Wednesday, July 31, 2019
WAYS OF FORMING WORDS Compounding is the word formation process in which two or more words combine into a single new word. Compound words may be written as one word or as two words joined with a hyphen. Shortening is the word formation process in which a word is reduced or shortened without changing the meaning of the word. Blending is the word formation process in which parts of two or more words combine to create a new word whose meaning is often a combination of the original words. Affixing is the word formation process in which a prefix, suffix or infix attaches to the base form of a word to create a new word.Back-formation is the word formation process in which an actual or supposed derivational affix detaches from the base form of a word to create a new word. (SIMPSONS EXAMPLE: BILLBOARD FOR Ã¢â¬ËTONIGHT Ã¢â¬â WRITERS ON WRITING, TOMORROW Ã¢â¬â JANITORS ON JANITINGÃ¢â¬â¢) Conversion is the word formation process in which a word of one grammatical form becomes a word o f another grammatical form without any changes to spelling or pronunciation. Abbreviation is the word formation process in which a word or phrase is shortened.Intialisms are a type of abbreviation formed by the initial letters of a word or phrase. Acronyms are words formed by the word formation process in which an initialism is pronounced as a word. Eponyms are words formed from the name of a real of fictitious person. Coinage is the word formation process in which a new word is created either deliberately or accidentally without using the other word formation processes and often from seemingly nothing. Borrowing is the word formation process in which a word from one language is borrowed directly into another language.Calquing is the word formation process in which a borrowed word or phrase is literally translated from one language to another. Commonisation is the process of a productÃ¢â¬â¢s brand-name becoming the generic term for that product. Here are some examples of each of t hese ways of forming words. Next to each one write the method that has been used. There is one example for each method. Word Method 1. AIDSAcronym (Since the initialism is pronounced like a actual word already. *other examples, scuba, laser 2. AlgebraBorrowing (from Greek) 3.Band-aidCommonisation for a stick-on gauze pad or strip 4. Break-upCompounding 5. DisappearAffixing 6. ExamShortening 7. Flea market -Calquing since itÃ¢â¬â¢s translated literally from marche aux puces in Paris, so-called Ã¢â¬Å"because there are so many second-hand articles sold of all kinds that they are believed to gather fleas. 8. Microwave (noun) Ã¢â¬â Microwave (verb)-Conversion (from the grammatical form of a noun to a verb) 9. MotelBlending (motor + hotel) 10. NylonCoining 11. RSVPAbbreviation 12. SandwichEponym (from Earl Sandwich) 13. TeleviseBackformation from television
The novel One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest (Kesey, 1962) is narrated from the point of view of a character called Ã¢â¬Å"The ChiefÃ¢â¬ who is an inmate of the mental asylum in which the story takes place. The book opens with a scene where the Chief is sweeping the floor and ends with the Chief escaping from the asylum, and so the changing perceptions of the Chief are a key to the main messages of the book. The character who occupies most of the action in the book is a rebellious newcomer called McMurphy. It is McMurphy who is the catalyst for the change in the Chief, showing him a both a different way to see the asylum and a number of strategies of resistance which ultimately allow the Chief to break free. This paper will analyse how the Chief perceives the asylum in the early stages of the book, focusing especially on the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"the CombineÃ¢â¬ . After that MurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the world will be presented, along with his various resistance strategies. In conclusion the ChiefÃ¢â¬â¢s revised view of Ã¢â¬Å"the CombineÃ¢â¬ will be analysed, showing what has changed in his understanding of the world of the asylum, and of the world in general. At the start of the book it is not immediately evident that the Chief is mentally ill. He explains that he is half Indian and chooses to be deaf and dumb: Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m cagey enough to fool them that muchÃ¢â¬ (Kesey, p. 9) His separation from the world of sound is presented as a deliberate defence against oppression, but the reader may suspect that it is a symptom of a mental illness like paranoia or schizophrenia. It is a feature of the book that medical descriptions are avoided, and the reader is left to figure out for him or herself whether or not, or to what extent the characters are ill or mad. The Chief imagines the Big Nurse having powers that extend via wires which only he can see: Ã¢â¬Å"I see her sit in the centre of this web of wires like a watchful robot, tend her network with mechanical insect skillÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Kesey, p. 27). He imagines that she is working to control the world outside the institution also, suggesting that there is a huge conspiracy against him and the other inmates called Ã¢â¬Å"the CombineÃ¢â¬ which he defines as Ã¢â¬Å"a huge organization that aims to adjust the Outside as well as the InsideÃ¢â¬ (Kesey, p. 27). This analogy works both as a description of a delusion, with no basis in reality, and as an artistic representation of an institution (the asylum) and a wider authoritarian society (conservative American society in the early 1960s) which operates on a rigid and inhuman basis. At the start of the book the Chief, and through him the reader, feel this cold, hard, oppressive force and see the inmates as victims of its power. One way of making this chilling force constantly present in the narrative is the ChiefÃ¢â¬â¢s use of vocabulary relating to machinery to describe all of the asylum personnel. The three Ã¢â¬Å"black boysÃ¢â¬ who are orderlies working for the Big Nurse speak with the Ã¢â¬Å"hum of black machineryÃ¢â¬ (Kesey, p. 9) and the most frightening of all is Nurse Ratched herself: Ã¢â¬Å"She works the hinges of her elbows and fingers Ã¢â¬ ¦ She starts moving,Ã¢â¬ ¦when she rumbles past sheÃ¢â¬â¢s already as big as a truck, trailing that wicker bag behind her in her exhaust like a semi behind a Jimmy DieselÃ¢â¬ ¦ and her smileÃ¢â¬â¢s going out before her like a radiator grill. Ã¢â¬ (Kesey, p 79). These are inhuman images used to describe the leaders of an inhuman regime. The arrival of McMurphy into the story makes a huge impression on the Chief who, despite his huge size, is cowering and fearful of the cold and all-controlling power of the Combine. The first impression is of McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"loud brassy voiceÃ¢â¬ (Kesey, p. 14) Chief significantly makes a connection between this voice and the voice of his Indian father: Ã¢â¬Å"He talks a little the way Papa used to, voice loud and full of hellÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Shortly after this the ward is stunned by the sound of McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s laughter, which is strange to them because no one ever laughs in this oppressive place. So much of McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s verbal behaviour is a surprise to the ward: his laughing, singing and ironic banter are all examples of a language the inmates have forgotten the meaning of. This is one of the most important aspects of McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s influence. He reminds the inmates of a different kind of communication with authority and with each other that is free and spontaneous, unconcerned about the hierarchies of the asylum context, and taking everything less seriously than the authorities intend things to be taken. McMurphy mocks people, including his friends, in order to show that there is more than just one way of seeing things, and that the asylumÃ¢â¬â¢s regime is ridiculous when viewed from outside perspectives. He argues with the Big Nurse, and he laughs at her rants and rages. This is a subversive attitude, and it sparks new thoughts in all the inmates, setting off a chain reaction of awareness that cannot be stopped. The first meeting of McMurphy and the Chief is also an important moment in the book, and this time the Chief is struck by the touch of McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s hand: Ã¢â¬Å"It rang with blood and powerÃ¢â¬ (Kesey, p. 25). Later, when sweeping out the sleeping area, the Chief notices a smell that he has never encountered before in all this time on the ward; Ã¢â¬Å"the man smell of dust and dirt from the open fields, and sweat, and work. Ã¢â¬ (Kesey, p. 83). It is as if the Chief is rediscovering through the presence of McMurphy, all the natural human senses which had been dulled or switched out of commission by the Combine. Just by being himself McMurphy reawakens the warm, human qualities of the inmates and shows them how to use these qualities against the hard, cold machinery of power. The world that McMurphy represents is offered as a contrast to the regimented, controlled environment of the ward. There is nothing particularly radical about what he represents, for example setting up a voting process to determine the television viewing schedule for the inmates, but in the upside-down regime of the Combine this appears to be a shocking suggestion. Drinking, smoking marijuana and sex with prostitutes are, in the world outside the asylum, quite ordinary and natural expressions of normal masculine behaviour in large sections of the community. It is the abuse of power by the Big Nurse in talking to Billy BibbitÃ¢â¬â¢s mother that turns the antics of the inmates from a prank into a tragedy. In every society it is common for young males to push boundaries and experiment with things that are forbidden by teachers, parents and authority figures. It is part of normal growing up. The irony of the asylum is, that it takes an oppressed youngster like Billy and then just when he catches a glimpse of sexual and other