Wednesday, November 27, 2019
AP: GOODBYE Ã¢â¬Å"WEB SITE;Ã¢â¬ HELLO Ã¢â¬Å"WEBSITEÃ¢â¬ Good news for all word nerds: The Associated Press has finally made the switch from the old-fashioned Web site to the simpler, more natural-looking website. Yay! To me, Web site has always seemed a little stuffy and English teacher-ish. Good for AP to know when itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to change things up. According to the APÃ¢â¬â¢s Web site Ã¢â¬â er, website Ã¢â¬â the change will be included in the 2010 print edition of the style guide. Other recent changes in AP style: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Update: When used as a verb, carpool is one word (itÃ¢â¬â¢s still two words if used as a noun, though). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Addition: The noun e-reader has been added Ã¢â¬â due to the recent deluge of gadgets like the Kindle and the iPad. Also acceptable: e-book reader. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Update: The word mic is now an acceptable (informal) form of microphone. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Addition: When talking about a certain angry hybrid of ultra-testosterone-fueled cage fighting, the correct term is mixed martial arts (this one surprised me; I expected a hyphen in there somewhere). No word on whether MMA is an acceptable substitute Ã¢â¬â but AP cautions that Ultimate Fighting is not to be used as a substitute (itÃ¢â¬â¢s actually a registered trademark). Image via Wikipedia So, what do you think? Are you happy to see the AP change with the times? Are there other changes youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to see?
Sunday, November 24, 2019
America and the Cold War essays Americans have always wanted the "best" of things. Brand new cars, big houses, and flashy clothes have historically been an American way of life. Even in the face of extreme hardships, Americans being Americans, go to extreme measures to preserve their way of life. Of course, we Americans have our liberties, our freedom, and our democracy, but other Nations do as well, but our version of democracy has a certain allure to it. Rock and Roll, Hollywood, and muscle cars were not discovered by the French. That being said, with this "American" state of mind comes with a strong sense of paranoia that someone is going to take all these things away from you. In a post war America, paranoia was the new enemy. After suffering through the Great Depression, and winning the biggest war the world has ever seen, you would think we would have been caring free and relax. Not the case at all, Americans were first concerned about entering into another Depression with the return of millions of out of wor k soldiers. The economy boomed when our soldiers came back, and people had savings that they earned during the war and went shopping. So a quick summary of events in the United States, we enter a depression, come out of a depression and go to war, win the war, have the atomic bomb, and the economy is starting to boom. Life is good, but wait for a second, what about that communist? Thus begins a forty-five-year struggle of political ideals, Capitalism versus Communism, between two Nations, the United States versus the Soviet Union. This struggle is known as the Cold War. In 1945, the "Big Three" (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin) met in the Yalta conference to discuss post war diplomacy and peace. One major issue between Roosevelt and Stalin was the state of Eastern Europe. To Stalin controlling Eastern Europe was important for Russia's national security. Roosevelt agreed that Poland and other Eastern European countries would fall under the Soviet "sphere...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Chinatown and Leicester Square in Light of Ethnographic Analysis - Essay Example Over time, the larger part of the Chinese minority in London came to be concentrated in the Limehouse district, in an area known as Chinatown these days. Swarming with gambling dens and opium dens, it used to be perceived as a place with high rates of crime, violence and haplessness by the majority of London inhabitants at the time. Nevertheless there is no doubt it did promote economic prosperity. Leicester Square derives its name from Robert Sidney, second Earl of Leicester, born in 1595, who acquired land in the area for his housing development project in 1630 and 1648. In its early times the area was a residential place for prominent foreigners such as artists and craftsmen and also ambassadors and royalty. The 19th century saw the boom of cafes, entertainment and clubs. To all this, cinema was added early on in the 20th century, competing against and eventually gaining prevalence over other forms of entertainment. The movie sector remains strongly tied-up with the place up to this day. (Sheppard, 1966). In 2002, the City Council adopted the Leicester Square Action Plan, following widespread public consultation (Westminster City Council, 2009). Present condition It is interesting to note that while the Chinese community is open to all influences of the country they are living in, yet they do not appear to lose the distinct characteristics of their own culture. Distinctive marks of that culture are felt in architecture, design, behaviour and in nearly ever every item of daily usage. In 2005 the property development agency Rosewheel ran by Richard Bowen announced plans to redevelop the western portion of Chinatown to make it still more suitable for tourism and for leisure activities, such as dining out. As part of the plan, roads are to be pedestrianized and shop fronts extended into the roads so as to transform the place into something new, thus bringing another kind of businesses into the picture. As is apparent from their reactions, the present property owners and tenants in the area feel strongly opposed to the prospected changes, as some of them would get evicted, while others fear the expected rise of rent in the area. Approximately 20 local businesses are going to close and 200 people lose their jobs in the process. That is why the Chinese community took defensive action, citing community figurehead Jabez Lam on their website, who says he believes that "Rosewheel is determined to put hundreds of shopkeepers and employees out of work. [The redevelopment] w ill break up the social fabric of those working, living and visiting the area." (DimSum, 2009). Chinatown derives substantial benefits from the grey economy, as evidenced by Paul Kingsnorth in his Guardian article: "Jabez wants to show me something. He walks me around the corner to Gerrard Street, where he points to a dingy staircase. To one side is a red plaque with gold Chinese lettering on it. 'This used to be a brothel,' he says with a slight smile. 'Now
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Proposal for Corporate social responsibility - Assignment Example Therefore, this study represents an important contribution to the CSR literature in US (Aaronson & Reeves, 2002, p.59). This research examined the relevance of and the theoretical contributions of different management theories, particularly the triple bottom line and the competitive advantage theory that help managers understand the relevance of competing through quality assurance. The Competitive Advantage -This is an advantage in the intrinsic and extrinsic parts of the company and this theory is concerned with the competition between the company and its competitors through offering better values than their competitors (Competitive advantage ,2010, p.102). Strong values come from the culture of the company which later transforms to be the values of the customers and later the values of the society. Values generally come from the customers and the stakeholders which are both important to the success of business. Developing values that are sustainable will depend on the relationship of the organization with the employees, partners, shareholders, suppliers and also media (Enquist & Edvardsson, 2009, p.89). Brands are very important for any company as they communicate to the customers or every stakeholder the image of the company and their products. In order to stall the Ã¢â¬Å"values-based service brandÃ¢â¬ the company must employ CSR strategies to maintain its business in long run. Virtually, CSR serves the best way to communicate to all the customers and stakeholders in an efficient manner. These strategies touch with values of service brands and enable the company to obtain the good resonances from all stakeholders (Enquist & Edvardsson, 2009, p.234). In the business activities carried out today, many strategies are outlaid in running them. Of late, CSR has developed swiftly. Individuals have started demanding that companies take their social responsibility in their
Sunday, November 17, 2019
American Government - Essay Example The three arms of government include the Executive which is headed by the president, the Legislature which is divided into the two Congress chambers of the Senate and the House of Representatives and finally the Judiciary which is made up of the Supreme Court and other courts at a much lower level. The Executive wing of the government is made up of the President, Vice-President and the Cabinet. The president of the is responsible for conducting the federal laws, coming up with new strategies, offering direction on foreign policies and directing the operations of the national defense since he is the chief of staff. He has such powers as offering direction to the government, issuing command to the armed forces and playing the role of enforcing the laws as well as vetoing them. The Vice-presidents main duty is to offer any form of assistance to the president as stipulated by the law and he/she is chosen by the president. The 15 member cabinet which is appointed by the president upon app roval of the senate plays the role of formulating and ensuring the implementation of policies that affects their various dockets. The Judiciary is concerned with the interpretation, application and the determination of any contravention to the laws of the land. The federal government has some exclusive powers that cannot be shared by other levels of the government. The declaration of war is strictly the role of the federal government. It decides on the process of money printing and the number of denominations to be made by the central bank. The decision on the formation and establishment of the various army branches such as the navy lies squarely with the federal government. Signing of international treaties and decision to join any international body is conducted by the federal government. It also plays the role of regulating business activities between the states and other countries as well as formation of laws that assist
