to be exercised. As any topic makes way for talk shows, it is common to find baseborn inserts of talk show, even within a primarily music radio station. Highfeld Stereo is an example of a South African music radio station. It is common to find a situation where a D.J. poses a question and opens the lines to receive feedback. The D.J is thus officiating a talk show, within a music show. Listeners of talk shows however, are required to concentrate on the discussion if they are to understand what is being discussed, thus ones economic aid cannot divert from one thing to another. For example, one cannot talk to a friend on the phone, as well as remain focused on the discussion.Radio-Music GenreAlthough there is audience participation in the music genre, it differs from that of the talk genre. Regarding music radio, the audience is urged to call in to send dedications to friends or loved ones, choose songs they offer to hear, or vote for their favourite song quite than voice their opinions on a matter. Music as a genre is not so clear-cut like talk shows. Within the music genres, there are sub-genres, where by music is categorised according to style. Rock, rave, hip-hop and pop would all be examples of sub-genres of the music genre.The music genre requires less attention from the listener to be focused on the show. Namely, the listener can do various other activities without loosing out on the entertainment. For example, while cause a car and pore on the road, or while working at ones desk, one can continue to listen to his or her favourite song and not be side tracked. Unlike the talk genre where if one was driving a car and focusing on the road they would more than likely loose track of what was being discussed-alternatively, they would possibly have an accident. As the genre implies, the emphasis in music shows is in fact music. consequently it is common to find very little tal king by the D.J. and more music being played. The show usually consists of normal songs in the specific sub-genre being aired. This genre also usually has a top 40 show, where the 40 most popular songs are aired. This is commonly kn experience as contempory hit radio (Tomaselli/de Villiers 1998). 5FM radio station for example has the Coca-Cola Top 40 music show which is aired every sunshine morning from 1000- 1400.Other radio stations like East Coast Radio host the Top 10 at 10 show, which airs the 10 most popular songs every Tuesday night at 2200. These songs which make it onto the top 10 or top 40 lists, are songs which have been voted for by the public. Jacaranda FM in contrast to the mainstream radio stations of say 5FM for example would air music of a different sub-genre, however one would still find the most popular tracks of that specific sub-genre being aired, as well as top 10 shows occurring. In the music genre, the D.Js capital job is to play music and possible talk a l ittle bit about the mechanic of the track, rather than being an officiator or a mediator of discussion, as is show in talk radio.Television-Documentary GenreAs the term documentary implies, these shows are usually fact based and require research to be done on the particular topic being showed. Events are documented by a squad of researchers and aired to the public.An example of a documentary would be found in the SABC 2 show 50/50. This is a documentary program that focuses on various aspects of the wild life. Documentaries however could focus on a variety of topics, including an event, somebody or idea. As the emphasis of documentaries is on information, enlightenment and facts, spectator pumps usually abide documentaries as a means of being informed, rather than being entertained. The nature of documentaries is such that each occurrence is fully formed and has a definite conclusion even if left as an enquiry for the viewer to think about what they have just viewed. This all ows the viewer to evaluate their knowledge of the topic against that of the show. Documentaries are also not usually serial form, as would be the case in a sitcom for example. Rather, they be given to be self-contained episodes with definite endings. Documentaries usually also adopt a narrative structure psychological relationship of the viewing audience to the program.The viewer is often addressed directly, in run to persuade the actual person watching at home that he or she is the you to whom the addresser is speaking (Allen,C 1992 pg. 118). This also keeps the viewer interested in the show as well making them feel as if they actively involved in what is breathing out on. Due to the fact that documentaries are not entertainment focused and are rather a means of transferring information, events, people or animals being documented are portrayed as realistically as possible. Animals, which are filmed in the 50/50 program, for example are filmed in their natural environments, rat her than in zoos, in order to give the viewer the most realistic experience. As they are based on real occurrences, documentaries, unlike entertainment programmes such as sitcoms, do not focus as much on a specific plot.Television-Soap OperaAs ooze operas were originally targeted at the feminine audience (Brown, M 1994), it is not surprising to find that many of the central characters within this genre are women. More importantly, they are strong, powerful and influential characters, rather than the stereotype housewife women. SABC 3 airs the soap opera Isidingo. Charel de Villiers and Leigh Haynes are two examples of strong, powerful and ambitious characters that play central roles in the show. It is important for these kinds of characters to exist, in order for the audience to which the show is targeted at to be able to relate.They women recognise some of there own identity in this product created by the media (Brown, M 1994). People watch soap operas for a number of reasons. T he fact that they are socialize, allows the viewer to unwind, relax or escape from the stresses from every day life, for the duration of the show, as the audience get lost in the reality of the program (Anderson, M 2004). Viewers could also be using the decision-making techniques and outcomes of the soap opera to work through their own issues (Anderson, M 2004).Isidingo is an example of a program that deals with AIDS-an issue that the whole of South Africa is facing it also provides solutions in the form of Nandipe-a married women infected with HIV. Her domineering attitude allows her to live a productive life. Viewers may see Nandipe as a role model. Those viewers infected with HIV may in fact even echo her actions in order to try and increase productivity in their own lives. Characters in soap operas are usually found in the form of multiple characters (Brown, M 1994) meaning that characters emphasize the group over the individual (Brown, M 1994 pg 53), thus many people can rela te to one specific character. This also makes way for viewers to find similarities between themselves and various other characters rather than one particular character.Brown believes that rather than relating to characters in soap operas, viewers implicate themselves to various characters, meaning that the viewer will see similarities between a particular character, or even characters, but when the character acts in a way that the viewer does not agree with, or feel comfortable with, the viewer will distance him or herself from the character (Brown, M 1994). Soap operas adopt a visualization style, which gets the viewer to focus and identify with a specific character (Brown, M 1994 pg. 53). On a radio talk show for example, a TV viewer called in with the opinion that the Isidingo villianess, Cherel de Villiers should be punished, as if the viewer could not differentiate between reality fiction. (Anderson, M 2004). simply actors who play villainous characters are shunned offset by the public (Anderson, M 2004).It is not only the relatable characters and entertaining style of soap operas that keep the audience hooked. It is also the continuous open-ended nature of episodes, set in the present and containing a number of alternating story lines which gives the audience sense of continuous pleasure (Brown, M 1994, pg. 58). The fact that soap operas resists narrative closure, meaning that the story is continuous and never ending, means there is eternally hope for the upcoming (Anderson, M 2004). Thus viewers will continue to watch future episodes in order to come closer to seeing what will happen at the end (which never sincerely comes). John Davies (1984)suggests about soap opera viewers that once hooked, they vacillate between their need to know, or the pleasure of anticipation that keeps viewers watching (Brown, M 1994).In discussing two radio and two television genres with reference to two South African examples, it is evident that the complexities and intr icacies of various broadcasts and genres are not as unsubdivided as one would imagine. As seen above, various genres and broadcasts draw in different audiences, and evoke various different responses in the viewer or listener. As technology continues to move forward, where will these broadcasts find themselves in the future? For now though, radio and television will continue to play an active part in almost all of our lives.BIBLIOGRAPHYAllen, Robert C. 1992. Televisions modes of address the social context of T.V. viewing. In Channels of Discourse, reassembled. 2nd ed. Edited by Robert C. Allen. capital of the United Kingdom Routledge.Anderson, Muff. Soapies mirror SAs soul. Mail Guardian. 24 March 2004.Barnard, S. 2000. Studying Radio. New York Arnold Hodder.Brown, Mary Ellen. 1994.Ch. 3 Soap opera and womens talk The pleasure of resistance. Thousand Oaks Sage.Creeber, G. (ed.). 2001. Introduction What is genre? In Creeber, G (ed),The television genre book. capital of the United K ingdom British Film Institute, 1-7.Teer-Tomaselli, R and de Villiers, C. 1998. Radio Theatre of the Mind. In De Beer, A (ed). Mass media toward the Millennium. Pretoria wagon train Schaik, 147-175.