kinds of freedom via McMurphy, crushes his spirit so completely that he takes his own life. The book depicts a struggle for power over the inmates: Ã¢â¬Å"As the many symbols and images indicate, the central theme of One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest is the restoration of the inmatesÃ¢â¬â¢ individual and collective potency. (Lupack, 1995, p. 94). Whether as group, or as separate individuals, McMurphy encourages the inmates to take back the power that has been unjustly stolen from them by the institution. Some critics have seen McMurphy in religious terms, as a character who sacrifices himself in order to save his brothers: Ã¢â¬Å"The fishing scene is an extended figure of Christ and his disciples, and instance of McMurphy as fisher of men. Ã¢â¬ (Hicks, 1981, p. 174). Hicks points out that there are images of the cross and the crown of thorns in descriptions of the electric shock table, and that McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s men are Ã¢â¬Å"physically cannibalizing himÃ¢â¬ (1981, p. 5) by wearing him out more and more as he transfers his power and energy over to them. It is true that as McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s influence grows, more and more of the inmates rebel or discharge themselves, or in the case of the Chief, make a spectacular escape but this is a book that does not come with a happy ending and salvation in a heavenly future. McMurph y is turned into a lobotomized shell of his old self which the Chief kills out of mercy, as an Indian would kill an injured animal. The future of the other characters is not known. The freedom that the Chief gains is a freedom from the real and imagined Ã¢â¬Å"wires and connectionsÃ¢â¬ (Kesey, p. 254) that he rips up when he throws the control box out of the window. In conclusion, then, it appears that the Chief has changed his view of the Combine. He leaves the delusions and the asylum behind but he still must navigate his way in the outside world. It remains to be seen how he will tackle the Combine-like injustices and oppressive forces in the wider world. He does not have his mentor McMurphy with him, and must only go back to where he started and try to reintegrate into a community that has been oppressed and exploited by the building of a great dam. The great difference at the end of the book is that that he wants to go back to his old haunts Ã¢â¬Å"just to bring some of it clear in my mind againÃ¢â¬ (Kesey, p. 254) and thanks to the example shown by McMurphy, he can now do this with courage and clarity, seeing possibilities of collective resistance rather than just being isolated and crushed by overwhelming institutional power.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Les Miserables (the title is the same in French and English) is the most well-known of Victor HugoÃ¢â¬â¢s novels. It describes the miserable life of French workers, and especially their children. Hugo calls for social action to improve the unfortunate poorÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. This excerpt describes the character Marius, and how he has worked very hard to succeed in life. Excerpt from Les Miserables by Victor Hugo (1802-1885) Misery is the same with anything else. As time passes, it gradually becomes bearable. Marius had emerged from the narrow passage of his life; now the path widened out a bit. Through sheer hard work, courage, and a strong will, he had managed to earn around seven hundred francs a year. He had learned English and German. Thanks to Courfeyrac, the man who introduced him to his publisher friend, Marius held a position in the literary department of the publishing house, where he filled the useful role of utility. He wrote prospectuses, translated articles from journals, annotated publications, compiled biographies, and so on. His net gain, year in, year out, was seven hundred francs. He was able to survive on this income. How? Not badly. Here is how he lived. For a yearly rent of thirty francs, Marius lived in a miserable little room without a fireplace in the Gorbeau tenement. There was only a bare minimum of furniture which belonged to him. He paid the old woman who took care of the building a sum three francs a month to sweep his room, and bring him some warm water, a fresh egg, and a small loaf of bread every morning. This egg and bread cost him between two and four cents, because eggs varied in price. At six oÃ¢â¬â¢clock in the evening, he went downstairs to eat dinner at RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s in the Rue Saint Jacques. He had no soup, but he ate a plate of meat for six pennies, half a plate of vegetables for three pennies, and a dessert for the same price. As for bread, he could eat as much as he liked for three pennies, but instead of wine, he drank water. Then he paid at the counter, where Madame Rousseau sat majestically, a large woman with a pleasant face. She would smile as Marius handed the waiter a one penny tip. Then he left the restaurant. For a total of sixteen cents, he got a dinner and a smile. Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Marius had two complete suits, one of them old, that he wore for everyday use, and the other one new, which he wore on special occasions. Both suits were black. He owned only three shirts: the one he had on, another one that was in the bureau drawer, and the third one that was at the laundry womanÃ¢â¬â¢s. When they wore out, he replaced them with new ones, but generally, his shirts were ragged, so he buttoned his coat up to his chin. To reach this stage of prosperity, it had taken Marius many hard, difficult years: years of barely getting by, and years of trudging along. He had never once given up. He had struggled and done without, he had been through every hardship, except going into debt. Instead of borrowing money, he went without food. There had been many days of fasting. During all his hard times, he actually felt encouraged, and sometimes he even felt a certain inner strength. In addition to the memory of his father, Marius carried the memory of ThÃ ©nardier in his heart. He envisioned the man surrounded by a halo, the brave sergeant ThÃ ©nardier who had saved his father, a colonel, when he found him among the cannon fire and bullets at Waterloo. Marius always kept the memory of this man together with the memory of his father, and he felt great admiration for them both. It was a bit like a form of worship in two steps. The high altar was reserved for his father the colonel, and the low one for ThÃ ©nardier. His feelings of gratitude for the man were strengthened by the knowledge that ThÃ ©nardier had suffered a horrible misfortune. Marius found out that as an unlucky innkeeper, ThÃ ©nardier had gone bankrupt. After learning this, Marius made countless efforts to track down the miserable ThÃ ©nardier, who had disappeared. Marius blamed and hated himself for not being able to locate him. He felt that the only debt his father had left him was to succeed in finding ThÃ ©nardier. Marius felt it was his duty to pay him that tribute. Ã¢â¬Å"After all,Ã¢â¬ he thought, Ã¢â¬Å"when my father lay dying on the battlefield, it was ThÃ ©nardier who was able to find him through the smoke, and carry him away on his shoulders. Yet he owed ThÃ ©nardier nothing, whereas I, who owe so much to ThÃ ©nardier, cannot get to him in his time of darkness and suffering. I cannot, in my turn, restore him to life. Oh! I will find him!Ã¢â¬
Monday, July 29, 2019
Tea Party - Essay Example Eventually Americans imported tea from Netherland and sold it at a price even lower than the British tea. Carefully organized by patriots the Ã¢â¬Å"Tea PartyÃ¢â¬ was a planned organization ready to lose a great amount of money if British sold tea to America at such a low rate. It is recollected that Boston was not the only region participating in the tea party. It was a game of fooling one another. While East India Company decided to unload the stock of tea refused by the Americans at prices even lower than the black market, these black marketers arranged a series of tea parties as a manipulative act.1 How did it start? The tea party started as a war between the Britain and its colonies that refused to buy tea from British East India Company because it was selling tea at a low price. The misunderstanding among the Indians was that it was being sold at a very high price. But the situation aggravated when they learnt that it was merely to adjust the increased tax levied on them by the crown. The colonizers sold tea bought from other regions at a much lower price than the East India Company. ... Unapologetic U.S. sovereignty iii. Constitutional originalismÃ¢â¬ .3 Way back in 1773 Samuel Adams urged the Governor of Massachusetts Thomas Hutchison to avoid conflict and condemn the British from loading tea in the colonies which was refused by Hutchison. Adams himself staged an anti-tea movement with 8000 men ashore. The Governor had refused to decline Britain from unloading. The final outburst was an attempt by fifty carefully chosen men who planned to attack the British ships.4 The Tea Party of the twenty-first century is not the only one associating itself with the Boston Tea Party of 1773. The more recent agitation from right-wing populist was after the release of the film Ã¢â¬Å"NetworkÃ¢â¬ in 1976 where a man shouts and calls himself as Ã¢â¬Å"mad as hellÃ¢â¬ urging the audience to repeat the same.5 What effect does it have on our politics? The authenticity of the Tea Party remains the point of scrutiny for most of the political figures. They have to question whethe r it is a genuine upheaval by the crown or is it a mere agenda by the right-wing media to further it for their own purposes. The Democrats have called these series of occurring movements in the American history as futile or Ã¢â¬Å"AstroturfÃ¢â¬ meaning a movement having no grassroots. In 2010 President Obama, a target of the Tea Party himself seeks for those in the outer circle with Ã¢â¬Å"legitimate concernsÃ¢â¬ while shunning the ones at the core who might be interested in demoting him by any means. Nearly 25 to 30 percent of the polls show that there is support for the Tea Parties. Party is used plural because it exists on several levels, incorporating competing factions sometimes as loose confederations. These supporters make up to tens of millions of Americans. Tea Party activists are angry with the