Friday, November 15, 2019
Steering System And Suspension Design Mechanics Essay The aim of this project is to work with a project team to design, build and optimize the running of a Formula SAE-A racecar, with particular interest in the Steering and Suspension systems. The Formula SAE-A project team aims to produce a competitive racecar that will compete in the Formula SAE-A competition in December. To achieve this I was required to, research the important aspects of steering and suspension systems used frequently in a nonprofessional racecar and select a suitable steering and suspension system that is within the motorsport teams limits. This project includes suggestions for the design and construction of these systems, the installing and optimising(or tuning) the steering and suspension systems and future recommendations to provide the most cornering and handling ability. Identifying the critical areas that are important for competitive steering and suspension systems, I can improve the effective handling and cornering capability of the racecar. Improving the handling and cornering power of the racecar will allow faster speeds into and exits out of corners, which will result in quicker lap times, better performance and higher overall standing in the 2006 FSAE-A competition. Adhering to the rules and regulations for the 2006 FSAE-A competition I aim to select suitable systems that are within the project teams limits by considering the financial cost versus benefit or performance to the car, complexity and time to design and 1.1 Cornering Ability and Handling 2 manufacture of each system. Critically analysing the 2005 teams racecar enables me to evaluate the cars steering and suspension setup performance and find any flaws or ways to improve them. This will give me a better understanding of the steering and suspension systems and how to find the optimum settings to perform with the 2006 car at the FSAE-A competition. Using a suspension geometry computer program developed by Wm. C. Mitchell software, I can model the 2005 teams racecar to compare the accuracy of the program, and then apply the program to optimise the 2006 racecar. The ideal outcome of this project will see that this years FSAE-A racecar have a working and well-tuned or optimised steering and suspension system that has high cornering ability and handling. Most of this projects work will become evident once we have manufactured our design and are able to test the car by running it on a test-track. If all things go to plan, I should be able to make small adjustments to improve and finally optimize the handling and cornering ability of the car which will be paramount to the performance at the FSAE-A competition. 1.1 Cornering Ability and Handling The cornering ability and handling of the racecar is very important to the overall performance of the racecar. Having excellent acceleration and braking power is good but without sufficient cornering ability and handling, the racecar will not be able to use the full potential and is more likely to run off the racetrack than take a podium position. Cornering ability and handling will be discussed in detail and how the steering and suspension systems affect it. 1.2 Explanation and definition of terminology 3 1.2 Explanation and definition of terminology Here is a number of terms and names that will be used in this dissertation to avoid confusion with other names and meanings. Ackerman Is both a principle and definition, where the principle is that the extended axis of the steering arms projected rearward meet at the centre of the rear axle (shown in figure 1.1). This allows the tyres to traverse an arc without skidding, which would otherwise oppose the steering forces making it harder to steer. The definition is described as the difference in the angle of the front tyres when turned. This dissertation will only refer to Ackerman as the principle from herein. Camber Is the angle between the vertical plane and the centre angle of the tyres (shown in fig 1.2), which can be positive or negative. This changes the size and shape of the tyres contact patch during a corner which in turn affects the amount of lateral acceleration or force it can produce (cornering and handling ability). A small amount of negative camber is ideal (around 1.5 degrees) to induce camber thrust and ensure a good contact patch during cornering (smith. C. 2004). 1.2 Explanation and definition of terminology 4 Camber Gain Or the rate of camber change in roll (or as the chassis rotates laterally). Caster Is the angle between the steering axis and the vertical from the side plane (see fig 1.3). Positive caster improves straight line stability but makes it slightly more difficult to steer, while negative makes it easier to steer with less stability. Jacking Is an upwards reaction force generated by the tyres when the racecar is accelerated during cornering and has its roll centre above ground level. Where the upwards force on the outside tyre is greater than the inner tyre having a 1.2 Explanation and definition of terminology 5 net resultant force that lifts or Jacks the sprung mass. This is unwanted and unsettling to the driver and should be avoided. The roll centre Indicates the point at which the chassis rotates (at the front and rear respectfully) during lateral acceleration. The two moment arms between the roll centre, the CG and the ground plane determine the racecars sensitivity to lateral acceleration by the production of rollover movements and jacking (Smith. C, 2000). The roll axis Is the straight line joining the roll centres of the front and rear tyres The roll moment Is the distance between the roll centre and the mass concentration at the front or rear of the car. The mass concentration is the equivalent mass or point of the CG if it were split into 2 points, one front and rear. Steering Axis Inclination and Scrub Radius Steering Axis Inclination or Kingpin Axis, is the angle between the vertical and the steering axis (figure 1.4). This helps the car to exit a corner by naturally trying to align the wheels back to centre. The SAI works with caster to allow more directional stability but less effort on steering (more sai and less caster). Scrub Radius Is the pivot point for the tyres footprint or the distance between the centre of the contact patch, to the extended SAI to the ground (figure 1.4). This allows more feel in the steering, a little is good, too much can be detrimental due to the increased steering effort for the driver. 1.3 Overview of the Dissertation 6 Slip angles Are the angles between the direction that the tyres are facing, and the direction that the tyres want to go. Deformation is due to the elastic nature of rubber when a vertical load is applied. This will be explained in detail in Chapter 2 and its effect on cornering and handling. 1.3 Overview of the Dissertation This dissertation is organized as follows: Chapter 2 Discusses cornering and handling of a FSAE-A racecar and describes various steering and suspension systems. Chapter 3 Explains the rules and regulations of the FSAE-A competition and how it affects the steering and suspension systems. Chapter 4 Introduces Wm. C. Mitchells suspension geometry software, describes its uses and strengths for this project and how it will be used to improve the steering and suspension systems. Chapter 5 Describes the analysis of the 2005 FSAE-A racecar and documenting areas that can be improved and implemented into the 2006 car. Chapter 6 Describes the analysis of the 2006 racecar and recommendations for improving the cornering and handling ability. Chapter 7 Discusses testing methods and ways to document and record actual performance of the racecar, followed by processes for optimisation of the steering and suspension systems for the best cornering ability and handling. Chapter 8 Outlines the projects achievements, findings and future recommendations. Chapter 2 Steering and Suspension Systems for a FSAE-A Racecar 2.1 Chapter Overview This chapter discusses the steering and suspension systems that are commonly used in cars on the road and in professional racing, their benefits and limitations, the ease of manufacture and complexity of design. This chapter also discusses cornering and handling in detail and how the steering and suspension can improve its cornering and handling ability. 2.2 Cornering and Handling Handling defines the racecars ability to maneuver around a corner at maximum speed without losing traction. C. Smith (1978) remarks that being able to travel around a corner faster reduces the overall lap time on a circuit for 2 reasons. First is simply that the car traverses the distance in less time, secondly, if the car exits the corner at a faster speed, there will be no time lost from having to accelerate from a slower speed. Smith (1978) also says that the factors that determine the cornering power of a racecar 2.2 Cornering and Handling 8 include the cornering capacity of the tires, which is influenced by: Vehicle gross weight Vehicle downforce Height of the vehicles centre of gravity Vehicle load transfer characteristics Suspension Geometry Size and characteristics of the tyres So you can understand, the tyres are arguably one of the most important parts of the racecar because all the moments and forces that the car undergoes is transmitted through the tyres. The acceleration and direction of the car is passed through the small footprints or contact patches of each tyre. Understanding what happens here will help to get the most out of both the tyres and racecars handling ability (Smith, C. 1978). 