Sports And Games Essay Example for Free

Sports And Games EssaySports and Games are essential for many reasons.They non but help us to swan good health but also foster friendship and goodbehaviour.Many people think that the aim of sports and games is to take in gold medals in olympic games.That is not at all important.what is important is that either boy and every girl in our country should be provoke in sports and games. Being interested in games does not mean merely watching other people play games.They should devote at least an hr a day to sports and games.sports and games must be given as much importance as faculty member studies in our scools and colleges.Marks must be awarded for proficiency in mathematics and physics. Most of us are interested in sports but in our country we jargoon take sports as a career its sound a game this should be changed because in china many of them are adopted for sports they dont even do their education properly their only aim is to shine in Spitsbergens of that only they ge tting medals and first power in Olympics but in our country its not like that it should be change then only we will get medals.Sportsmen have often to live together while undergoing training and voiceicipating in competitions.They understand one another and learn to make the adjustments for corporate life.They learn to respect one anothers individuality.In other words,they learn the virtue of tolerance.In the US, the most popular is football. In Canada, its hockey. In Mexico, its soccer. In all of rally America except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, its soccer since in those Cuba and Puerto Rico the favorite is baseball. In all of South America, its soccer. In all of Africa its soccer. In all of Europe its soccer except for some icy countries like Finland where they cant play soccer so its snowboarding and hockey. In most of the Middle East, its soccer. In India, which has about 1.2 billion people, its playThe importance of sports and games is being increasingly recognised in India, f rom both the educational and social points of view. More and more(prenominal) funds are being allocated for encouraging sports in schools, colleges and universities in fact, sports have become an essential part of the curricula. Time was when only a few students, who were fond of games like hockey, football, cricket or tennis, were allowed special facilities.

Monday, April 15, 2019

Oceans support Essay Example for Free

Oceans wear EssayWhat would happen to the earths terrestrial and aquatic species (a) if almost(prenominal) of the worlds oceans disappeared and (b) if most of the worlds shore up disappeared? a) More than two- thirds of the earths surface is covered with oceans. These oceans support up to nine tents of the habitable environmement without which most the living organisms lead perish. Several life forms are supported by the oceans. The coral reefs, salt marshes and sea grass beds are exampls of ocean environments which support a large result of species which live in symbiosis. It is vital to note that ocean water support land- dwelling organisms.The oceans influence the clime andd weather thus affecting life on land. The water from the ocean evapo localizes and rises. It then cools and forms rainfal which is important for the selection of land -dwelling organisms. The rainfall is also the basiss of rivers and lakes. It can therefore be concluded that if the oceans disapeare d, most of the living organisms result dissapear. Perhaps a few organisns will remanin from the little water available but eventually it will dry up and no more life on earth. b) If most of the land disapeared, most land vegetation would dissapear.This means less nutriment for land fleshlys hence most land animals would die. Some aquatic animals depend on land for reproduction. Thus lack of land may relieve oneself extinction of such animals. This may ca physical exercise imblance of life in the ocean causign the death of more life. It can be argued that most organisms would dissapear but some aquatic animals will survive. Why do deserts and arctic tundra support much(prenominal) smaller biomass of animals than do tropical lumbers? Why do most animals in tropical rain forest live in its trees? Arctic tundra occur at high latitudes. They receive little water as precipitation.Howewer, their soil remains wet since there is little evaporation due to depression temperatures. Also the low temperatures lead to freezing of the soil thus prevenitng underground drainage. The low temperature affects the soil and climate in ordinary and cannot favor the survival of many animals. This impplies low biomass. In the deserts there is a lot of warmheartedness and lack of water. Therefore desert animals must develop serveral adaptations in order to survive. Most are noctunal. cod to extra care the animals need to survive, they may not get favourable conditions for cohabiation hence low enumerate of reproduction.Most animal species cannot survive in the desert leading to low biomass. On the other impart toripical forests receive much rain and warmth throught the year and therefoe consist of tallish trees. Due to availability of food and favourable climate many animals live in the forets. The animal reproduce faster than in the deserts. This results to a greater biomass. Many animals in the forest live in trees since they realise to adopt themselves to the forests. The trees are tall and therefore the animals have to climb to find food and sunlight. The insects and birds mostly depend on nector which has to be implant high up the trees.How would you serve to someone who argues that we should not worry about our effects on earthy systems because natural succession will heal the wounds of human activities and restore the balance of nature? If nature is go forth alone it will always heal itself. Human activities deplete natural resources at a rate faster than it can sustain. Due human activities, there has been destruction of habitats. Forests have been destroyed which will murder several years to recover. In the seas and oceans, there has been overexploitation of search which bring about imbalance of aquatic ecosystems.Many fish species have become extinct which affects all organisms in the food chain. Human activities have also brought about global warming which has led to climate change. This change leads to extinction of plant and anima l species. Man has also brought in some alien species of plants and animals which may affect those organisms in their natural habitat. How would you reply to someone who contends that efforts to preserve natural systems are not worthwhile because nature is largely unpredictable? superstar can argue that nature is unpredictable. However, most of the ways of nature are known.For instance it is known fish eat planktons. It is expected that if there is overfishing, there would be excess of phytoplankton. This will affect all other members in the food chains. Consequently marine life would be affected. Excess phytoplankton may decay and cause further damage. Some members in the food chain may become extinct. Also careless use of chemicals affects the sea life thus destabilizing the sea life. Inasmuch natural disasters and the course of nature may cause damage, deal harmful activities cause great damage quickly than would have been caused by natural disasters.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Internal Curing Concrete Essay Example for Free