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Financing Education Equitably & Sources of Revenue - Essay Example But are these funds enough to cater for the rising population? The issue of funds allocation in the education system has over the years been debatable. 1. In the modern century, several trends have come up which detects the mode of allocation and expenditure of the funds. In general the trends are developed to determine the school district wealth. One of the most used methods is the determining of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s current operating expenditure per pupil (COEPP). The measurement covers expenditure on curriculum materials and teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s salaries. It is also inclusive of administration and studentÃ¢â¬â¢s transportation charges. Generally, it detects the difference in expenditure costs per children in different regions of the country. This trend however provides a good field to fraud the government. According to Brimley & Rulon (2008) the trend can be easily fraud by increasing the totals in the expenditures which will provide unnecessary inequality. Another trend is the assump tion of activities and projects to be undertaken by a school at the start of every educational year. These assumptions are obtained from the regional school calendar. The calendar contains all the possible events of the year and their financial estimates. Apart from the activities there is also the determination of possible curriculum changes. The teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ funds are also included in the estimates. The estimates and assumptions are close to accurate which provides less probability for great deficits. After the allocation of these funds the regional schools are provided with surplus cash which will cover small adjustments in the course of the year. With these allocations, there is prior planning and management of these funds and school projects. However, if in the course of the year there are major adjustments it could be difficult for regions to tackle the issues. Another shortcoming is that schools may be forced to stick to a particular program and curriculum thus preventing elasticity (Brimley & Rulon, 2008). 2 a. Equity: This is the financial benefits of investors after all liabilities have been accounted for. In educational matters if refers to the benefits the students will have from allocation of funds. Generally, it can be referred to the value of an institution or organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s assets after all debts and liabilities have been cleared. b. Regressive tax: This is a tax whereby the taxation rate reduces while the amount subject to taxation increases. c. Proportional tax: This is tax whereby the tax rate remained fixed. The amount subject to taxation is directly proportional to the amount of the tax. d. Progressive tax: this is a tax imposed whereby the tax rate increases while the amount subject to taxation also increases. e. Tennessee Basic Education Program (BEP): this is a money generating and funding program whereby state education funds are generated and distributed to Tennessee schools. f. ADA: It is the acronym of Average Daily Atten dance. The average student attendance helps in the determining of allocation of funds. ADA is calculated by the number of days of school attendance by a student divided by the number of the days teachers taught in the school (Brimley & Rulon, 2008). For example, if Isaac attended 142 days of the total 142 of teaching days, he has a 1.0 ADA. g. ADM: it the acronym of Average Daily Membership. This is the count of residential and state based
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Swanson's Theory of Caring - Essay Example Clinical observations include temperature, blood pressure and pulses are normal. The model used in this context involves evaluating the caregiverÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude. They include being competent, meeting individual needs of the women and respecting their dignity. If proper care is given after a woman miscarries then she has the power to improve on her own. The scenario involves women who had early miscarries and those who had a late miscarriage. Nurses and midwives who care for these women are also considered in this situation. SwansonÃ¢â¬â¢s caring categories apply in this scenario that includes Ã¢â¬Å"Maintaining beliefÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"knowingÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"being withÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"doing forÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"enablingÃ¢â¬ (Brier, 2008). The middle range caring theory The theory is built on the basic SwansonÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamental principles. These elements are the usual five that the doctor developed in her theory. The first developed by the doctor in 1991 element is referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"knowingÃ¢â¬ (Jansson & Adolfsson, 2011). It strives to understand an event in the way it has a meaning in another personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It does not assume that one can know what the other feels or they way he or she is affected by the situation. Instead, it tries to understand and endeavor to take care of the person. The lives of the patients are important and the nurse is obliged to fully understand it. When a nurse embraces Ã¢â¬ËknowingÃ¢â¬â¢, he or she develops empathy that is important for the care receiver. It encompasses observations, systematic research and prolonged clinical experience. The second process is Ã¢â¬Ëbeing withÃ¢â¬â¢ and it implies being available or with the woman. It implies stepping into her shoes, providing psychological, emotional and physical support (Krippendorff, 2004). It also involves effective communication and good listening skills. The midwife must display assertiveness, advocacy and competence to protect her interests. Ã¢â¬Ë Doing forÃ¢â¬â¢ process requires maintenance of both knowledge and skills (Adolfsson et al., 2004). It entails doing what the other person would do to themselves and is a practical side and art of the midwife profession. It can be described as comforting, being protective, anticipatory. Nurses should practice it with competency and use all the available skills. The other process is Ã¢â¬ËenablingÃ¢â¬â¢. This model describes it as facilitation of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s passage through transitions from unfamiliar events (Jansson & Adolfsson, 2011). It is also referred to as empowerment. To empower the women, nurses must give them choices and be fully informed of them. This enables them to control their decisions regarding pregnancy resulting to equal partnership when giving care. For the midwives to give informed choices, they must be aware of all evidence-based guidelines that are relevant to them (Brier, 2008). Finally yet importantly, Ã¢â¬Ëmaintaining beliefÃ¢â¬â¢ is the f ifth process and entails fulfilling expectations using realities. However, it is only achieved if the expectations are real. Maintaining belief enables midwives Ã¢â¬Å"to know, be with and do forÃ¢â¬ (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009). This final process brings all other processes together thereby forming one whole process. Brier (2008) describes it as holding individuals in esteem; believing in the personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to realize set goals. The goal is to have a normal birth that includes a healthy infant and a well-being mother. In the real world, great emotions are always achieved with the importance of birth. The
Friday, July 26, 2019
Summarize - Essay Example The researcher must follow the content pattern in every chapter. Nevertheless, your chair might approve another pattern in a manner, which captures the reader. General-to-specific might be adequate through giving results initially and then proof afterwards, but the researcher does not have to show the details discussed in an earlier chapter. Discussing the premise of a research is the most essential section in the final chapter. Looking at the findings offers a fast answer to the study question, which aims at unearthing the significance of the study rather than the details. Tentative answers to research questions offer an answer in determining the content of the chapter. Finally, the researcher must a proper comprehension of the software utilized in analyzing data like Excel spreadsheets or Word documents. Software is significant in data analysis, as well as presentation. The final paper must be a winning dissertation. It must tackle all research problems, as well as offer recommendations for future study areas. A good or perfect research builds on present knowledge to develop innovative