2.2.1 Tyres and slip angles The tyres ability to grip the road is a combination of vertical load applied to the tyre, the coefficient of friction between the tyre and the road, adhesion between the road surface and tyre, and slip angles developed between the tyre and direction of travel. The vertical load that is imposed on each tyre is changing continuously on a racecar maneuvering around a racetrack due to the load transfer from acceleration, deceleration and cornering. As the racecar travels around a corner, the tyres are subject to forces which result in deformation in the compound that the tyre is made of, this elastic deformation results in the contact patch pointing in a different direction to the angle of the tyre (Smith, C. 1978). Shows the deformation of the tyre compound in the contact patch and the slip angle developed. The path of the rolling tyre defines the actual direction of the tyre as it continues around the corner.There is a relationship between the slip angles and the potential grip that the tyre has to the road. Some tyre data has shown that 2.2 Cornering and Handling 9 Shows the generated slip angles in the tyre contact patch as slip angles increase, the lateral or cornering force increases up to a maximum which then either begins to drop or plateaus then drops, usually sliding occurs soon after the drop in force. The flat portion of the curve at or near the maximum is the optimum range of tyre grip that experienced drivers remain in to maximize the cars cornering potential. shows the relationship between tyre grip and the developed slip angles. shows the relationship between tyre grip and developed slip angles, picture from http://www.donpalmer.co.uk/cchandbook/modelgrip.htm 2.2 Cornering and Handling 10 2.2.2 Factors influencing tyre cornering capacity The other factors as mentioned before, vehicle gross weight, downforce, height of the CG, tyre size and characteristics, suspension geometry and load transfer characteristics, all can be factored into the design or used to improve cornering and handling. The cornering force is proportional to the increase of the vehicle gross weight and generated downforce from wings or aerofoils. The increased pressure on the contact patch generates a higher lateral force component (Smith, C. 1978). The height of the vehicles centre of gravity from the ground affects the moment between the vertical force on the tyre and the CG, this will affect the lateral load transfer during a corner. The lateral load transfer changes the vertical loads from one wheel to another due to the CG tendency to move sideways during a corner, which will decrease the total amount of cornering force generated from the tyres. For example, a 400kg car with a 50-50 weight distribution front to rear will have 100kg vertical weights at the two front tyres. Assuming the CG height is 250mm above the ground, the track width is 1300mm and during a corner the car is subject to a cornering acceleration of 1.4gs we can determine the load transfer. LoadT ransfer = 1.4 Ãâ" 200kg Ãâ" 0.25 1.3 = 53.85kg So this gives us 46.15kg on one side and 153.85kg on the other and is a 53.85% load transfer to the outer wheel. Obtaining tyre data in the form of Tyre cornering force versus Vertical load will allow us to determine the total cornering force with this load transfer, however getting the tyre data is difficult. Generally the tyre data is curved with less tyre cornering force as vertical load increases, so measuring the data of each vertical load and summing together will be less than the equal load distribution. Reducing the load transfer is done by lowering the height of the CG and widening the track width which will improve cornering ability. The suspension geometry determines the location of the instantaneous centres and roll centres of the racecar, these control how much the chassis rolls or pitches during cornering and accelleration, which moves the CG and hence affects the lateral load transfer. 2.3 Steering Systems 11 During roll, the suspension geometry also controls the amount of camber gain in the wheels during a corner, the change in camber affects the contact patch (increase or decrease in proportion) which changes the cornering capacity of the tyres. Ensuring that an optimum contact patch is maintained through the control of camber gain and good roll centre location is key to good handling and cornering. 2.3 Steering Systems Common types of steering systems are: Rack and Pinion basic steering system Recirculating Ball Bearing more complex system Power Steering fluid assisted steering 2.3.1 Rack and Pinion The rack and pinion steering system is a simple, cheap and relatively easy system to implement. It comprises of a rack, or toothed bar/rod which slides left and right due to the rotation of a pinion gear that sits on the teeth (Fig 2.3). The steering wheel turns the steering shaft which rotates the pinion gear, resulting in the rack pushing/pulling the steering rods. The rods are attached to the wheel hubs which turn the wheels to the desired angle (Gilles, T. 2005). The most difficult parts to design or manufacture are the pinion and the rack, the pinion defines the turning rate of the steering wheel which affects the responsiveness of the steering. The rack need to have hardened teeth which could be difficult to manufacture to some groups or would involve a significant cost to have it done. Besides these two parts the rest of the system is relatively simple, as a whole the rack and pinion setup is a cheap and common system that is reliable and resiliant. 2.3 Steering Systems 12 2.3.2 Recirculating Ball Bearing A typical Recirculating ball-bearing steering system uses a worm gear to shift ball bearings that are located within a channel such that when moved, pushes or pulls the housing in which they sit. The housing has teeth located on the outside which are in line with a sector gear that rotates a pitman arm (Fig 2.4). The pitman arm is attached with the track and tie rods, which aligns the wheels. This system can also be described as a parallelogram steering linkage system in which the linkages trace a parallelogram (Gilles, T. 2005). Figure 2.4: Recirculating ball bearing steering, picture from www.imperialclub.com/ Repair/Steering/terms.htm A Recirculating Ball Bearing can also be used in a similar setup to aRrack and Pinion gear system, where the recirculating ball bearing housing replaces the pinion gear with a sector gear that pushes/pulls the rack to align the wheels. The recirculating ball 2.3 Steering Systems 13 bearing system is significantly heavier than the rack and pinion system, due to the extra linkages, housing and gears. Friction needs to be managed in the design stage, i.e. including grease input points, dust covers etc. However the Recirculating ball bearing steering provides more sensitivity to the steering and minimum slack or loose feel in the steering wheel. Costing is also increased due to the extra material and the complexity of design makes the recirculating ball bearing system less attractive. 2.3.3 Power Steering Power steering systems are the same systems as rack and pinion and recirculating ball-bearing but with a significant modification. In a rack and pinion power steering system, the rack contains a cylinder with a piston inside it, driven by fluid supplied by a pump (see Figure 2.5). The fluid lines run to a rotary valve controlled by the steering shaft which determines the sides of the piston that the high pressure fluid acts on. This pressure assists the steering action which requires less force to rotate the steering wheel. Similar to the rack and pinion power steering, the recirculating ball housing is assisted by the pressure respectively in the ball-bearing steering (Gilles, T. 2005). Rack and Pinion power steering, picture adapded from www.cars.com/ carsapp/boston/?srv=parseract=displaytf=/advice/caradviser/steering_ fluid.tmpl 2.4 Suspension Systems 14 2.4 Suspension Systems There are two common types of suspension systems used frequently today, dependant and independant systems. The various types of both are similar but have their differences and functions. Some of these sytems are described below. 2.4.1 Dependant Suspension Systems Solid or Beam Axle Panhard Rod Watts Linkage Dependant suspension systems are variations of a simple beam axle that holds the wheels parallel with each other. So when the vertical angle of one wheel (camber) changes, the opposite wheel also changes (Gilles, T. 2005). Examples of the Panhard Rod and the Watts Linkage are shown in Figures 2.6 and 2.7, these types of suspension are generally different ways of attatching the solid axle to the chassis. 2.4.2 Independant Suspension Systems Double Wishbone, A-Arm or Four-Bar link MacPherson Strut Multi-link 2.4 Suspension Systems 15 Watts linkage suspension. Independent suspension systems allow the wheels to move independently of each other, e.g. if one wheel were to move up or down, the other would not be affected directly. It is common for racecars to have all four wheels with independent suspension as this usually provides the most customizable setup options to maximize the handling potential of the racecar. Double wishbone suspension systems are also known as double A-Arm or Four-Bar link systems. They all comprise of equal or unequal parallel links from the chassis to the wheel hub, with the shock absorbers configured in a Push or Pull rod setup, as Figure 2.8 illustrates. Unparallel and Unequal double wishbone suspension with Push or Pull rod shock absorber setup. 2.4 Suspension Systems 16 The MacPherson strut suspension system (Figure 2.9) is very popular with passenger cars and some sports models since it is a relatively cheap system to produce that provides reasonable camber control (Smith. C, 1978). The MacPherson strut suspension is good for everyday commuting but does not provide sufficient stiffness to avoid movement within the components (compliance or slack) and would not fit comfortably with wide tyres (Smith. C, 1978). Multi link suspension systems are simply Four-Bar link systems with one or more extra links to attain extra control. MacPherson strut suspension, from www.autozine.org/technical_school/ suspension/tech_suspension2.htm The objective of the independent suspension is to provide enough vertical wheel movement to absorb surface bumps and compensate for the accelerations of the sprung mass, prevent changes in the distance between tyres (static toe) as they are moving, control the change of wheel camber angle and change of track distance with the wheel and/or sprung mass movement, and to ultimately allow the most grip or traction available out of the tyres while minimising weight and maximising stiffness in the links (Smith, C. 1978). 