inbred Curing Concrete EssayEarly-age cracking, autogenous shrinkage and self-desiccation be almost inevitable problems for cover, especially for host naughty death penalty concrete, for the permeability of which is too low for external bent piddle to get in and amply hyd enumerate the cementum paste inside. The cave in hydration of the cement paste, the s giddy and smaller cracks the concrete put on, and the better strong suit and reliability the concrete constructions do. In order to solve this problem, scientists let consider an un conventional methods to resume the concrete from the inside discover so a better hydration rear end be achieved. As primal as 1957, Paul Klieger1 have mentioned how helpful the sodding(a) lightweight totality of moneys would be to supply interior(a) readiness pissing and improve the coherent- verge strength in his report. Nowadays, this method as inwrought solidification has been fully developed and widely utilise to ge t low-cracking naughty-performance concrete with better hydration by convertment fictional character of natural fine summations with saturated lightweight piths. The goal is clear and simple, but the ways to achieve the alike(p) purpose is various and have different advantages and disadvantages. In this report, several techniques and worldlys with different properties that could be used in internal curing, much(prenominal) as expanded shale dust or slate(ESCS)2 and Superabsorbent polymers( fatigue)3, would be introduced and comment. intimate curing has a good performance especially in fields like mass concrete, or eminent performance concrete with low permeability. The properties why internal curing is a practical consideration for these instances would be discussed in this report.1 Introduction 1.1 Background Concrete has m whatsoever good properties as modern building material. It has high compression strength, fire proof, and cheap to produce. Since the using of concr ete has a long history, the techniques of concrete expression structure may be fully developed. However, thither still are both(prenominal) problems that almost inevitable for concrete, such as self-desiccation, autogenous shrinkage and chemic shrinkage. All of these issues may lead to cracking of concrete, and the chloride may pass through through the cracks easily and cause corrosion of the reinforcement. As we all know, most of the failures of concrete structures are callable to the corrosion of the reinforcement. Hence, concrete with little cracks or later to have cracks may contribute to a lasting emolument life of a concrete structure.Whats to a greater extent, most of these unwanted cracks develop at the betimes-age of concrete placing. Thats why proper curing, which pin atomic piles the advance(prenominal) shrinkage and degrades the chance of early-age cracking, is so important to ensure the concrete develop the required properties and durability to reach the ir designed service life. Conventional curing uses methods to depart special irrigate to keep high congenator humidity on the concrete come near, such as ponding and misting, or uses curing compounds, plastic membrane and evaporation retarder to slow evaporation. No matter irrigate adding or wet loss avoiding work mostly on the upper part of concrete, since the permeability of concrete is limited, the deeper inside concrete, the harder for water to penetrate.On the other hand, self-desiccation (the diminution of the internal relative humidity in the concrete due to hydration response) forget lead to autogenous shrinkage (concrete intensiveness change occurring without moisture transfer to the environment) even without external moisture loss. Concrete shrinkage over time , will induce cracking that can reduce the service life expectation of concrete structure severely. In short, even proper conventional external concrete curing can non provide perfect environment for concr ete to develop its durability efficiently. Since 1980s, the end product of high-performance concrete(HPC) became more common, and to achieve their much higher strength and durability properties, swallow water cement ratio and lower permeability is required.The self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage problem became even more severe a situation for HPC than for ruler portland cement, because external curing water would be more difficult to penetrate deeply into the low permeable concrete to supply the loss water due to hydration and evaporation. When shrinkage happens, cracking is almost inevitable. Concerning a long time situation, internal relative humidity has a strong relationship with free autogenous shrinkage.1.2 Internal curing Is there any solution that can settle down this problem? Or is there a way that can cure concrete more efficiently so can limit the cracks? The answer is yes. Since curing concrete from outside in has its limit, deeper part inside the concrete canno t be corned properly, how about cure concrete from inside out? As early as 1957, Paul Klieger 1 have mentioned how helpful the saturated lightweight aggregates would be to supply internal curing water and improve the long strength in his report. In 1991, Philleo 2 suggested incorporating saturated lightweight fine aggregate into the concrete mixture to provide an internal source of water to replace that consumed by chemical shrinkage during hydration of the paste. Nowadays, this method that use water-containing materials , replacing with normal aggregates to cure concrete, has been well developed and been named as internal curing. Such water-containing material could be saturated lightweight fine aggregates, superabsorbent polymers, or saturated wood fibers. Internal curing has been defined by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) as supplying water throughout a fleshly placed cementitious mixture using reservoirs, via pre-wetted lightweight aggregates, that readily release water as needed for hydration or to replace moisture lost through evaporation or self-desiccation2 Benefits of internal curing Internal curing distributes the extra curing water throughout the 3-D concrete microstructure so that it is more readily useable to brinytain saturation of the cement paste during hydration, avoiding self-desiccation in the paste and reducing autogenous shrinkage. Along with this carry through, the main benefits bring about by internal curing may be concluded as at a lower place2.1 Reducing cracks due to shrinkage Concrete is susceptible to plastic shrinkage cracking at early age, especially when the evaporation rate is high. Right after placing, the concrete paste is still in a fluid state. The aggregates and cement particles tend to settle down due to gravity, while internal water is belike to bleed out onto the approach. Such layer of water will keep the evaporation of the concrete surface in a relatively constant rate. But this situation wont last for a lo ng time after the cement particles polish off each other and start to develop strength. The rate of settlement will highly reduce along with much less water bleeding.During this period, highly flexible stress occur inside the concrete due to surface tension of drying out internal water. Because at this time, concrete is under a plastic state but having develop enough strength to stand pat this tensile stress, cracks will occur. For internal curing concrete, the pre-wetted aggregates will provide water to replenish the evaporation from the surface of concrete. It discharges the pores within the hydrating cement pastes fluid filled and thus helps to reduce the tensile stress. Shrinkage will be much less sever and cracks will less likely to happen. Besides limiting the happening of cracking, internal curing also contributes to delaying the age of cracking. As the volume of pre-wetted aggregates increases, the age of cracking is delayed, until an asymptote appears to be reached when sufficient pre-wetted aggregates has been added tally to the research done by Schlitter et al (2010).32.2 Long-term strength gaining Cement particles inside concrete end most of hydration in the first 28 days, but the cement particles have not been completely render after 28 days. Some unhydrated cement remain in the concrete and takes time to continue hydration. Thats the reason why as time goes by, the strength of concrete will increase even after a long period of time. For lower water cement ratio concrete, the required time to be fully hydration is prolonged. As to very low water cement ratio concrete, it may even be impossible for it to be fully hydrated. The hydration will stop when there is no longer capillary water available. In conventional curing, the capillary water inside the concrete will soon run out after early hydration, and the external water is not easy to penetrate into the concrete to hydrate the unhydrated cement particles. By using internal curing method, after most of the capillary water been used, the internal relative humidity drops, and the pre-wetted aggregates will provide water for cement to keep hydrating steadily for a longer time. As for the using of light-weight aggregates to provide internal curing, the reduction strength due to the light-weight aggregates can be compensate by this long-term strength gaining.2.3 Reduction of permeability The principal contribution of internal curing results in the reduction of permeability due to a significant extension in the time of curing. It was shown that extending the time of curing increase the volume of cementitious products formed which caused the capillaries to become segmented and discontinuous.Reducing permeability leads to less penetration of aggressive agents that cannonball along corrosion of embedded reinforcement. This decrease in permeability results from internal curing could obviously enhance the durability of concrete structures.2.4 Working well with SCM Environment problem have been paid more and more perplexity by people today. In order to lower carbon footprint for using concrete, replacing cement with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs i.e., silica fume, fly