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Moblie Phone Insurance Research - Essay Example To this effect, a host of insurance companies created mobile phone insurance to provide cover for phones that are lost, damaged or stolen. Several companies have presented different options that make it easy to provide insurance cover for the mobile phones, and people have to choose dependent on the cover that suits them best, as well as the benefits that emanate from such dealings (Cai, Li, Xia, & Giannelli 2010: 49). Several ways of looking at the way of dealing with such an issue is actually dependent on the person making the payments. Some people will be content by knowing that they have an extra source of security for their expensive gadgets. The problem is that this peace of mind could come at an extra cost that they ought to have reduced at the very start by choosing the best MPI in the market. Some, however, will see the money paid to be quite high and unrealistic. They will wish to have their phones remain as they are without any cover (Brignall 2012). Nonetheless, it is important to understand that when companies are designing their MPIs, they are aware that customers will require different covers and will come up with different gadgets that vary in price. The company must understand this and place it into consideration as a way of appealing and satisfying their employees. The goal is to assure them that they will get the best through their indulgence and utility of covers from their companies (Cai, et al. 2010: 78-79). The delivery of services must meet the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs; hence, a need to work on carrying out their feasibility studies to understand what is missing. For instance, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) carried out a survey seeking to understand the impact MPIs have on clients (King & Carey 2013: 212). There were existing gaps brought about by ineffective product governance in companies, the products were not tailored to meet the needs of the consumers, the terms and conditions were unfair or
India's Contribution towards the British War Effort in World War I and the Aftermath - Research Paper Example Since the Ottoman Empire sided with the German forces, the Ottoman army started attacking various strategic positions (oil depots, ports and locations military importance) in the Middle East. Moreover despite the neutral role of the Shah of Afghanistan, the Ottoman army influenced some of the local tribesmen on the Indian-Afghan border in the North-West of India to who started attacking the British forces and captured some of the land and supply routes. The British Army was a mixture of races from different dominions and colonies of the British Empire and the British Indian army was one of them. 2 regiments of the British Indian Army were permanently stationed in various other British colonies before the start of WWI but in WWI it played pivotal role on various frontiers in Middle East, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. The Indian Army mainly comprised of the lower Castes of Hindus; the untouchables, the Shudras (artisans, craftsmen and service providers) and the Vaishyas (agriculturis ts, cattle traders, merchants and bankers) and also in Muslims the Ajlafs (the local converts) and the Arzals. The Indian people were not trained to become high ranked officers in the army and only served as soldiers commonly known as Sepoys (derived from Persian word Sipahi meaning soldier). In World War I the Indian Army fought against the German Empire in German East Africa and on the Western Front. The Indians also served on various other frontiers in Egypt, Gallipoli. The most remarkable of the efforts by the Indian army was in Mesopotamia where nearly 700,000 soldiers served against the Ottoman Empire. In addition to these foreign expeditions the Indian Army also defended the British Indian Empire at the North Western frontier and also in the South East at Burmese border. The Largest Volunteer Army The British established their first cantonment in India in 1757 at Goa to fight against the French forces in India and it marked the beginning of the inductions of Indians to the Br itish Army. As the British invaded more and more land the Indian population in the army went on increasing and when in 1857 the Indian throne was brought under the British crown, the British Indian Army was formally established. The Sepoy mutiny of 1857 forced the British to limit the Indian inclusion in the army to lower rank soldiers and as a result mostly the lower castes joined the army. By 1914, the British Indian Army was the largest volunteer army in the world with a total strength of 240,000 men. The largest increase in the army happened during the WWI when the recruitment process was very fast and the Lower Caste Indians were more and more interested to join the army not only because of the incentives but also the sense of security for being in the British army was a big motivational force for a lower caste Indian who was treated in an inhumane manner. This large induction increased the number of Indians in the British army to almost 550,000 by November 1918. This large str ength also increased the importance of the British Indian Army which was called upon to deal with incursions and raids on the North West Frontier. Moreover the Indian army was also deployed in the British Empire in China, Singapore and Egypt. Events during the War 1. The Indian army was sent to Marseilles on 30th September 1914 as reinforcement to the British Expeditionary Force but the Indian army was not familiar to the local conditions and climate and was poorly equipped to resist weather. Moreover the uneducated, less-trained lower caste soldiers from India could not learn to operate the new war equipment. This force took part in the four major battles namely
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Window Shopping in Britain - Case Study Example The reports by the media that shopping is a major pastime activity in Britain, is true. Zara Fashions is one of the fashion and clothing companies that invest heavily in marketing its products. Shopping is an important activity in Britain. Shopping is not taken just as a necessity whereby individuals go to buy what they need; it has more of a social meaning. In Britain, shopping is one of the pastime activities. Shopping for necessities such as food is done on a regular basis and without much thought. However, shopping for goods that are not necessities is more organized. For luxurious goods, more effort is put in shopping with prior preparation that involves research on potential shopping areas. Most of the people in Britain do their shopping when they have enough time rather than when they are in a hurry. Thus, most of the shopping is done during the evenings and on the weekends. As a social activity, most shopping is not done just by an individual rather; most of the shoppers are accompanied. Window shopping has a high social meaning in Britain. This behaviour is observed in most of the cities and towns in Britain. Most people admire products in shopping marts and supermarkets. Window shopping plays a big role in helping most people make decisions on the kind of products to buy. Although window shopping is common in almost all products; clothing and fashion marts attract most of the window shoppers (Sullivan, Adcorck, 2002). This shopping behaviour in most of the Britain people has influenced the way marketing for clothing and fashion is done. Window displays are a key means of marketing fashion and clothing. The trend of fashion and clothing involves frequent changes in fashion. In consequence, the taste of the customer also changes. Most customers are attracted to fashions that are new to the market and are attractive to their eyes. Thus, before making a decision on the kind of fashion or clothing to buy, individuals must have come across the fashion or clothing. In making decisions, most customers base their decisions on having seen someone else in the fashion or having come across the fashion in a display window. A display window is the first thing that a customer comes across before entering a fashion shop (Leydenfrost, 2006, 230). When entering the shop, the customer usually has an idea on the kind of clothing that he or she is attracted to. Most people go for window shopping in fashion shops to update themselves on the new fashions in the market. Thus, the displays in the fashion shops are made in a manner that is attractive to customers and that send a good message about a product of a business Zara Fashions is one of the most successful fashion and clothing company in the world. In London, the company has a store along Regent Street. In all its stores, Zara fashion takes its marketing very seriously. The displays in the stores enable the different varieties of fashions to be displayed under different categories (Sullivan, Adcorck, 2002, 23). The major categories in the London Zara fashion store are the men's and women's apparel. The other categories are children's fashion and fashions for various occasions. Occasions such as weddings, executive affairs, church and casual dressing are featured in the store. The window display in Zara fashion aims to attract all categories of customers. Men's and women's clothing are displayed in the window. The display in the store portrays a sense quality. The fashions
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Demonstration Presentation - Essay Example During my presentation am going to talk about the history of animation, types, and demonstrate how they can be designed using basic equipments. I will also elaborate on how one can benefit from the different animation designs. 1. Based on Ã¢â¬Å"historical dictionary of animation and cartoonÃ¢â¬ by Nichola Dobson, he mentioned that the invention of animation designs is attributed to Etienne Gaspard.This was first discovered in 1798 when he projected moving images using Ã¢â¬Å"Magic LanterenÃ¢â¬ . 2. However the first animation graphic design to be produced to the public was in 1908. It was in the form of stop motion produced by a French film maker named ÃËmile CohlÃ¢â¬â¢s with title Ã¢â¬Å"fantasmagorieÃ¢â¬ = Ã¢â¬Å"phantasmagoriaÃ¢â¬ 4. During those days there were different types of animation designs. At this juncture I would kindly request all of you to be attentive as I mention some the designs. They include: 2D Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"2D, 3D, stop motion, and Sculpture. A. Since last year, I have been using my hobby of designing animations to get some benefits. I started by drawing free animation designs in the youth magazine until I became a member in animation
Monday, July 22, 2019