2.5 Chapter Summary 17 2.5 Chapter Summary Having discussed the cornering and handling ability in a Formula SAE-A racecar and what factors can influence the performance, helps to have an understanding of what is happening when a racecar traverses around a corner. With this in mind we can apply this knowledge into the design to maximise the cornering and handling ability of the racecar. Also selecting an appropriate steering and suspension system that will provide the best cornering and handling but also takes into account the motorsport teams resources (time, materials and complexity of design). Chapter 3 Rules and Regulations of the FSAE-A Competition 3.1 Chapter Overview This chapter covers the rules and regulations that will affect the steering and suspension sytems. Starting with the more specific rules that affect the steering and suspension systems, then moving into the general rules and regulations like material strength. These rules and regulations have been put into the competition to give the entry teams maximum design flexibility and the freedom to express creativity, but also to ensure that a safe and working car that minimises chances of damage and injury. 3.2 Steering Requirements The specific steering system rules and requirements are as follows: The steering must affect at least two wheels The steering system must have positive steering stops that prevent the steering linkages from locking up. 3.3 Suspension Requirements 19 Free play is limited to 7 degrees measured at the steering wheel. Steering must be mechanically connected to the wheels i.e. steer by wire prohibited These requirements do not severely limit the steering system design at all as for most of the previously mentioned systems, none of which include steer by wire and all affect at least 2 wheels. The rules that need to be kept and monitored is the free play in the steering wheel and steering stops, otherwise the design is virtually open. 3.3 Suspension Requirements The rules state that the car must have a fully operational suspension system with springs and shock absorbers, front and rear, with a minimum useable wheel travel of 50.8mm (2 inches), 25.4mm (1 inch) in jounce and rebound with the driver seated. So the rules again do not restrict the specific suspension system but merely sets a benchmark that it must perform to. 3.4 Other Requirements Other requirements set out in the rules define that the wheelbase must be of at least 1525mm (60inches) and that the smaller track must be no less than 75% of the larger track. The minimum material must be; either round mild or alloy, steel tubing (min 0.1% carbon) with minimum dimensions as outlined in table 18.104.22.168 in the FSAE rules handbook; or an approved alternatice material that is tested and proved to meet the alternative material guidelines in section 22.214.171.124 of the FSAE rules handbook. The wheelbase requirement affects the suspension geometry design, setting a minimum length for the suspension linkages. 3.5 Chapter Summary 20 3.5 Chapter Summary Knowing and understanding the requirements and rules set out by the Formula SAE competition provides a starting point for our design, also talking with the previous team and the performance will help to identify areas needing improvement and investigaiton. Once finding sufficent information a start can be made to get the ball rolling on design and construction of the steering and suspension systems. Chapter 4 WinGeo3 Suspension Geometry Program 4.1 Chapter Overview This chapter introduces Wm. C Mitchells suspension geometry software, Racing by the Numbers and shows its most useful power of calculation and display of steering and suspension geometry of any four wheel vehicle. The information it can tell us will greatly improve the time taken to analyse steering and suspension set-up and will allow fast optimisation when the time comes to testing. 4.2 WinGeo3 Geometry Program The steering and suspension geometry can be modeled on Wm. C. Mitchells software which is quicker than manually measuring all the various important values repeatedly for the various settings you wish to try during testing. This enables a comparison with the originally intended design parameters of the 2005 racecar and an indication of how well the car will react while cornering. It also allows a comparison of the initial 2006 cars design and actual geometry after construction and allows us to optimise the geometry to provide the best cornering and handling ability of the racecar. By 4.3 Set-up and initial measurements 22 measuring the data and entering into Wm. C. Mitchells software, we can critically analyse the racecar with regard to the handling and cornering characteristics. The software requires actual measurements taken from the car which will be done and recorded according to the geometry software requirements. Once recording all the information that the software needs, we can analyse the way the steering and suspension reacts with the chassis. Moving up or down (ride) or rotating (roll) we are able to observe the change in camber, steering angles and caster at each of those changes. This is useful since during a corner, we may model the changes that the chassis will go and can see the result on the tyres (and contact patch) and get an indication of how well it will perform. Wm. C. Mitchells software can also be used to aid in the design of steering and suspension systems, through its design and build functions you may specify various values and the software will convert it into the required lengths of the arms and rods. 4.3 Set-up and initial measurements I strongly recommend allowing at least half a day to measure up a car for the first time and someone to help. It will save alot of time that would otherwise be lost dropping things, re-setting the origins and other fiddly jobs that are not normally accounted for. Once installing the program, printing out some forms will make things much easier for entering information into the program once the measurements have been taken, as the forms sets out the required information neatly and in similar format to the program screen. Open the geometry program and from the help menu open quick start. The help tree is on the left side column, from there open the Files menu and then Blank Forms, here is all the blank forms that is needed. Click on Blank forms: Measuring cars for some general information and hints, for a double wishbone suspension with a push/pull damping system, click on the Blank forms: Double A-arm and Rocker Arm option and print. Also click on Blank forms: Pull-rod / Push-rod form, Blank forms: Auxiliary points, and Blank forms: Swaybar form and print them all out. These all will be 4.3 Set-up and initial measurements 23 sufficient for the front suspension and rear (remember to print a second batch of forms for the rear) unless you have a control arm / panhard rod rearaxle suspension setup, for which there is a seperate form. First you need to make sure that the car is set up already with the correct alignment and on a flat surface as it would on the racetrack. Ensure that access to the suspension points is possible and that they are locked in place so they do not move if you lean on the car (within reason). Then determine a baseline or origin accurately and place strings on the surface plate or flat floor or tie to appropriate point, to represent the centerlines of the car (front to back, side to side). Once an Origin for each Axis has been made, where the X-Axis is the fore-aft longitudinal dimension (front to rear of the car). The Y-Axis is the lateral dimension, or left and right sides of the car (drivers side passenger side) and the Z-Axis is the vertical dimension from the ground up. Care must be taken when selecting an origin due to common suspension adjustments, such as changing caster, can move the tire contact patch. Each such change requires a careful remeasurement (or re-calculation). When the car is ready to be measured, follow these steps: Measure the track width of the front and rear tyres by taking the centre points of each tyre as low to the ground as reasonable, the WinGeo3 program measures track at ground level at the center of the tire contact patch. The easiest way is to measure to the middle of the tire,but this can be misleading if the tire has significant static camber, so as long as you are aware of the settings you should be fine. Measure the static toe for the front tyres while measuring the track at the front and do a quick calculation of the static angle pointing inwards or outwards that
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Consider what happens when a solid material is placed in a solvent in which it has a low solubility. Not much! A small fraction of the solid will dissolve, but the rest will just sit there. (Actually, it doesn't just Ã¢â¬Ësit there' since an equilibrium is in effect, with solid molecules going into solution, and an equivalent number of dissolved molecules reforming solid, but we see the same amount of undissolved material). How can we get the entire solid to dissolve? One way is to heat the solution Ã¢â¬â most materials are more soluble in hot solvent than in cold. Suppose we heat to the boiling temperature of the solvent (the highest temperature which is practical), and the entire solid goes into solution. If we now let the solution cool, what will happen? Obviously, at some temperature, the concentration of solute will exceed its solubility, and the solid will start to come back out of solution Ã¢â¬â it will crystallize. By the time we return to the initial temperature, nearly all of the original material has formed crystals, which can be removed from the solvent by filtration. Now, suppose that the original solid contained small amounts of impurities. These would go into solution as well, but since the impurities are present only in small amounts, they remain soluble when the temperature is lowered again. Thus, the crystals, which come out of solution, are more pure than the original sample. This is the essence of purification by recrystallization (Fig. 1). [pic] Figure 1: An impure solid in: (A) cold solvent in which it has low solubility, (B) solvent that has been warmed up to dissolve all of the solid, and (C) solvent that has cooled down to the original temperature. The crystallized solid is now pure, while the impurities remain in solution. Recrystallization Recrystallization is the preferred method for purification of organic solids. The technique can be used for large or small quantities of materials, and is usually very effective and efficient. The most important aspect of the recrystallization technique is the selection of the solvent. A large number of solvents are commonly used for recrystallization of organic compounds. Among these are water, ethanol, ethyl ether, and hexane to name just a few. A solvent, which works beautifully for one recrystallization, may be totally unsuitable for purification of a different compound Ã¢â¬â the choice for recrystallization solvent is made on a case-by-case basis. This is because of the variation of solubility of different organic compounds in these solvents. We can identify a set of characteristics which are desirable for a recrystallization solvent: 1. The substance to be purified must have a high solubility in the solvent at its boiling point, and a significantly diminished solubility at lower temperatures (limited only by the freezing temperature of the solvent). Obviously, the first part is necessary so that you can get the material into solution, and the second part is required so that the purified compound will come back out of solution. 