ash, metokaolin, calcined shales, frames and slates) is suggested as a way to use substantially less clinker. SCMs (except for silica fume) take longer time to hydrate, therefore requiring water to be present for a longer time. While more than one research has shown both internal curing and SCMs improve long term durability performance. Luckily, recent work has shown that internal curing works particularly well with SCMs. Internal curing enables the SCMs in these mixtures to react for a longer time, since the higher water content needed to support the reaction of the SCMs can be maintained.2.5 Improving behavior of the contact zone Contact Zone refers to two distinctly different phenomena (1) the mechanical adhesion of the cementitious matrix to the surface of the aggregate ( 2) the variation of physical and chemical characteristics of the transition layer of the cementitious matrix close to the aggregate particle (ASTM STP 169 D 2006 Chapter 46 Holm Ries). In the contact zone, the C-S-H is not evenly distributed in the outer product, and porosity is greater at aggregate surface within 15-50m. Whats more, the obvious elastic difference between aggregate and the surrounding cementitious matrix make the transfer of stress from multitude cement paste to stiffer aggregate causes softening(microcracking) in interfacial transition zone. High incidence of interfacial cracking or aggregate debonding will have a serious effect on durability if these cracks fill with water and subsequently freeze.All of these factors make the contact zone a weaker location in the concrete. By using internal curing, more internal water can be provide around the aggregates and lead to a better hydration at the interfacial transition zone, which decrease the porosity and increase the strength. The lower permeability also contributes to the difficulty for the chloride to penetrate. Whats more, the lower modulus of the light weight aggregate and the improved transition zone around the light weight aggregate particles due to their generally vesicular surface, helped reduce stress concentrations between the paste and the aggregate and those reductions subsequently trim the amount of early-age cracking in the concrete.3 Material and methods for internal curing As long as the principle is the same, different ways can be applied to achieve internal curing. Besides of light weight aggregates, the properties of other techniques and materials will be presented in this chapter. And their advantages and disadvantages will be commented.3.1 Bentonite clay Bentonite is an absorbent atomic number 13 phyllosilicate. It has a high specific surface, most of which more than 100 m2/g, and this property enables them to adsorb several molecular(a) layers of water between their p latelet structures 10. The absorbed water is held by secondary chemical bonds and the bentonite may fop up to 14 times as its original volume as a result of the water submersion. If the relative humidity in the surroundings is lowered, this water is reversibly released. Potentially, bentonite or other layered clay minerals may be used as a water reservoir for internal water curing. However, there still one important problem remain to be solved for the application of bentonite. In high ionic media, such as in cementitious materials, these clays agglomerate and form a compact structure instead of spreading out evenly 11. And whether inducing same charge into bentonite as water reducer do to make the bentonite particles repel from each other could solve this problem remain to be investigated. examine3.2 Superabsorbent polymers A superabsorbent polymer, wear, is a polymeric material which is able to absorb a significant amount of tranquil from the surroundings and to retain the liq uid within its structure without dissolving 12, bores are principally used for take up water and sedimentary solutions. With the present polymer types the theoretical maximum water absorption is approx. 5000 times their own weight. However, the absorbency of commercially produced SAPs is around 50 g/g in dilute salt solutions such as urine, and in high ionic solutions such as cement paste pore fluid the absorbency may be below 20 g/g 13. The absorption of water in the SAP is based on secondary chemical bonds, and the water is so loosely held that all of it essentially can be considered bulk water. Most SAPs are cross-linked polyelectrolytes. Because of their ionic nature and interconnected structure, they absorb large quantities of water and other aqueous solutions without dissolving. SAPs have tack a widespread use as a high-tech material e.g. for contact lenses, breast implants, fire fighting, drug delivery, in baby diapers and as soil conditioners. Todays sphere production ex ceeds 500,000 tons per year of which about 85% is used for baby diapers 14.Figure 5.1 Superabsorbent polymers are swellable substances which can absorb many times their own weight of liquids by forming a gel. The absorbed liquid is not released even under moderate pressure 12. The picture shows a dry, collapsed and a swollen suspension polymerized SAP particle. A description of the use of SAP for internal water curing can be found in the literature 2,13,15. Compared with lightweight aggregate SAP has some peculiarities. SAP can be used as a dry concrete admixture since it takes up water during the mixing process. Furthermore, the use of SAP permits free design of the pore shape and the pore size distribution of the hardening concrete, however, the pores introduced by the SAP in the concrete may preferably be selected in the lay 50-300 m.3.3 Crushed Returned Concrete Aggregates Recycled aggregate consists of stone particles with mortar from the original concrete attached to them. Th e volume fraction of this mortar may amount to 20 to 60%, and results in a significantly higher water absorption of recycled concrete aggregates compared to conventional aggregates 8. The relatively high water absorption of recycled aggregate, however, may be difficult to utilize for internal water curing. The cement paste fraction of recycled aggregate will, typically, have a fine and tight pore structure which cannot supply water to the coarse pore structure of a hydrating cement paste at early ages. For this reason, recycled aggregate may be less useful than normal aggregate for internal water curing. However, some experiments have shown promising results for recycled aggregate. By blending the crushed returned concrete aggregates with an appropriate lightweight aggregate sand, a substantial reduction in autogenous shrinkage will be achieved, with minimal reduction in long term compressive strength. The mortars based on light weight aggregate sand substitutions alone provided the highest compressive strengths and the sterling(prenominal) reductions in autogenous shrinkage. But, blending the crushed returned concrete aggregates with the light weight aggregate sand may provide the optimum mixture in terms of material costs and sustainable development.ICwCCA3.4 Artificial LWA spread out Shale, Clay and Slate Lightweight Aggregate The Earth has been producing LWA from volcanoes since the beginning of time. This natural material, however, is inconsistent and very lowly is suitable for making concrete. ESCS is specially made for concrete and has been manufactured from surfacemined raw shale, clay or slate for nearly 100 years. (ESCS raw materials typically do not have any other conventional purpose in the construction industry because they are too soft.) The raw materials for ESCS production are placed into a rotary kiln at approx. 1200C until it turns into a strong consistent material which is called expanded shale, clay or lightweight aggregate or just ESCS for short. ESCS is a uniform, high quality, ceramic aggregate thats about 1/2 the weight of natural aggregates.Pores are created in ESCS during the manufacturing process as gases escape due to the application of heat. The newly created pores are ideally suited to accommodate the absorption of water, much like a sponge. ESCSs greatest contribution is its ability to desorb water. Unlike a sponge, it does not have to be squeezed for the water to be released. This characteristic naturally permits water to egress or be desorbed from the pores of pre-wetted ESCS when the cement demands more water during the hydration process. The physical ability of the pores to manage water movement is the mainstay to internal curing. However, the manufacturing heating process of ESCS is relatively expensive. Moreover, compared with other lightweight aggregate, ESCS has a relatively fine and less continuous pore system, a large part of the pores are closed. Some of the pore water is held down to at lea st RH=70%. Consequently only a part of the water held in ESCS will be useful for internal curing 6.3.5 Natural LWA Perlite and Pumice Perlite is a naturally occurring silicious, glazed rock which contains 2-6% combined water. When quickly heated to above 900C, the crude rock expands 4-20 times its original volume as the combined water vaporizes and creates countless tiny bubbles. This results in a bulk density in the range 30-400 kg/m3, and a water absorption of 200-600%. Perlite has found multiple uses such as for filtration, as an abrasive and within horticulture to provide aeration and moisture retention. However, perlite is primarily used within the construction area for suit as concrete aggregate and as a cavity-filling insulation. Disintegration of perlite particles has been observed during mixing due to their high porosity and consequently low strength 18. This may have adverse effects on the concrete. amply saturated, the water content of perlite may be 4.5 kg/kg 18. Pum ice is a porous volcanic rock which resembles a sponge, see Figure 5.2. The porous structure is formed by dissolved gases which are precipitated during the cooling as the lava hurtles through the air. All types of magma may form pumice. The connectivity of the pore structure may range from completely closed to completely open. A representative value for the absorption of pumice is 0.27 kg/kg 18.