Should Children Be Allowed Essay Should children be allowed to use mobile phones at school I believe that mobile phones should be allowed to be used at school at either before school, after school and during the luch breaks. Children should not use mobile phones in the classroom as that is the time and place to learn not to go on your phone. At luch time and recess children should be allowed to use their mobile phones because thay should be able to enjoy their break and eat their food happily and freely. I agree that mobile phones should not be used in the classroom, because if children were using their mobile phones in the classroom where they should be learning, their attention from their school work could drift off, therefore they would not know what to do in their studies leading to them failing their subjects and not succeeding at school. Also the teacher would get inturrupted by the phones noises causing her not to be able to concentrate on teaching the little amount of people who are not using their phones and trying to learn But I also think that children should be allowed to use their mobile phones during their luch breaks, before and after school as they are supposed to be resting and enjoying those times of the day as those are the only times they are allowed to rest during school hours, so they should spend that time efficiently by enjoying their time however they desire. I honesly do not see any reasons why children are not allowed to use their phones during these times unless they do not violate any other school rules whilst doing so. This being said I agree and disagree on the the statement Ã¢â¬Å"childlren should be allowed to use mobile phones at school. I agree by saying that they should be used during their lunch breaks, before and after school and I disagree by saying that they should not be used in the classroom, the place top learn.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
The Poverty Stricken People Of Canada Social Work Essay One of the first microsystem causes of poverty would be if an individual came from an impoverished family. This is a predisposing factor that an individual is likely to become impoverished themselves, if their family of origin was poor as well. More than half the children in the United States living in poverty grew up to be impoverished, while 1 in 4 grew up to have a low socio-economic status and 1 in 3 in Canada (Corak, 2006). Also, according to the text Social Inequality: Patterns and Processes 4th ed., by Martin Mager, low parental income, may result in poorer quality education, continuing the cycle by making it difficult to find an adequate job due to lack of education. That lack of education becomes a perpetuating factor, which maintains the cycle (Mager, 2008). Another cause of poverty in some cases may be divorce or single parenthood. This would be a precipitating cause because together a couple on two incomes may be able to support a child, however, divided they may not have the income to provide as they did previously. According to a study done in Ottawa, children in single parent homes are more likely to become impoverished, especially when there was more than one child living in the home (Fleury, 2008). In many situations, one parent may have stayed at home to care for children and the household, while the other worked, meaning that parent would be dependent on the other parent. If a divorce takes place, the dependent parent no longer has the other parent to support them, and they may not have employment, making it very easy for them to fall into poverty. Yet another cause of poverty is addiction, which can be both a precipitating and a perpetuating cause. Addictions can often lead to loss of employment and misuse of finances which can bring on and perpetuate the issue of poverty. Lawrence M. Mead says although poverty is not an addiction, it is often caused by and causes addiction. Addiction has a definite trickle effect on poverty. If one has an addiction, for example, to a drug, it becomes the most important thing in their life, all their money goes to purchasing the drug, all their time is devoted to scoring and doing drugs, which means, they may not go to school or work, or their behaviour causes them to be dismissed, meaning they have no means for an income. The addicts income would go towards drugs, and not other needs, or they would not have an income at all, leaving them in poverty. Lastly, a cause of poverty is often debt and poor debt management. It is possible to live with some debt and not have to live in poverty, however if debt is not managed properly and becomes more than one is capable of dealing with, it can lead to poverty. Four million Americans would fall below the federal poverty line if the interest they pay on their credit cards and other consumer debts were subtracted from their incomes says a San Francisco Chronicle article. These people are called the debt poor (Abate, 2009). These people, although they may not look like the stereotypical poor, they technically do not have the means to obtain the necessities of life and, at some point are faced with bankruptcy and the loss of their home. Microsystem Consequences A microsystem consequence of poverty is low self-esteem. It is obvious children living in poverty have trouble buying the latest trends, their parents may not drive the nicest car or drive a car at all, maybe they do not have a washer and dryer and so sometimes they have to go without clean clothes for a period. Their parents cannot afford to put them in music lessons or sign them up for sports teams. Some children, who are resilient would not let this stop them from being confident, however, not all children understand that they are not on a level playing field, so to speak and believe that it is a weakness in themselves and not inequity within the system and feel that their personal worth is directly related to their financial worth. A child with the tools to succeed is more likely to succeed and if they succeed, they become more confident, making them more likely to take more risks, with a likelihood of succeeding again and increasing their confidence more. In some cases, children in poverty lack those tools, or have to work harder for them, meaning they do not succeed as often, decreasing their self-esteem (Eric J. Marsh, 2010). Bullying is another consequence of poverty that often goes along with low self-esteem. Children in poverty are often bullied. According to a study done in the UK, low-income children are often the target of bullying in wealthier areas, because of their socio-economic status (Branigan, 2007). One in 13 children in an international study of 35 countries and more than 162 000 children reported bullying due to their socio-economic status. The inequity among adolescents from low socio-economic backgrounds puts them at a greater risk for bullying. Teens that are from schools and living in countries where there is a bigger gap between socio-economic groups are at higher risk of being bullied. Poverty also has a huge impact on childrens physical development. One in ten Canadians is affected by food insecurity which has a correlation to poor health (Kirkpatrick, 2008). Without proper diet, children will lack the nutrients they need to develop optimally, and may even become over or under weight. Studies show children with a balanced diet are sick less often than children with poor nutrition (Kirkpatrick, 2008). Families may not be able to afford medical expenses or treatments that would prevent their child from illness or lessen the effects of an illness or injury, causing impairment. Also, parents in low-income homes may find it more difficult to afford necessary repairs in the household that would ensure their childs safety. Pregnant mothers living in poverty also pose a risk, if they are not able to afford adequate prenatal care. Poverty has an impact on mental health, as well. Children from low socio-economic backgrounds were more than twice as likely to suffer from anxiety and depression as their counterparts from better socio-economic statuses (Mark Lemstra, 2008). Children from low-income families, not only have the normal stress a child would have, many impoverished children are aware of their families hardships and have developed anxiety about bills and debts and food security, and feelings of hopelessness about their situations and lack positive feelings of self-worth. Besides affecting physical and mental health, social development is also a consequence of poverty. Poverty has an impact on the development of social skills in children. Children living in poverty often have poorer language skills and less developed coping skills, which in turn impacts the quality of their relationships with peers (Lisa Fiorentino, 2004). Children living in poverty also have less opportunity for social interaction due to the fact they are not able to afford to be part of extra-curricular groups that help develop social skills and encourage peer relationships. Without the money to afford the same social opportunities children in low-income homes are not able to develop social skills as easily, so poverty is a definite impact on social development. Cognitive impairment has also been cited as a consequence of poverty. According to research, children who are malnourished will suffer cognitive deficiencies and children living in poverty are more likely to be malnourished than those who are middle class or affluent. Also, children who are poor are less equipped to explore their environment meaning they are not receiving the same mental stimulation or their environment is less stimulating (Brown, 1996). Parents are also less able to afford to put their children in activities or purchase things like books and computers that would help stimulated cognitive development. Thus, there are various reasons why poverty has an influence on cognitive development including malnutrition, and lack of opportunity for mental stimulation. Another unfortunate consequence of poverty is abuse and neglect. According to research from the NSPCC: women from poor childhood homes were twice as likely to have suffered abuse or neglect (77 per cent versus 38 per cent), and the association was even more striking with multiple forms of abuse, with a three-fold increase: 45 per cent of those from poor childhood homes had experienced more than one form of abuse compared with 15 per cent who had experienced no poverty. (NSPCC, 2008) Poverty can