2. The solvent should dissolve the impurities at all temperatures. Actually, its OK if the impurity dissolves readily or doesn't dissolve at all, as we'll see. The important point here is that purification will be accomplished only if the impurities remain in solution as the mixture is cooled. This isn't too hard to accomplish if the amount of impurity is small. Obviously, it's a bit more difficult if a large amount of an impurity is present, but if the solubility characteristics of the desired substance are sufficiently different from the impurity, as is often the case, a suitable solvent can usually be found. 3. The solvent must not react with the substance to be purified. It's hard to get your compound to come back out of solution when it is consumed by a reaction. 4. A reasonably volatile solvent is preferred. This consideration is dictated by the need to ultimately remove traces of solvent from the crystals, and this is most easily accomplished by evaporation, either at room temperature or in an oven. Even with an oven to aid in the drying, only moderate temperatures can be used, since you should stay below the melting temperature of the solid, and definitely below temperatures where the material will decompose. Generally speaking, solvents with boiling temperatures below ~150Ã °C are OK. 5. Ideally, the solvent should be inexpensive, non-toxic, and non-flammable. These are not absolutely required, but desirable characteristics, which can help to determine the choice of a solvent. Obviously, water is an ideal choice based on these criteria, and is the preferred solvent if it satisfies conditions 1-4. How does one go about choosing the proper solvent? If you are dealing with a known compound, it makes sense to use solvents that have been used before. You can go to the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (printed or online), and frequently a solvent suitable for recrystallization will be indicated. This may show up in two places: First, in the column headed Ã¢â¬Å"color, crystalline formÃ¢â¬ is often listed the solvent used to obtain the crystals in question. Otherwise, you can move to the columns near the right-hand side of the page, which deal with solubility. The CRC has changed its presentation of solubility data over the years. For this purpose, the older editions (before 1980) are significantly better than the recent ones. Whereas the new editions simply list solvents in which the compound is soluble, the older ones provide more information, which can be useful in selecting a crystallization solvent. Qualitative indicators for solubility in various solvents range from i (insoluble), d (slightly), s (soluble), to v (very). Especially useful is the fact that some solvents are given two listings, one for hot solvent, the other for cold. What if you are working with a brand-new compound, which is often the case? Here, the only thing to do is try different solvents. The choice of solvents is often more art than science Ã¢â¬â everybody has their personal favorites based on their own experience, but those mentioned above are typical solvents to try. A small amount of the solid is placed in a test-tube and a few drops of cold solvent are added. If the solid dissolves, you can forget this solvent Ã¢â¬â you need low solubility at low temperature. If the solid remains, so far, so good, but this is only the beginning. Now the sample is warmed to the boiling point. If the solid dissolves, things look good. The next test is to let this solution cool, and to see if nice crystals actually form. If they do, you're in luck. Further tests with this solvent on larger samples of material can then determine whether the desired degree if purification is achieved, and if the loss of material is acceptable. Sometimes, though, no crystals form. This may be a problem with the rate of crystal nucleation Ã¢â¬â that event where the first few molecules get together to form the growing crystal. A trick which often works in this case is to take a glass rod and rub vigorously the wall of the test-tube just below the solvent surface. Often, this will stimulate crystal formation, presumably because some of the microscopic scratches serve as nucleation sites. Alternatively, the solution can be Ã¢â¬Ëseeded' with a few tiny crystals of the substance (if these are available), and then to allow the solution to stand undisturbed until crystal formation is complete. If no crystals form, you must consider the possibility that the substance is too soluble in this solvent, and the fact that it did not dissolve at first may simply be because it dissolves very slowly. If this is the case, it's back to the drawing board with a new solvent. A not-uncommon result is for the solute to separate from solution as an oil which will not crystallize. This annoying situation arises particularly for low-melting solids and frequently results when the solution becomes saturated at a temperature higher than the melting point of the solute. A remedy which is often effective is to ensure that separation does not occur until the solution has cooled below this melting temperature, either by using more solvent or by switching to a different solvent. Once this is settled, scratching and/or seeding are often helpful for obtaining crystalline product. Quite often, a single solvent which gives suitable results cannot be identified. In such cases, the use of mixed solvents (solvent pair) is often successful. Two solvents are chosen, one which dissolves the substance readily, and another in which the solute is only sparingly soluble. Note that the two solvents must be completely miscible. The usual procedure is to dissolve the crude solid in the better solvent at its boiling point, and to add the weaker solvent dropwise until a faint cloudiness persists, indicating that the solute is starting to come out of solution. A few drops more of the better solvent are then added to put the solute back into solution, and the mixture is allowed to cool to effect crystallization. Typical solvent pairs are water and ethanol, or hexane and benzene, where the Ã¢â¬Ëweaker' solvent is listed first. These mixed solvent systems are interesting Ã¢â¬â it seems that the solubility characteristics of the better solvent dominate at higher temperatures, while the mixture behaves more like the weaker solvent at lower temperatures. Once the crystallization solvent is chosen, consideration can be given to other features of the crystallization process. The idea is to maximize the recovery of purified compound. Enough solvent must be used to keep the impurities in solution, but if an excessive amount of solvent is used, a large part of the desired compound will remain in solution, and the recovery will be low. For this reason, the minimum amount of hot solvent which will dissolve the desired compound should be used. It is possible to further improve the recovery of material by harvesting a Ã¢â¬Ësecond crop' of crystals. After the purified crystals have been separated by filtration, the filtrate (called the Ã¢â¬Ëmother liquor') is concentrated by evaporation of ~1/2 Ã¢â¬â 2/3 of the solvent. On cooling, more of the compound will crystallize, and this can be isolated by filtration. The purity of these crystals is generally not as good as the original crop, since the concentration of the contaminants in the mother liquor is always increasing. The proper apparatus for recrystallization is the Erlenmeyer flask. A beaker is not appropriate. The shape of the Erlenmeyer flask allows swirling of the mixture without sloshing, and the conical walls tend to condense and return refluxing solvent. The flask should not be overfilled Ã¢â¬â about 60% of the listed capacity is the maximum, and so the flask volume should be chosen accordingly. Decolorizing a Solution and Hot Filtration Special problems are posed by insoluble impurities and highly colored, resinous contaminants. The best way to remove insoluble material is to filter the hot mixture, while the desired material is dissolved. Insoluble debris will be trapped on the filter paper. The colored, resinous impurities are usually large, relatively polar organic molecules which have a strong tendency to be adsorbed on surfaces. Crystals grown from solutions containing such resins are often discolored by surface contamination by these materials, and it is therefore desirable to also remove them from the solution before recrystallization. They can be taken care of by addition of a small amount of powdered, activated charcoal (NoritÃ ® or DarcoÃ ®, also decolorizing carbon) to the hot solution before filtering. Decolorizing carbon has a huge surface area, and readily absorbs the colored impurities. The hot filtration then removes the charcoal; the filtrate, now free of this contamination, is allowed to cool and deposit crystals. The decolorizing/hot filtration procedure requires some care. First, the addition of the powdered charcoal to hot solvent can cause a vigorous foaming which may result in loss of some of the solution. This can be avoided if the hot solution is allowed to cool for 15-20 seconds, and the charcoal is added cautiously. Only a small amount of charcoal is required Ã¢â¬â add too much and significant amounts of the desired compound will also be absorbed, and low recovery will result. After addition of the charcoal, the