Friday, April 12, 2019

Gothic literature Essay Example for Free

Gothic literature EssayIn response to the question is knightly literature purely escapist? considering Austens Northanger Abbey and Walpoles novel The Castle of Ontranto, which is recognized as exquisite much establishing the music genre, the answer is yes. Castle of Ontranto Brief Plot summary The plot of Castle begins full swag as Conrad, son of Manfred of house Otranto, is crushed by a giant helmet on his wedding day, likewise his birthday. Because of the marriages political connections, Manfred decides to divorce his wife, Hippolita, and marry Conrads betrothed, Isabella. Amid speculations about an ancient prophecy claiming That the castle and lordship of Otranto should pass from the present family, whenever the sincere owner should be grown too large to inhabit it, Manfreds second union is disrupted by a series of supernatural events involving many oversized limbs, ghosts, mysterious blood, and a true prince (Wikipedia). Castle of Ontranto represents the quintessentia l Gothic story. It created the genre. Key examples of this place be seen as follows1 Note that Gothic literature is escapist through the use of contrasting specific elements to create conflict and draw the attention of the reader. (the main ideas or so common in these two novels are horror vs romance, good vs evil, and the element of mystery basically the cognize vs the unknown. ) The Castle of Ontranto opens with the line Manfred, Prince of Otranto, had one son and one daughter the latter, a most beautiful virgin, decrepit eighteen, was called Matilda (chp1). This is a very fantastic scenario from the main character being a Prince to the daughter being a beautiful eighteen year old virgin in an era when many women in esteemed families were married off by the age of 14. The author goes on to point out how the son Conrad tierce years younger than Matilda is deplorable sickly frail and pale. The act of immediately contrasting Conrads ugly sickliness with Matildas beauty and pu re virginity, significantly defines the gothic genre, which is literally defined as an important genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. -Another important contrast other than horror and romance is good and evil. This can be seen in Walpoles novel through the differences in the characters. The Castle of Otranto revolves around a damn that has been placed upon the family of Manfred, controlr of the principality of Otranto. The curse is slightly ill defined, but apparently threatens the end of Manfreds rule and destruction of his family. Manfred is a greedy man who plots and schemes to outwit this curse.He is clearly the villain of the novel and contrasts strongly with the three leading women, Hippolita his wife, Matilda his daughter and Isabella the intended wife of his son. These women represent the forces of good throughout the novel. eyeshade Heroines in gothic books as well as in contemporary horror is a common theme a major example of this bein g emphasized in Northanger abbey can be seen when Austen says,Chapter 1 except from fifteen to seventeen she was in training for a heroine she read all such works as heroines must read to supply their memories with those quotations which are so serviceable and so soothing in the vicissitudes of their eventfuly lives. (page 9) NOTE examples of Romance as a theme in Northanger Abbey Friendship is certainly the finest balm for the pangs of disappointed love. Jane Austen, Northanger Abbey In every power, of which taste is the foundation, excellence is pretty fairly divided between the sexes. Jane Austen, Northanger Abbey, 1818

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Internal combustion engine Essay Example for Free

Internal combustion engine EssayThere is a large-minded debate about the future of the auto industry. The new big topic is electrical automobiles. Ads emphasize how overmuch less pollution these autos put out, but the truth is that many people do not pull the downside of these gondola railway cars. For instance, did you know that average battery cost for electric cars is between $18,000 and $20,000? Also, these cars produce significant more amounts of treat dioxide comp ard to traditional internal combustion engines, and what about the factories that burn billions of tons of coal everyday to produce electrical energy to charge these cars?Yes, these cars do produce little coke dioxide directly, but the main source of pollution comes indirectly from the power plants that power these cars. Electric cars be not the best environmental solution in the yen run because they still cause pollution while charging and producing them, there is no safe place to lock away of the b atteries, and they be extremely expensive (Hogan). The first major issue with electric cars is that the motion of manufacturing and charging these cars produces billions of tons of carbon dioxide emissions.The EPAs research shows that for an average size car, electricitys emissions ar about three generation higher than the emissions of mishandleoline (Inside Climate Staff). Electric cars do not produce much pollution directly. sort of the pollution is rather created at the source of the energy, power plants. Pollution is caused when manufacturing and producing these cars too. In accessory, large amounts of pollution be produced while mining for the metals found in the new types of batteries. every of the mining machines and vehicles are powered from dodo fuels such as coal, gasoline, and diesel fuels.A great amount of energy is lost in the process of transmitting the electricity from the power source to your car. Also, electric cars emit significantly higher amounts of si emens dioxide into the tenor compared to internal-combustion engines. Sulfur dioxide is the main component that causes vitriolic rain. Acid rain can cause rail at to lakes, streams, forests, car paints, copper, stone, and other building materials. Acid rain soaks into the soil and roots of plants, and causes slowed growth, and loss of leaves or needles.In the bulky Smoky Mountains, acid rain has actually killed one- degree centigrade or more of the Frazier Fir and Red Spruce trees (U. S. environmental Protection Agency). Furthermore, in the Northeastern United States. , such as in the Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, acid rain caused hundreds of fish populations to vanish from lakes (Davis). Acid rain can contaminate our own drinking pee without us until now knowing it it tastes, and looks like regular water When sulfur dioxide is inhaled, it can cause damage to your heart and lungs, causing disorders such as bronchitis and asthma (National Parks Service).Additio nally, battery organisation is a describe issue. The average life of this new type of batteries is twenty-five to thirty universal gravitational constant ccs before they leave alone own to be switchd. If electric cars are going to be a thing of the future, there go out sire an excess of batteries in landfills and other disposal sites. Presently, landfills are not designed to handle the millions of batteries that would need to be disposed of if millions of people were driving electric cars. If these batteries are not properly disposed of, toxic chemicals could spring into the environment.Also, recycling these lithium-ion batteries doesnt appear to be in the future anywhere soon. The cost of collecting, organizing, and shipping these metals to a recycler far outweighs the value of the scrapped material, so for the time being, most of these metals will be thrown away in landfills and junkyards (Mitchell). Another obstacle with these materials being tossed in landfills is the possibility of corrosive chemicals leaking into streams, rivers, and lakes. The process of refining metals for these batteries also releases pollutants into the environment. at once the refiner gets what metal they need from the ore, they discard the other materials into the nearby ecosystems. When this happens, our drinking water could be contaminated, and it could also damage, or kill the wildlife in that area (Bacher). Lastly, these cars are extremely expensive. Because the batteries only last for about a hundred miles, this means you would grant to charge them about three times for every full tank of gas that you would normally buy. Also, with this low charge capacity, it would be virtually impossible to take long trips.You would have to bump frequently to charge the battery, which takes about nine hrs to completely charge. This would turn a normal two-hundred mile, four hour drive into at least a thirteen hour trip, assuming that you could find an open charging military po st Another reason that these cars are so expensive is that you have to replace the battery in your car about every twenty-five to thirty thousand miles. This is a very costly expense, especially since from each one new battery is about eighteen to twenty thousand dollarsThis is $80,000 for batteries alone if you drive 100,000 miles in your car The expense of charging an electric car is less than what a full tank of gas would cost you, but you end up paying for it in the long run when you have to replace the battery. Electric cars are expensive from the start. The average retail price of most electric cars is in the thirty to forty thousand dollar range. Most middle class individuals cannot afford to pay this price for this new technology, which is why this will not be the best economical solution in the long run.These cost projections assume that two the car and the battery work correctly for the duration of their lives, but what if the battery breaks, or stops working, forcing y ou to replace it? The technology is new and underdeveloped, which means that there might still be some problems or bugs that the designers harbort had a chance to fix. Thats $20,000 right there that you would have to pay in addition to the purchase price. Thats close to half of what you originally paid for the car Since these cars are less, there are fewer mechanics that are qualified to work or operate on them, so the price of operation will be very high.Electric cars were released around 2010, which means there hasnt even been enough time for a mechanic to get a four-year degree in operating on electric cars (Hogan). The problem with automobile pollution definitely needs to be addressed and solved, but fully-electric cars are not the best solution. They are made out to be better than they actually are, and they definitely have major disadvantages. First of all, they will have to become a lot cheaper for people to be fit to afford them. The general public cannot afford to pay $20 ,000 for a new battery every 30,000 miles.Designers also need to find a way to lengthen the range of these cars. With only a 100 mile range, it is just not practical for most people. In addition, these cars still produce pollution, just not directly. All of the pollution is created indirectly, at coal-burning electricity power plants. Another unaddressed issue is that these cars emit large amounts of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere, which is what combines with water to become acid rain. Lastly, there is no good place to dispose of batteries.If millions of people are going to be driving these cars, there will be tons of toxic batteries in landfills and disposal sites, which can cause harm to the wildlife, and the surrounding environment. If you accidentally miscalculate the charge left in your car, you will be stuck. Unlike a gas-powered vehicle, you cannot simply fill up your car with a gas can. With electric cars, there is no way to replenish the energy in your car on the side o f the road. The fully-electric car was a good idea, but in the long run, it is not the best answer.The automobile companies need to stick around to improve internal combustion engines to decrease their carbon dioxide emissions. Works Cited Cultrona, R. L. Pros and Cons of Electric Cars. 1999-2012. 18 March 2012. . Davis, Jay. shipboard soldier Bio. 1998-2012. 18 March 2012. . Hogan, Micheal C. The Encyclopedia of Earth. 21 February 2012. 18 March 2012. . Mitchell, Robert L. Computer World. 22 August 2006. 18 March 2012. . National Parks Service. 28 October 2010. 18 March 2012 . Staff, Solve Climate. Inside Climate News. 1 April 2010. 18 March 2012. . U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 8 June 2007. 18 March 2012. .