put a lot of stress and strain on families making parents more susceptible to becoming perpetrators and children more vulnerable and likely to be victimized. Lack of resources also makes it more difficult to provide children with their basic needs, which does not always constitute an allegation of neglect, however, if the parent is using child welfare tax and child support for personal use and not to provide for the child it is neglect. Poverty can also impact ones personal values and beliefs. Childrens values and beliefs are affected by their socio-economic status. From personal experience, being very poor growing up, I had a certain paradigm. I believed that wealthy people were the enemy and that they did not value me because I was poor. I also did not value education very much because I did not believe I would have the opportunity to go to college or university, because my parents could not afford to help me pay for it. I learned not to value money and do with less. Family was important to me, since I spent so much time at home, due to the fact I could not afford to be in any lessons or on sports teams. It is obvious a child from a poor home compared to a family from a wealthy home would have a very different outlook on life. Mesosystem Causes Lack of resources is a precipitating cause of poverty. There is a lack of affordable housing and lack of services available to combat poverty and to assist those in poverty, especially for new immigrants coming to Canada. There are not enough services available to help new Canadians adjust, to help them upgrade education, to find jobs and affordable homes and to learn the language so they can succeed at their job and at school. In some more rural areas there is no ESL program offered. Also, the complicated forms and waitlists mean people in need of poverty relief may not get help for months (Canadian Council on Social Development, 2010). Loss of employment is a precipitating cause of poverty, as well. Loss of a job sometimes not only means loss of financial support from an employer, it also means loss of insurance. Meaning medical and dental care, house repair, car repair are not covered, so families do without or are put further in debt by having to pay for medical or repair bills. If a family has no income it is difficult to provide necessities for ones family, and if the low-income cut-off is more than 50% of income is spent on necessities, than anyone who is unemployed or whose spouse is unemployed will likely fit that criteria (Statistics Canada, 2010). Mesosystem consequences A microsystem consequence of poverty was child abuse and neglect, so it is evident then, that on a mesosystem level there is a consequence which affects Childrens Aid Societies. CAS woks with families to help get them on track and get support that they may not otherwise be able to afford for their child. According to OACAS, many of the children using their services are living in poverty (Laurie Monseebaaten, 2008). Poverty is a blanket problem which is the cause and consequence of many of the things CAS deals with on a regular basis, often times to deal with these other problems they provide families with services that deal with poverty. Another big consequence of poverty is that it affects the childs school experience. In some cases children go to school in a poorer neighbourhood and so their peers are poor, but quite often poor children go to schools where there is socio-economic inequality. This, in some cases affects them more as it makes the children more reluctant to accept help financially to pay for field trips or sports teams. They lose out on learning opportunities because of their poverty. They also have a more difficult time succeeding in school because they may not have access to computers or books necessary to help them learn and complete school work, and because they may have jobs outside of school to help them combat the poverty, leaving them less time for their school work (Sands, 2007). Poverty is a big barrier to health care, even in Canada. Although initial healthcare is free. The cost of medication, eye care and dental care is still too expensive for some people to afford. For example, there is a treatment for AIDS however, it is too expensive for individuals to buy, but the pharmaceutical companies will not distribute it for free or at a lesser cost because they do not wish to lose profit (UNFPA, 2009). Because dental care, eye care and medication are for the most part, not every day needs, most people living in poverty go without it. Another consequence of poverty is that churches are involved in poverty relief around the world. Religious groups are the number one source of charitable funds donated in Canada and advocates for the poor according to the World Council of Churches (World Council of Churches, 2011). Churches are very involved locally and internationally with the fight against poverty, they work on all levels of prevention, primary, secondary and tertiary. They support the development of micro businesses for women in Indian as a primary prevention, they work with Canadian Food Grains Bank to distribute food as a secondary prevention and they work in soup kitchens and assist people locally who come into get support as a tertiary prevention. (McLennan, 2011). A consequence of poverty is the inability to afford to put children into extracurricular activities and segregation in extracurricular activities. This has consequences in itself, but in general, the high cost of music and dance lessons and sports teams means that children are not able to participate, or are segregated to specific activities that are more affordable. Recently, there has been offered a tax break for parents of children on sports teams, which has alleviated some of the stress put on parents to allow their children to participate, however, some parents still struggle to put their children in activities, some of which are difficult to get to if parents do not have reliable transportation. Having children in extracurricular activities is also a primary preventative measure for preventing children from getting involved in crime, so parents in poverty who cannot afford to put their children in sports or pay for some kind of art lessons may also have to suffer another consequence of poverty, which is having their children involved in crime. Crime is another consequence of poverty for a number of reasons. Families may steal food to supplement what little they have, children and youth may steal things they want that they cannot afford, parents and children may get involved with dealing drugs or fraud to supplement their income. A study done in the U.S. also shows that the law is more lenient to affluent offenders giving them little or no jail time compared to poorer offenders (Reiman, 1995). Another consequence of poverty is that families are segregated to specific neighbourhoods and attend specific schools depending on their income. Rarely when low-income housing is built is it just one house in a relatively affluent neighbourhood, most low income housing is built in blocks; townhouses or apartments and there is often more than one in a neighbourhood. Thus, that particular neighbourhood is stigmatized as being the poor neighbourhood. Peers are all from similar socio-economic backgrounds, schools in the neighbourhood are often overwhelmingly populated by low-income children (Fleury, 2008). Exosystem Causes A perpetuating cause of poverty is lack of government funding for poverty relief. For people already living in poverty if they cannot get sufficient assistance to help them out of poverty, it means they remain there longer. Any social assistance one may receive is barely enough to live on so these people are still only making ends meet. Without the opportunity to save some money people will continue living paycheque to paycheque and if there is an emergency it may put more financial strain on them, because they did not have enough to live on to begin with and they are put into debt. Another perpetuating cause of poverty among immigrants in Canada is the transportation loans. Refugee families come to Canada, hoping for a better life, the Canadian government is kind enough to loan them money for travel expenses, which are very costly. However, they are expected to pay this loan back within a very brief window of time, keeping in mind that what little money they came with has been put towards finding a place to live and they may not even have a job yet (Canadian Council for Refugees, 2010). Unfortunately, this is of little concern to the government, so these people must struggle both with being able to support themselves in a new country and with paying back debt, perpetuating their poverty. Next, the cost of living in Canada has a great impact on poverty and is a precipitating consequence. This is a cause more often attributed to developed countries. The average cost of rent in Toronto is between $775 and $895 for a 1 bedroom apartment, the cost of groceries for a month is approximately $100 a month and the cost of telephone services is about $23 a month (Fast Facts, 2006). With just those expenses, the cost of living for a month can be more than $1000, however, a person employed full-time (40 hrs/wk) at minimum wage ($10.25) makes less than twice that, meaning significantly more than half of their income goes towards necessities of life. Finally, a perpetuating cause for poverty among children is the discrepancy in the Low-Income Cut-off with regards to what necessities are. It observes the need for clothing, shelter and food; however, it does not take into account a childs need for social and emotional development and scholastic success, which may come from appropriate childcare, participation in extracurricular activities and the purchase of school supplies. Without these things it is much more difficult to succeed in school and life, meaning less stable employment, which in turn results in continuing the cycle of poverty. Exosystem Consequences One of the consequences of poverty is how people view those on social assistance. There is the common stigma that people on