mixture should be heated to a gentle boil for a few minutes, to ensure that any compound which might have precipitated during cooling is brought back into solution. Filtration of the hot mixture must be done rapidly to avoid crystallization of material on the filter paper or in the funnel. The setup depicted in Figure 2 shows how the filter can be kept hot during filtration. The speed of filtration is enhanced by the use of a Ã¢â¬Ëfluted' filter paper and a stemless funnel. Ã¢â¬ËFluting' a filter paper is organic chemistry origami and the process is best demonstrated in person. A fluted paper uses the entire surface area of the filter paper, and therefore filters more rapidly than the conventional conical fold. The stem of a funnel is susceptible to clogging by formation of crystals, so a stemless funnel is used. To minimize crystallization in the filter paper it is common to place a small amount of solvent in the receiving flask, and to heat this to boiling during the filtration. The hot vapors help to keep the filter warm. In addition, it is prudent to use about 10% more than the minimum amount of solvent, to account for evaporation during the heating, and to allow for the small amount of cooling which will occur. Finally, the mixture should be poured onto the filter in small portions which will filter within about 30 s, so that excessive cooling does not occur. The [pic] remainder of the mixture is kept heated until it can be poured on the filter. When all of the solvent has been filtered, it is a good idea to rinse the flask and filter with a small portion of fresh, hot solvent (~5 Ã¢â¬â 10% of the volume already used). This will help to dissolve and pass through the filter any material which has crystallized. The filtrate should be collected in an appropriately sized Erlenmeyer flask. Some crystals may have formed in the flask by the end of the filtration, but these are often very small and not well formed. They should be dissolved by warming the filtrate. The best crystals are obtained by slow cooling without agitation of the solution. Therefore, the filtrate should be placed in a spot where it can remain undisturbed as it cools. The mouth of the flask may be loosely stoppered, but this is normally not necessary. Crystal growth is normally well along by the time the mixture reaches room temperature. Further cooling in an ice-water bath will cause additional crystallization. Crystals come in a variety of shapes and sizes: long needles, blocky prisms, and flat plates are common. Slow crystal growth not only gives the most pleasing display; the product is generally purer. Too-rapid crystallization generally leads to smaller, more poorly formed (and less pure) crystals. pic] Vacuum Filtration Once crystal formation is complete, the product is isolated by vacuum filtration. This technique permits fast and efficient removal of the mother liquor. A special flat-bottomed funnel (a Buchner funnel) is used in conjunction with a heavy-walled Erlenmeyer flask with a sidearm called a filtering flask. The apparatus is illustrated below (Figure 3). A circle of filter paper, small enough to lie completely flat on the perforated base of the Buchner funnel, but large enough to cover all of the holes, is placed in the funnel, and moistened with a small amount of solvent to hold it in place. With the vacuum on, the cold crystallization mixture is poured as rapidly as possible onto the filter paper. It helps to swirl the flask a few times to loosen the crystals, and with a little bit of skill the entire mixture can be deposited on the filter, with only a few stray crystals adhering to the walls of the flask. The mother liquors are rapidly drawn into the filter flask by suction, and the crystals are squeezed dry of solvent by pressing with a clean cork while drawing air through them. Now, this procedure does not remove all of the mother liquor. Invariably, there is a film of solvent coating the surface of the crystals. Since the mother liquor contains impurities, this must be washed away with fresh solvent. The crystals are washed as follows: the suction is stopped and enough fresh, cold (why? ) solvent is added to just cover the crystals in the funnel (this solvent can be used to rinse the last few crystals out of the crystallization flask). The crystals should be stirred gently with a glass rod or a spatula so that all come in contact with the wash liquid, then the vacuum is restarted and the crystals sucked and pressed dry as before. In some cases, it may be necessary to repeat the wash a 2nd time. Air is drawn through the crystals until they are as dry as possible, at which time they are spread on a watch glass for further drying in the air or in an oven. The steps in recrystallization can be summarized: 1. Dissolve the crude material in a minimum amount of hot solvent. 2. Treat with decolorizing charcoal. 3. Filter hot solution to remove charcoal and other insoluble impurities. 4. Cool to effect crystallization 5. Filter crystals, wash to remove adhering mother liquor. 6. Dry crystals to remove last traces of solvent. Melting Point Determination Once we have purified a solid, how do we establish that the product is, in fact, pure? Undoubtedly, the simplest criterion for purity is determination of the melting point, or more accurately, the melting range. Strictly speaking, the melting point is defined as the single temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid phase of a compound is equal to the vapor pressure of the solid phase, and so the liquid and solid are in equilibrium. These values are actually rather difficult to measure. Much simpler is the determination of the capillary melting range, which, as the name implies, is the temperature interval over which the compound is found to melt. Since, during the melting process, the system is not at equilibrium, this is not identical to the true melting point, but the values are normally very similar. In fact, most of the Ã¢â¬Ëmelting points' in the literature are actually capillary melting point ranges. An important distinction is that the latter is always presented as a range of two temperature readings, from the temperature where melting is first observable to that where melting is complete. For pure compounds, complete melting normally occurs over a very narrow range, often
Sunday, November 10, 2019
You will notice during your reading that some of your recommendations offered during the debriefing oh our oral presentation have not been met, including the change of our logo. This reflects in any way an act of negligence or a lack of rigour. Indeed, we are convinced by some of our ideas, so we prefer to develop you them so that you join there rather than suppress. Hope you like it, enjoy your reading. Sincerely, Laurie and Emilie. Zumospa would like to make Zumo a global brand; the company needs to reposition Zumo for the international market. Zumospa would like to launch a global campaign focussing first on South America, Mexico, The Southern states of the US and Japan, where they have regional offices. Zumospa is a food and drink company based in Valencia, in Spain. Zumo is the best-selling sports drink in Spain. In the last financial year, Zumo contributed Ã¢â ¬30 million to ZumospaÃ¢â¬â¢s annual sales revenue, accounting for 20% of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s total turnover, and 4,5 million in profits. It is ZumospaÃ¢â¬â¢s cash cow, generating more revenue than any other of its products. The drink contains vitamin and a secret ingredient: Ã¢â¬Å"herboraÃ¢â¬ , made from roots of rare African plants. Scientific studies results about its formula and proved that the body absorbs Zumo faster than water or other soft drink. Zumo offers four flavours: classic, light, kiwi and strawberry. Zumo is now sold all over Europe. It has a large channel of distribution: the drink is distributed mainly through grocery stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets, also through sports clubs. Sales generated through contracts with professional leagues, such as football, golf and tennis associations. Press, TV and radio advertising is backed up by endorsement contracts with famous European footballers and tennis stars. Which is a pity; itÃ¢â¬â¢s that this drink is sold only in Europe. Such a success deserves to be applied internationally. The sports drink market is the most rapidly growing segment of the world beverage market. The market is very competitive, with major companies such as Coca-Cola, Pepsi Cola another fighting for market share. We can expect an Entry Barriers from the existing market on each country. Product strategy: ZumoÃ¢â¬â¢s new face Even though Zumospa has been going well in Spain, if we go and run a business with the same brand name Ã¢â¬Å"ZumoÃ¢â¬ and similar image to the USA, Mexico, South America, and Japan, it would be possible to make the countries rouse antipathy. The reserve for the foreign products is increasing. Initial research suggests that Zumo is perceived, as a Spanish drink, and its close identification with Spain may not be suitable when developing a global brand. We will discard old perspectives towards the markets, especially when we expand our services or products to international market, which have different cultural foundations. An energizing drink is a drink that gives a renewal of energy to the consumer, not to confuse with an energy drink dedicated to the hydration of the sportsmen. In most case, an energizing drink contains a concentration rather high of caffeine and sugar then, according to the specific receipt of each product, of the extracts of plants like the guarana or the ginseng and various molecules like the bull-fighting one, of the vitamins B, the arginine, creatin, etc.Ã¢â¬ ¦ As we know, Zumo just contain vitamin and African plants, and scientific have recognized the energy inputs of natural products used. We believe itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to emphasize this point, which represents a competitive advantage of the products to its competitors. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why we propose several solutions to refresh Zumo, and highlight the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s values. In addition, for a brand to be global, its logo, name and slogan must be recognized and perceived like a familiar for all people. We invented a new name, logo, slogan and packaging for the drink, in order to anchor a positive image of the brand in the minds of consumers. Talking about consumersÃ¢â¬ ¦ Zumo is positioned as an energy product for fitness conscious people, especially sportsmen and women between the age of 20 and 35, and even the older athletes. We succeeded in Spain with this target market and we will continue to maintain it in international market. The scope of the drink matches these consumers. Athletes support the values of the beverage, recognize its qualities. They represent our main target. But our customers can extend far beyond sportsmen. Indeed, people are concerned more and more about health, and pay attention to the ingredients contained in what they eat and what they drink. We can expect to receive more in addition to consumers through the properties of the drink. In order to stretch our consumer panel, the drink will be offered in different version, like in Spain, where the drink is proposed with kiwi and strawberry. A version of the drink sugar-depleted will be deployed in each country. With regard to the different fragrance (cherry, mint, etc.) depending on the country concerned by this development. But before that, itÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to perform a complete redesign of the brand, to give an image more correlated with the drinkÃ¢â¬â¢s values. A new name, for a new fame The name Zumospa is focused as a Spain brand, to Spanish language. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s clearly a household name. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to reinvent it, for a more international name. This name must be euphonic, easy to pronounce and memorize. Zumospa is a Spanish product; it means the fruit juice in Spanish. Ã¢â¬ ¨In Spain, this product is much known, but not in the other countries because it is only sold in Spain. Ã¢â¬ ¨We so had to find a new name, so that he must be significant for all that is why we chose the English language, it is going to give a modern and young tone. And especially all the consumers and the future consumers will understand it NED Natural Energy Dring NED Natural Energy Dring The new name has to express the benefits of the product, that it represents the drink, a powerful, energetic name and especially that it shows highly rated natural of this energy drink. We had found several names as for example: Strong Jet, Big Torrent, NED or TORERO. Having hesitated a lot, we selected NED (the Natural Energy drink), it is very simple because it is the definition of the product but it is particularly easy to pronounce for the most part of country, it is short and precise. It is also necessary to respect the administrative formalities; we shall thus have to register the name of our product to protect it from any copy, to WIPO (the World Intellectual Property Organization A little makeover It exists on the market of the drink big competitors as Pepsi, Coca Cola but especially on the market of energy drinks as Red Bull. In order to compete against big competitors like Pepsi and Coke, especially Red Bull, and reshape the image of the drink, we think we should redesign the logo. The current image is too simple, too Spanish and cannot create strong impressions in foreign customers. Pepsi and Coke have been known as calorie products while nowadays more and more people are paying attention to healthy product. So we will focus on marketing that Zumo is energy drink with low gas, glucose and with natural ingredients. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why, in the logo, we have combined the HulkÃ¢â¬â¢s arm with a small daisy. We wanted to show it in the logo so that the customers realize of highly rated natural of the product To represent the energy values of the drink that brings strength and force, we used the Hulk arm that represents, in our opinion, an icon of physical force. To show that this strength comes from the earth, we combined with this image of a small daisy, reminding the natural aspect of the drink. The particularity of this logo is the contrast between the powerful arm and the delicate flower, held in his hand. In addition, the colours are sparkling and strongly recall the ecological context (green, yellow, white). The specificity of the image will allow that itÃ¢â¬â¢s permanently implanted in the mind of the consumer. After the logo, we have decided to occupy us of the slogan. We thus needed a small sentence, which represents the logo but especially the product. As we used Hulk as image of Zumo, we decided to stay in this spirit of great powerful, but natural strength. Having thought a lot we have chooses Ã¢â¬ Great Get the Natural Strength Ã¢â¬Å". Obtain the strength by drinking our drink, a strength nature but very powerful. We thus used play on words to insist well on the natural fact of the supernatural product and the strength of Hulk. And a suitable outfit Our main target being athletes, as well as all active people, we decided to adapt the new packaging for their needs. In addition, it breaks the image of the current energy drink, full of chemicals. Indeed, all competing drinks, except one, offer their beverage in cans. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why we will propose a new contain: plastic bottles. Available in different format, from 25cl to 50cl, these contain enables easier transport of the drink. Whether in a gym bag or a handbag, an open can can no longer store while the bottle is reformed indefinitely. The bottles will have a stopper teat, making usage more convenient and less risky for active people moving constantly. The bottles will be made with a green plastic. It can be recycled and reused to reduce the impact of waste on the environment. Indeed, itÃ¢â¬â¢s impossible for a company promoting ecologic values to neglect the growing concern of consumers for ecology. Position We should reshape specific identity and directional characteristics of Zumo as a sports beverage. Choose gorgeous designs and intense colours to lay an emphasis on the image of the silver generation who care about their style and intend to the luxurious life style. The price will be about 2Ã £ because we have made decision that our targeted customers is ready to pay for a high quality product. They could be willing to pay for the product, even it could be expensive. Moreover we made a decision to the price, which is higher than other competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s products to posit high quality to consumers. What else? We can expect a real success for the introduction of the drink worldwide. We will have to monitor the results of the campaign and the strategies put un place. Subsequently, other operations will need to be considered to maintain the reputation and the dynamism of the brand. E already thought of some actions. For example, it would be interesting to create versions derived from NED: a line of bottle for girls, a light version, as well as other flavours (strawberry, peach, etc.). Proposed perfumes will vary depending on the country in witch the drink is sold. Each of them may have different preferences in terms of taste, so it will be necessary to adapt to their habits. Communication strategy We can lead international marketing campaign as a successful case by selecting specific target layers and using effective promotion routes. Media Firstly, advertising is known as the first step to introduce our product to foreign market We use one method: Innovative advertising, marketing around the world. We are planned to do promotion by teaser ad, outdoor billboards, and sampling party. Our creative team knew create us some very interesting sketches. We could do teaser ad, which are easy to see around us as a promotion method to attract customerÃ¢â¬â¢s interests and attention. The location to publicize will be a rush place. Our views will be present in many places: Using outdoor billboards, especially at bus stops, buildings, fitness centres, and on the newspaper, magazines and so on. Hors media The world is waiting for London 2012 Olympic and I think this will be a good opportunity to advertise our products by sponsoring. Olympic always attracts everybody all over the world. If we sponsor Olympic, our product will appear frequently and it will create strong impression in foreign customers. When athletes use our products, our prestige will be consolidated and many people will want to try our products. We going to take advantage the Olympics games for doing the global launched of the new brand, new product line and new image (logo), supports of advertising in media. We are supposed to hold a sampling party. For example, we are scheduled to a sampling party at the fitness centre, which is a lot of members, since we could expect to get people to attract. Also, it could be a good way to inform the new brand. Apply to be official sponsor at next Olympic Games. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a great chance for us to publicize our new brand. Olympic Games are the biggest sports event that sportsmen and women all around the world look forward to. We could contract an ad with famous footballers, tennis players, and athletes.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Characteristics Of Mine... I have many qualities that would make me a great asset to any university but there are three that really stick out. These would have to be that I'm hard working, outgoing and friendly. These attributes not only make me an excellent addition to any university but a great addition into today's society.My work ethic is a great trait because I know college is not all fun and games. It is a place of higher education witch means you have to know when it's time to buckle down and get to work. I know getting a college degree is hard work and this is were that quality would come into play.Net would have to be that I'm outgoing. I don't think there's anything that I enjoy more than meeting new people. I think you learn a lot about yourself by meeting other people. For instances somebody else probably introduced you to your favorite activity today I know this is true for me and in college there are plenty of new people that your going to meet.Degree CollegeMy last unique quality would have to b e that I am a very friendly person. I rarely get into altercations with other people. I think this is a good characteristic to have in college because of all the people that are around you on an every day basis. The less problems you have with other people the better your college experience will be.Those are the characteristics that I have that will make me a great attribute to any university.