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Islamic cultures Essay Example for Free

Muslim cultures Essay1. Islamic cultures in the European spunk Ages were comparably more advanced and better than the Christianity. Islamic cities in the Middle Ages were thriving and became the centers of trade and economy. Islamic merchants bought and sold goods from across Africa, Asia and Europe. New technologies such as windmill, block printing as well as new methods of weaving, which were developed in China were brought to Europe by Islamic merchants.Moreover, Islamic cultures during this period were considered heterogeneous and multi-ethnic as it borrowed from the cultures of the people that Muslims conquered or interacted during trading. Greek works by early scientists and mathematicians were interpreted into Arabic and used by Islamic Arabs. Islamic cities as well as became centers for art and learning. Since Islamic society during the Middle Ages determine scholarship Islamic cities became major sites of major libraries and scholarships.2. Europe provided a route a nd area for Islamic culture to flourish. In terms of trade, Europe provided the Islamic empires with raw materials while Asia became the center of trade and commerce. Europe also became an avenue of the both Islam and Christianity. Initially, Islam swept mostly all throughout Asia and Europe on the other hired man was mainly dominated by Christianity. But eventually, Islam conquered Europe as well which led to the conversion of many an(prenominal) parts of Europe into Islam particularly Spain. Islamic Europe were also comparable far more passe-partout to those among European Christians, and Islamic cultures were responsible for bringing Asian innovations into Europe.

Monday, April 8, 2019

Managing Cultural Diversity Essay Example for Free

Managing Cultural Diversity EssayThe following paper brie y debates the rhetoric of managing variety show and considers whether managing diversity is a distinct approach to managing citizenry or a means of diluting bear onize opportunities in UK organizations. With delight in to the realities of the concepts in UK organizations, empirical data from a survey of sixty UK kind-hearted resource professionals and general bloodline managers is presented. We pose a sum of cautionary questions, including what does it matter and to whom?By doing so we intend to encourage foster critique and ch bothenges in respect to the concept of managing diversity in organizations. Keywords Managing diversity, pertain opportunities, HRM/D, rhetoric, reality Introduction at once the workforce does not look, think, or act like any workforce of the past, nor does it hold the same values, acquire the same experiences, or pursue the same needs and desires (Jamieson and O Mara 1991). The composit ion of today s workforce has changed signi cantly in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, education, disabilities, and values.Running parallel to these changes is the shift in thinking by human resource theorists and practitioners with regard to addressing equality in the workplace (Cooper and White 1995 Liff and Wacjman 1996). This shift is underpinned by the emergence of the production line case argument for equal opportunities, as opposed to the persuasive debate for social justice or equal opportunities as correcting an imbalance, an injustice or a mistake (Thomas 1990).There is now a charm that, after twenty years of the stick of legal compliance (which has achieved little), the carrot of underpinning the business case for equal opportunities allow for by chance achieve more (Dickens 1994). The business case argument for equal opportunities in organizations is a lot termed managing or valuing diversity , but, as with most contemporary Human Resource Development In ternational ISSN 1367-8868 affect/ISSN 14698374 online 2000 Taylor Francis Ltd http//www. tandf. co. uk/journals 420 Peer-Reviewed Articles anagement discharges, the underlying principles and interpretation of this concept are open to mass interpretation, criticism, and indeed misunderstanding. D. Miller (1996) argues that the significant outfit of the meaning of equal opportunities has brought with it more complex and confusing messages for employers and practitioners. By drawing on literature and empirical data, we consider whether managing diversity is a distinct approach to managing people or a means of diluting equal opportunities in UK organizations and pose a number of cautionary questions, including what does it matter and to whom?By doing so, we intend to encourage upgrade critique and challenges in respect to the concept of managing diversity in organizations. What is managing diversity? Thomas (2000) argues that, with the growing number of mergers and acquisitions, workforce diversity will become more of a priority for organizations and, therefore, in the future, people will become clearer on what diversity is and how to manage it. As with the debates surrounding de nitions of human resource management and breeding (HRM/D), managing diversity as a concept means different things to different people.It can relate to the issue of national cultures inside a multinational organization (Hofstede 1984) it can relate to the further development of equal opportunities or to a distinct method of integrating different parts of an organization and/or managing people strategically. Much of the literature regarding managing diversity relates to the US experience, where the concept is particularly popular a re ection perhaps of the more pronounced diversity of workforce composition (Cassell 1996). In a recent report 1999), a Department of Education in America described managing and valuing diversity as a key constituent of effective people management, argui ng that it focuses on improving the performance of the organization and promotes practices that enhance the productivity of all staff. Their dimensions of diversity include gender, race, culture, age, family/carer status, religion, and disability. The de nition provided also embraces a range of individual skills, educational quali cations, work experience and background, languages, and new(prenominal) relevant attributes and experiences which differentiate individuals.