social assistance are abusing the system and that they are just lazy and do not wish to get a job, however that is not always the case. In some cases, the recipient of social assistant is someone who was a dependant and did not work or could not work and for a variety of reasons had to leave that dependant situation and needed financial support, but was not able to find a job immediately (Pulkingham, 2011). The portrayal of poverty in media is a consequence has a consequence on how poverty is viewed. The media has created this stereotype of the poor adolescent. They are always from the wrong side of the tracks, engage in immoral behaviour, get into a lot of fights and never excel in school or they are portrayed as dirty street children. For example, in the movie Slums of Beverly Hills, the characters are a poor family who must constantly move to avoid paying rent; the young female is not interested in school and is very promiscuous (Jenkins, 1998). Evidently, this inaccurate portrayal of poverty does not help with a childs self-esteem or to reduce bullying or encourage impoverished youth that they are capable of achieving great things. Another myth that has become the consequence of how people view poverty is the myth that people who use soup kitchens and food banks are homeless or jobless, when in reality many of the people accessing these facilities are working poor, who have jobs, and perhaps a home. They may be able to pay their rent, but their income is not sufficient enough to afford adequate food. Close to 7 million workers earn less than $ 20 000 per annum and 40% of impoverished children live in families where at least one parent is employed full-time year round. Parents have children to care for and sometimes that means they need to supplement their meals with food from a food bank or meals from a soup kitchen to make sure their children are fed (Poor No More, 2009). Next, a consequence of how people view poverty is the myth that poor children are less intelligent and not as successful as wealthier children. Although there is evidence that poorer children are more likely to struggle in school and that they will continue the cycle of poverty and that poverty is a risk factor for lower IQ, this is not always the case. Really, this depends on resilience. The more resilient and determined a child is, the more likely they will overcome their circumstances and excel in school and in life (Lisa Fiorentino, 2004). Although they may not have the same resources as a wealthy child, as long as they have a good support system and the determination to succeed no matter what obstacles are placed in front of them, they will break free from that stereotype. Yet another myth that exists is that poor people are always looking for handouts. This is actually very inaccurate; often families remain in poverty because they are too proud to ask for assistance which could be a perpetuating cause of poverty as well. Also, though they are poor they are far from helpless. Many people would be happy to offer their skills or work in return for support and would feel more fulfilled doing so (Poor No More, 2009). Some acknowledgement and treatment as an equal is often what the poor are looking for, not just spare change. The final myth that exists in our society is that poverty only happens in Africa, this. The overwhelming amount of support and publicity the poverty stricken continent receives is inspiring, however, servicing the local poor does not seem nearly as important to people. When we look at the private aid going overseas to relieve poverty and the amount of sponsorship and adoption of children in developing nations, it is significantly more that what is received locally. Fifteen per cent of Canadian children are living in poverty; that is approximately 100 thousand children (Fleury, 2008). 100 thousand children who need help, but are overlooked for children in developing countries. Poverty does happen in Canada. Macrosystem Causes A precipitating cause of poverty that has been highly publicized in recent years is the economy. Canada, along with nearly the entire rest of the world has felt the impact of an economic depression which has inflated prices, caused job loss and created a huge influx of people into social assistance. As previously discussed, cost of living, job loss and lack of resources are causes of poverty; an economic depression is the cause of all three, making poverty an issue on a supranational scale. Third world governments are obligated to compete with each other and with more dominant, developed nations. To attract investors, impoverished countries attempt to provide cheaper resources, goods and labour. This has only increased poverty (Shah, 2011). So, the economy has been an international cause of poverty. Additionally, war is a precipitating cause of poverty. War causes immense destruction and costs millions of dollars. There is destruction to systems such as social services and health care and resources are diluted and redirected from poverty relief to maintaining the war, as well as physical damage to buildings and belongings. This consequently results in poverty
The Impact Of Employer Brand On Recruitment The human resource is a key resource available to an organisation and as such, recruitment and selection of the right candidates to join the organisation is a key factor in the success of the organisation. All possible strategies should therefore be applied to ensure that the organisation attracts, recruits and retains quality human resource. One strategy that employers can use is effective branding. This research proposal focuses on the perception of employer brand and the extent to which it can be used to enhance the recruitment and selection process. The important factors identified are the identification of perception of employer brand, the evaluation of the Impact on prospective employees of the organisation, and the extent to which the brand can be used to enhance the recruitment and of the right candidates to join the organisation. Research Objectives The general objective of the study is to determine the effect that employer branding has on recruitment and selection of employees. The specific objectives are; To establish the perception of Employer Brand among Employees and Potential Recruits. To determine the effect of employer brand on employees and potential recruits. To establish the strategies that employers can use to ensure that their brand enhances recruitment and selection. Literature Review Employer Brand Armstrong (2008) defines employer branding as the creation of a brand image of the organization for prospective employees. Armstrong (2008) thus suggests that employer branding implies employers reputation, image of the organization, employer value proposition and internal marketing. On their part, Barrow and Mosley (2005) view employer branding as the package of functional, economic and psychological benefits provided by employment and identified with the employing company. The main role of the employer brand therefore is to provide a coherent framework for management to simplify and focus priorities, increase productivity and improve recruitment, retention and commitment. Barrow and Mosley (2005) list the constituents of the employer brand as; the need for recognition of individual talents and capabilities, work-life balance, remuneration inequalities and inclusive culture. According to Martin et al., (2005) the employer brand is the image of the company seen through the eyes of its associates and potential hires, and is intimately linked to the employment experience of what it is like to work for the said organisations. The employment experience is a combination of tangible factors like remuneration and benefits and intangible factors like company values and culture (Martin et al., 2005). A complementary perspective to employer branding is documented in Pinkess (2008) as an organisations Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) agenda. From this perspective, organisations seen to engage in environment degrading activities, or dealing in products that are known to be harmful such as cigarette manufacturers face challenges of ethical concerns from potential recruits. Effect of employer brand on employees and potential recruits In the highly connected Global Village that is todays marketplace, people join brands and leave managers. Rosethorn and Mensink, 2007 argue that a brand offers a promise, and a customer buys that promise and if satisfied, continues to buy the product and speaks well about it. A good Brand delivers distinctively and consistently on this promise and the same would extend to Employer Brand; in this case the customer is the Employee or Potential Recruit (Rosethorn and Mensink, 2007). The customers of Employer Brand will therefore buy the promise as portrayed by the Employer Brand and choose to work for the Employer, and if satisfied continue to buy more by choosing to remain with the organisation, and speak well about the Employer Brand. Strategies to ensure employer brand enhances recruitment and selection of employees The future of Human Resources lies in increased awareness of Employer Brand as the War for Talent intensifies. The advent of the Web and easy access to considerable amount of information at, literally speaking our fingertips, has fundamentally changed how people seek insights and answers of where to work. This according to Saratin and Schumann (2006) defines how an organisation communicates to its current and future talent, the experience it offers as a workplace. The differentiator for many an organisation is not the mode of communication it chooses to depict itself, but the actual experience it conveys to Employees and Potential Recruits, and this reinforces that Employer Brand should be firmly rooted at the centre of the recruitment and selection process. Martin et al. (2005) expound that to attract the best talent, the organisation needs to ask itself, What is the compelling and novel story that we can tell people about working here? How do we tell the story to potential and existing employees in a way that