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The Woman Who Explained the Sun and Stars Today, ask any astronomer what the Sun and other stars are made of, and youll be told, Hydrogen and helium and trace amounts of other elements. We know this through a study of sunlight, using a technique called spectroscopy. Essentially, it dissects sunlight into its component wavelengths called a spectrum. Specific characteristics in the spectrum tell astronomers what elements exist in the Suns atmosphere. We see hydrogen, helium, silicon, plus carbon, and other common metals in stars and nebulae throughout the universe.Ã We have this knowledge thanks to the pioneering work done by Dr. Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin throughout her career.Ã The Woman Who Explained the Sun and Stars In 1925, astronomy student Cecelia Payne turned in her doctoral thesis on the topic of stellar atmospheres. One of her most important findings was that the Sun is very rich in hydrogen and helium, more so than astronomers thought. Based on that, she concluded that hydrogen is THE major constituent of all stars, making hydrogen the most abundant element in the universe. It makes sense, since the Sun and other stars fuse hydrogen in their cores to create heavier elements. As they age, stars also fuse those heavier elements to make more complex ones. This process of stellar nucleosynthesis is what populates the universe with many of the elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. Its also an important part of the evolution of stars, which Cecelia sought to understand. The idea that stars are made mostly of hydrogen seems like a very obvious thing to astronomers today, but for its time, Dr. Paynes idea was startling. One of her advisors - Henry Norris Russell - disagreed with it and demanded she take it out of her thesis defense. Later, he decided it was a great idea, published it on his own, and got the credit for the discovery. She continued to work at Harvard, but for time, because she was a woman, she received very low pay and the classes she taught werent even recognized in the course catalogs at the time.Ã In recent decades, the credit for her discovery and subsequent work has been restored to Dr. Payne-Gaposchkin. She is also credited with establishing that stars can be classified by their temperatures, and published more than 150 papers on stellar atmospheres, stellar spectra. She also worked with her husband, Serge I. Gaposchkin, on variable stars. She published five books, and won a number of awards. She spent her entire research career at Harvard College Observatory, eventually becoming the first woman to chair a department at Harvard. Despite successes that would have gained male astronomers at the time incredible praise and honors, she faced gender discrimination throughout much of her life. Nonetheless, she is now celebrated as a brilliant and original thinker for her contributions that changed our understanding of how stars work.Ã As one of the first of a group of female astronomers at Harvard, Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin blazed a trail for women in astronomy that many cite as their own inspiration to study the stars. In 2000, a special centenary celebration of her life and science at Harvard drew astronomers from around the world to discuss her life and findings and how they changed the face of astronomy. Largely due to her work and example, as well as the example of women who were inspired by her courage and intellect, the role of women in astronomy is slowly improving, as more select it as a profession.Ã A Portrait of the Scientist Throughout her Life Dr. Payne-Gaposchkin was born as Cecelia Helena Payne in England on May 10, 1900. She got interested in astronomy after hearing Sir Arthur Eddington describe his experiences on an eclipse expedition in 1919. She then studied astronomy, but because she was female, she was refused a degree from Cambridge. She left England for the United States, where she studied astronomy and got her PhD from Radcliffe College (which is now a part of Harvard University).Ã After she received her doctorate, Dr. Payne went on to study a number of different types of stars, particularly the very brightest high luminosity stars.Ã Her main interest was to understand the stellar structure of the Milky Way, and she ultimately studied variable stars in our galaxy and the nearby Magellanic Clouds. Her data played a large role in determining the ways that stars are born, live, and die.Ã Cecelia Payne married fellow astronomer Serge Gaposchkin in 1934 and they worked together on variable stars and other targets throughout their lives. They had three children. Dr. Payne-Gaposchkin continued teaching at Harvard until 1966, and continued her research into stars with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (headquartered at Harvards Center for Astrophysics. She died in 1979.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
The difference between the roles of the prosecutor and the defense attorney - Research Paper Example This paper is a critical evaluation of the differences between the roles of a prosecutor and those of a defense attorney in the course of administrating justice. Differences in the Roles of the Prosecutor and the Defense Attorney Once a crime has been committed and brought to the attention of the prosecutor, it is his role and responsibility to ensure that justice to the victim, whether an individual or the state, is achieved by ensuring that the offender is convicted through a fair court process. To achieve this, the prosecutor embarks on a mission to create a strong case, which is free of loopholes, so as to establish whether the offender deserves to face trial or not. In this context, he has to conduct thorough investigation, which may involve questioning and securing witnesses, collecting all the incriminating evidence for example by acquiring the services of experts such as those dealing with forensics, ballistics among others, depending on the type of crime in question, so as t o support his or her case once the trial begins (Grant, 2002). This service may be provided by the investigative arm of the police, which is of high importance to the prosecutor. This is essential based on the fact that there are people in the society, who may wish to subject others to torture such that they will utilize their democratic rights to demand rogue justice through unfair means such as planting of evidence. Others may be motivated to do such things by political ambitions, whereby the prosecution may be used as a tool to discredit a person by displaying him as corrupt or inefficient. In this context, it is important to insist that a prosecutor is not always out to ensure that suspects are put to jail but also acts as an agent of truth. In fact, Rosenthal (n.d) indicates that the prosecutor has the role of ensuring that innocent people are not convicted. It is therefore the reason why he will not go ahead to prosecute a person if the evidence shows that the case is motivate d by malice. However, it is important to note that this does not imply that the prosecutor has the authority to declare one innocent as that is the prerogative of the judge, but truth be told, if the case in his hands goes to court and he does not believe in its admissibility, then, he has the powers to convince the judge by declining to persuade him to find the suspect guilty of the offences. In the US criminal justice system, the prosecutors are considered to be so powerful due to the powers vested in them, which allows prosecutorial discretion and plea bargaining. This means that they can convince the defendant to plead guilty either as charged or to a charge of lesser magnitude after which he would plead with the judge for a lighter penalty than what is recommended (Fionda, 1995). This is a circumstance that has created controversy such that critics indicate the intention of proposing mandatory prosecution instead of what is currently in operation. The international criminal cou rt (ICC), for example, is mandated through the Rome statute to prosecute perpetrators of crimes against humanity, genocide, and other war crimes, which may be perpetrated by individuals or
Friday, November 1, 2019
Strategic Management - Assignment Example In this case, the SWOT analysis is advantageous to help me develop a strong Hikma business strategy by making sure that I have considered all business strength and weakness besides opportunities and threats it faces in the marketplace. SWOT analysis will help Hikma Pharmaceutical to assess a changing environment and respond proactively by using the noted strengths to maximize the opportunities (strength-opportunities strategies), and using the strengths to minimize the threats (strength-threats strategies) and using the opportunities identified to design strategies that will minimize weaknesses (weakness-opportunity strategies) as well as avoid threats (weakness-threats strategies). The Company has a powerful combination of quality products and extensive sales and marketing capabilities that gives the firm a competitive advantage in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). In addition, the Company possesses a successful research and development team and has attractive licensing partners. The Company identifies and develops new generic pharmaceutical products. The Company has a number of opportunities that can make it strategically develop. The company partners with multinational pharmaceutical companies seeking access to the fast growing MENA markets (Hitt, Hoskisson & Ireland, 2013). In addition, the company has a strong product pipeline that is focused on FDA approved and high-quality products in critical therapeutic areas such as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders as well as oncology (Darwazah 2010, p. 34). The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s facilities in Jordan and Saudi Arabia have been successfully inspected by the FDA that provides the capability to produce products for the United Sates Markets as well as in the MENA region at lower costs. The company faces such threats of stringent drug developments guideline. In addition, there is a fierce competition for