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Season and Winter Essay Example for Free

Season and Winter Essay setback is when family and friends play and laugh together, which is what brings us closer together. Furthermore, people offer do many fun activities in the snow. We not only play in the snow but also sliegh ride, build snowmen, put on a snowb only fight with your family, and make snow angels. When I was young, I used to hang out with approach kids after school even if the put up was severe. Actually, we were looking for the heavy snow at the very offshoot of succeedter. Because we were fond of having snowball fights and do snowman as well as going sledding. We were so happy when playing in the snow.We didnt care how cold our hands would get, or how dirty our cloths were. The only matters we cared about were who could win in the fight, who could make the best snowman and who could sled the fastest. Moreover, all the outdoor activities bring all your families closer because all the kids tend to play and have fun outside in the cold. Family is spec ial because you become close and appoint thoughtful things with the ones that mean the most to you. Christmas brings family out and shows how much your family truly means to you. Family is the number one thing that matters the most to you and especially when it comes to Christmas.Also, Lastly, baking is also a wonderful thing about winter. You walk into the kitchen and sense of smell the freshly baked cookies or Moms homemade casserole. Baking is amazing because it carries on through tradition and it gets passed deal to generation. Baking also warms your heart and lets you know how much clock time and effort your family or parent puts into making the wonderful food you receive. Baking on Christmas morning is the best because you get the house all change up and get the food ready for friends and family who come over to celebrate the special time with you.In addition, one thing winter wouldnt be complete without is the memories. The memories are invariably good because you make believe amazing memories when youre with friends and family. Winter makes you want to create the most memorable moment of all time especially if youre in an amazing country or state. Imagine being in a place where it snows or you hear the rain dripping down the window pane. Winter has many memories hold out its being somewhere for the first time or going back to it. Memories are meant to be created weather its good memories or bad memories.In overall, winter is a good season because you can hold good things from it like snow, christmas, family, snuggling, baking, and friends. Youre with family and friends and youre having all these events going on. Winter shows how much closer family can bring you. Winter is amazing and it brings out all the good energy around you. You can be in the worst moods or the happiest moods and its okay because winter brings this feeling out in you that you love and always want to carry with you. Winter is definitely a great season and always will have d ifferent memories that will always be in your heart.

Friday, April 5, 2019

Effect of Climate Change on Agricultural Activities

Effect of modality Change on Agricultural ActivitiesChapter 1 IntroductionGlobal Climate ChangeClimate is changing with the slow and steady pattern. The term Global Warming is referred to the one-year reasonable temperature gain of the earth. The average annual temperature of the earth has increased to 0.8 C since the early 20th century and more than 66 percent of this increment happened after 1980. In this sense, especi entirelyy in the context of environmental policy, the term mode miscellanea has plough synonymous with the anthropogenic global heating system. In many scientific journals, the term global warming refers to protrude temperature increase while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing immaturehouse gas levels go away affect.the Statess Climate Choices. Washington, D.C. The National Academies Press. 2011. p.15.ISBN978-0-309-14585-5. The average temperature of the Earths surface increased by about1.4F(0.8C) over the past 100 years, with about1.0F(0.6C) of this warming occurring over just the past three decades.Climate Change is a natural phenomenon whitethorn change the average weather conditions of any bea because of somewhat reasons. These reasons ar biotic processes, variations in solar ray of coruscation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and vol give the axeic eruptions. It is also observed that humans argon also impart to the climate change by their activities and these activities flock cause significant change to the Climate, this phenomenon is called Global Warming.Change in the annual temperature, rainwater, and wind patterns of an cranial orbit can cause significant impacts to the plant productivity of any area positively or negatively. Global warming can be a problem for coastal areas where it can cause rise in the sea level and thus may destroy the coastal areas and land. wind of sea level may also pollute the underground fresh piss and people may face urine related problems. Climate Change may be beneficial for the lands covered in the ice like Polar Regions by dint of which a man-sized area can be vacated but it may invites some new disasters which would affect the life of humans in other parts of the world. environment is a very sensitive system, when something new enters in the environment doesnt accept it easily because it is attribute the full-page food chain with it and we humans are also very much linked with this food chain and when one link of this chain is disturbed it would directly or indirectly affect the totally chain. Thus it is very key to keep the chain intact and proper protection to this chain should be provided.Rise is temperature changes the whole habitat of an area because when temperature of an area rises the wind patterns of that area change because high temperature would fixate the air hot in the area and the air would move up and a low nip area would be formed. To fill this low pressure area the airs from ring areas will enter which will be cold and sometimes full of moisture and it would result in cloud organization and as a result rainfall would occur. But if this process gains more temperature accordingly it would trigger the whole process and thus the climate of the area would be changing.This research addresses the climate changing in the rule Gujrat which is affecting the rural activities of the area and vegetation cover is also macrocosm affected by the climate change. As we know that our food necessities are directly associated with vegetation cover and if the vegetation is disturbed by the climate change then it is going to affect all the people associated with it. So this research is distinguished in the context that the vegetation is important for us and if in that respect should be proper measures taken to admit the impacts of climate change on vegetation.agribusinessAgriculture is the most renowned activity in the under-developing countries, because of untrammelled availabi lity of fertile land and less trend towards industrialization and other secondary and tertiary activities. base activities are those activities which are related to agriculture (both subsistence and commercial), mining, forestry, farming, grazing, hunting and gathering, fishing, and quarrying. The ancient sector of the economy extracts or harvests products from the earth. The primary sector includes the production of raw material and basic foods. The major reason for primary activities in under- unfeigned countries are the less education, less urbanization, less demand for development, and bad sparing conditions. Primary activities also prevails in the developed countries but these activities are very less as compared to the secondary and tertiary activities. About 3% of America is engaged in primary activities as compared to under-developed countries where the percentage of primary activities is more than 50-60%.(http//geography.about.com/od/urbaneconomicgeography/a/sectorsecon omy.htm)In developed countries, the primary activities are very less in balance as compared to other activities positive(p) these countries have proper techniques for saving their agriculture from being destroyed due to change of climate or any other disaster. On the other hand the underdeveloped countries are having very large ratio of agriculture in at that place economy and other primary activities nor do they have the techniques to save their economic source.This research is mainly concerned with one type of these countries which are underdeveloped and totally relying on the uncouth activities or other primary activities to fulfill their economic needs. That country is Pakistan, Pakistan is one of these countries which is relying on the agricultural activities.Agriculture in PunjabAgricultural of Pakistan is depending upon two kind of water resources riverine water and rain water. Rivers are providing water through with(predicate) with(predicate) different canals. Rain is not the efficient source of providing water to the agriculture because it is very scarce in Pakistan and precisely the northern and westerly regions receive the amount of rainfall necessary for agriculture. The southern regions such as Sindh, southward Punjab and Baluchistan dont receive the rainfall required for agricultureAgriculture through Irrigation in that location are seven link canals in Pakistan which are substantially important for agriculture in Pakistan these canals are as followChashma Jhelum relateTaunsa Panjnad LinkRasul Qadirabad LinkQadirabad Balloki LinkBalloki Sulemanki Link IITrimmu Sidhnai LinkSidhnai Milsi Bahawal LinkThese are the canals which being utilized for irrigation purposes and dependency on rain water does not exist.Agriculture through RainsThe second source of agriculture is rain water, playing a substantial role in those areas where there is no river or canal. Rain recharges the ground water in those areas and that water is utilized in the jui celess date for the agriculture and other uses. In Punjab the high quantity of rainfall is towards the northern areas which are plastered to the Jammu Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The average annual rainfall of Northern Punjab is roughly 700mm which is because the North Punjab receives two types of rainfall one is through Monsoons coming from the east from Bay of Bengal and the other is through westward winds coming from the Caspian Sea and Mediterranean maritimeArea of Interest (Gujrat)District Gujrat is the North Eastern District in Punjab where it is bounded with the Azad Kashmir from North East, Mandi Bahauddin from the South western side which was once part of this district but after 1996 it was separated from this district, Jhelum from the North Western side separated by the river Jhelum and Gujranwala and Sialkot from the Southern side separated by the river Chenab. It is between two important rivers of Pakistan Jhelum and Chenab which makes it the most fertile land o f Pakistan. According to the Indus pact of 1960 both of these rivers were given to Pakistan thats why the consort of these rivers remains constant throughout the year unlike other rivers of Pakistan which dont flow during the winter season.The language Punjabi is being spoken in this part of Pakistan according to the Census of 1998 and 95% of people say it with following dialectsMajhi or Standard (Majority)Potohari (Few people finishingmouthed jehlum district)Shah puri dialect (Few people speak this dialect)Other than Punjabi there are two more languages being spoken in this area which are Urdu and English. According to the 1998 enumerate of Pakistan the total population of Gujrat district was 2,048,008 of which 1,026,000 are males and 1,022,000 are females, with a population density of 642 persons per square kilometer. oer 25.62% of the population was recorded as being urban.1998 Census of Pakistan figures Urban Resource CentreThe urban center of Gujrat is split up into two circles, City Circle (Head office Gujrat City) and Sadar Circle (Head office Jalalpur Jattan. The major source of income among the people of the city are agriculture and small industries.As agriculture is the major source of income among the people of city Gujrat then it is very important to stay safe from any kind of disaster which can damage agricultural prospect of the city suburbs.Chenab is a major river menstruum between India and Pakistan, originates from the upper Himalaya where Indian state of Himachal Pradesh exists, reaches Punjab flowing through Jammu and Kashmir. It has many tributaries which are in Pakistan and also In India. According the Indus water treaty the water of river Chenab is allocated to Pakistan. It enters Pakistan forming a boundary between two districts of Punjab which are Sialkot and Gujrat. It provides water to the Pakistan throughout the year, in winter season the water quantity is decreased while in summer season the water coming as a result of mons oon rains causes floods in the southern Punjab. The flood of 2010 in Pakistan had a allot of contribution from this river.Chenab being a large river body is surrounding the city of Gujrat and fulfilling the water needs of the city. As we know that water is an essential element for the agriculture, the agriculture of the city Gujrat is also relying on the water of this river. As river recharges the ground water of this city which is utilized in the season of winter when the crops need more water and rainfall cant fulfill the needs of the citys agricultural land.ClimateThe city of Gujrat is located in temperate zone where the temperature shoots up to 45 Centigrade during the summer season while hot spells are wretched because of proximity of the Azad Kashmir Mountains with the city of Gujrat. In the season of winter the temperature may fall to 2 Centigrade.The average rainfall on the Kashmir border is over 1000 mm, at Kharian it is 750 mm, at Gujrat 670 mm, and at Dinga 500 mm. Gujr at city receives the average annual rainfall of 67cm (670mm) according to the data received from Meteorological department. Summer receives the heavy monsoons which are almost 80 percent of the annual rainfall and winter receives the rest of 20 percent rainfall which is as a result of western winds coming from Mediterranean and Caspian seas bringing moisture with them and release while liberation through different regions, when western winds reaches Gujrat they turn almost dry thats why the contribution of western winds to the annual rainfall is small. The monsoon winds are originated from the east near the Bay of Bengal in the summer season when the Inter-tropical product Zone (ITCZ) pushes to the North after the 21st March of every year. This change of ITCZ create a lot of low pressures in the regions and it also helps evaporate enough water from the ocean. Forming of different low pressures attract winds from the surrounding areas so these monsoon winds starts moving towards th ese low pressure areas and this is how they reach Gujrat at the end of month of June and start the rains which are sometimes disastrous for crops because of excessive rainfall or lateness of rainfall commonly known as flunk of the monsoon rains.WavelengthsSun emit radiations which are composed of different wavelengths, some of these wavelengths are very harmful and some of these wavelengths are helpful for us. Harmful wavelengths are having high frequency such as Alpha, Beta, Gamma and extremist Violet rays are blocked by our automatic teller and they dont reach us because of the thickset wall of ozone layer. Helpful rays are those which have frequencies and high wavelengths they are not blocked by the atmosphere and they are beneficial for the human because ocular portion is also included in this part. viewable SpectrumVisible portion is composed of three important rays having wavelengths from 0.4 to 0.7m and are termed as Blue, Green and Red. These rays are the only wavelengt hs which a human eye can see while all the other wavelengths cant be seen by the human eye and the spectrum of wavelength is very large.Normalized Difference plant Index (Ndvi)Normalized divergency plant Index is often called NDVI, a technique used to determine vegetation cover of any area through satellite data. Sunlight reaches the earth surface and hit different targets, those targets may include all objects placed on the earth surface. These objects have specific reflectance curve (reflectance values as a result of interaction with the sunlight). Vegetation also have a reflectance curve according to which the paint in plant leaves, chlorophyll, strongly absorbs viewable light (from 0.4 to 0.7 m) for use in photosynthesis. The cell structure of the leaves, on the other hand, strongly reflects near infrared light (from 0.7 to 1.1 m). The more leaves a plant has, the more these wavelengths of light are affected, respectively.Vegetation appears very different at visible and near infrared wavelengths. In visible light (top), vegetated areas are very dark, almost black, while desert regions (like the Sahara) are light. At near-infrared wavelengths, the vegetation is brighter and desolate are about the same. By comparing visible and infrared light, scientists measure the relative amount of vegetation.NDVI is mensurable from the visible and near-infrared light reflected by vegetation. Healthy vegetation (left) absorbs most of the visible light that hits it, and reflects a large portion of the near-infrared light. Unhealthy or sparse vegetation (right) reflects more visible light and less near infrared light. The numbers on the figure above are representative of actual values, but real vegetation is much more varied. (Illustration by Robert Simmon).Nearly all satellite Vegetation Indices employ this difference formula to quantify the density of plant growth on the Earth near-infrared radiation minus visible radiation divided by near-infrared radiation plus vi sible radiation. The result of this formula is called the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Written mathematically, the formula isNDVI = (NIR VIS)/ (NIR + VIS)Calculations of NDVI for a given pixel always result in a number that ranges from minus one (-1) to plus one (+1) however, no green leaves gives a value close to zero. A zero means no vegetation and close to +1 (0.8 0.9) indicates the highest possible density of green leaves.