convinces them of the reality of what we have to offer? (Martin et al., 2005). In identifying Strategies to ensure Employer Brand enhances Recruitment and Selection, Pinkess (2008) contends that there are four major steps or approaches undertaken to enhance the Employees and Potential Recruits view of the organisations Employer Brand. The first step, which is largely non-existent now, is the Do Nothing stage; in this case the organisations do nothing or the bare minimum in terms of CSR and Employer Brand Enhancement. The next stage Dont feel bad, in this the organisation is self-critical about its CSR, and has taken steps to address the concerns. This is followed by Feel Good stage, where CSR is sufficiently ingrained in an organisation resulting in pride and positive orientation of prospective recruits. At the peak of Employer Brand enhancement is the Its what we do stage, where the CSR agenda is fully integrated in the business model and employees accept it as part and parcel of their daily lives. Research Methodology The Research Objectives make it unpractical to categorically select either Qualitative or Quantitative method and as such, a hybrid approach will be adopted. This approach is explained by Saunders et al (2009) as Pragmatism that mixed methods, both qualitative and quantitative, are possible, and highly appropriate within one study (Saunders et al, 2009). Again given the nature of the Research Objectives, the research approach is necessarily hybrid, combining deductive and inductive approaches as is elaborated further in this section. Data will be collected by use of a questionnaire, where the first objective will be addressed by use of open ended questions. The second objective will make use of a likert scale and the third objective by a combination of open ended followed by scaled questions. This strategy of designing the questionnaire is based on the purpose of research as outlined by Saunders et al., (2009); that is largely explanatory, as opposed to exploratory. The Literature review has outlined the major factors in Employer Brand perception, this adds to the weight of choosing questionnaires as the preferred method of data collection. The population of the Study comprises of Employees and Potential Recruits. Given that the identification of those potential recruits who chose not to engage with the organisation as a result of their perception of the Employer Brand Communicated is not practically possible, the target population will be the Employees and Potential Recruits who have chosen to engage. The Data Collection Exercise is expected to be carried out by administering the Research Questionnaire to a random sample of Employees who have been recruited in the last twenty four months. The sample will be representative of Employees and Potential Recruits, by using Stratified Sampling of various Departments and Physical Locations. The time frame of twenty four months is selected to enable the Research address the extent of influence of Employer Brand on these recruits, in addition to considering the memory of the said recruits fading over time, and other factors clouding the recruits judgement having worked in the organisation for longer. A shorter time frame may not provide a sufficient sized sample to make the Research Meaningful. Objective 1: To establish the perception of Employer Brand among Employees and Potential Recruits. This Objective requires an Inductive approach to qualitative analysis, as expounded by Saunders et al., 2009. In this approach the research commences without a clearly conceived theory defining Employer Brand. The purpose of the Research objective is to establish the perception of Employer Brand. The theory is expected to emerge in the process of data collection and analysis. The Data thus collected will be analysed using Content Analysis. This process as explained by Adams et al. 2007 includes the identification and counting of Key Words and Phrases which are found in response to the perception of Employer Brand. The frequency of these is then tabulated for analysis. The data thus collected will be categorised into key emerging themes that define the employees perception of Employer Brand. This data will then be pictorially represented in a Histogram or Bar chart to identify the Key factors that identify the Employees Perception of Employer Brand. The process outlined above will have established the perception of Employer Brand among Employees Objective 2: To determine the effect of employer brand on employees and potential recruits. This Objective is addressed by means of scaled questions used to ascertain the impact of Employer Brand on Employees and Potential Recruits. The data collected is classified as Categorical Ranked (Ordinal) Data as described in Saunders et al. 2009. Since the relative position of each case is known, but the gap between consecutive ranks cannot be numerically precise. The Data collected will be pictorially presented in the form of Pie Charts to depict the distribution of each rank for easier visual representation. The Data collected under this Objective being non-numerical, would not be suited to the determination of the mean value, however the mode, median and percentiles would prove useful in summarising this type of data as proffered by Tharenou et al. 2007. The Data thus collected would then be tested for association between the Independent Variable (Employer Brand) and the Dependent Variable (Impact on Recruitment and Selection) by subjecting the values to a chi-square test. This test calculates the probability that the data could occur by chance alone (Saunders et al. 2009). Should the data collected, as expected, have a very low probability of occurring by chance, it would now be appropriate to test for Correlation. Correlation coefficients range from +1 denoting a perfect positive correlation to -1 denoting a perfect negative correlation. A coefficient of ZERO would denote absolute independence. (Saunders et al. 2009) However, in real life these values are seldom obtained. Values reflecting weak or strong, positive or negative correlations are obtained and the appropriate conclusion drawn therefrom. Given that the data collected under this section is Categorical Ranked (Ordinal) the appropriate test for correlation is the Spearmans rank correlation coefficient (Spearmans rho) would be applied to determine the correlation coefficient. The results of this test will have addressed the Objective of determining the extent of Impact of Employer Brand on Employees and potential Recruits. Objective 3: To establish the strategies that employers can use to ensure that their brand enhances recruitment and selection. This objective can be assessed only if the results of the Correlation testing of Objective 2 yields a reasonably strong Positive Coefficient. In the unlikely case that the analysis of the Data collected under Objective 2 yields either a Negative Correlation or Very weak correlation bordering on Independence then this Objective will be rendered redundant. There will remain no value in attempting to identify how (the perception of) Employer Brand may be used to enhance Recruitment and Selection, as the research will have intimated that Employer Brand has no positive Impact on Employees and Potential Recruits. However, under the Hypothesis that there is a correlation and the extent of this correlation is significant, the Research Questionnaire will be designed with a combination of open ended questions addressing the How and scaled questions to address the relative importance of each factor in the Recruitment and Selection process. The Data thus collected under this Objective will be subjected to Content Analysis for identification of the How as explained under Objective 1, and the scaled questions analysed in line with the Categorical Ranked (Nominal) Data Analysis steps outlined under Objective 2. This process will have addressed the Objective of identifying how (the perception of) Employer Brand may be used to enhance Recruitment and Selection. Ethical Issues As outlined by Saunders et al. 2009, ethical issues will arise across all stages of the Research Project and will affect all parties i.e. The Researcher, the Sponsor, the Gatekeeper and the Participants. The Sponsor has a right to useful Research, in this case the Sponsor will find use of the Strategies identified as part of Objective 3, that will enable the Organisation ensure the Employer Brand enhances Recruitment and Selection. In the context of this Assignment the Gatekeeper who controls access to the Participants is expected to be an integral part of the Sponsoring Organisation, and the rights are mutually served. The Researcher should not be subject to undue influence by the Sponsor at the Research formulation and design stages, where the Sponsor may have a predetermined conclusion to the research. The researcher also deserves unhindered access to Participants, without coercion from the Gatekeeper or Sponsor during the Data Collection Exercise. The access to participants as identified in the Research Design should not be restricted nor altered to include favourable participants, in order to produce unbiased results. Finally, in the Data Analysis and findings, the Researcher must be shielded from any sort of influence to interpret the perception of Employer Brand, the Effect of Employer Brand on Employees and the Strategies to enhance Recruitment and Selection. The Researcher correspondingly is obliged to analyse the Data and Report the findings without any bias and preference, and objectively present the findings i.e. let the Data collected speak for itself. Of overwhelming concerns are Ethical issues affecting the Research Participants, key among the issues are Privacy, Voluntary Participation, Consent, Confidentiality, Reactions, Effects and Objectivity. The Participants have a right to Privacy and non- intrusion in their participation. The participation in the Research has to be totally voluntary, with no coercion or influence for the Researcher or the Sponsor, and the option to withdraw from the Research remains at the jurisdiction of the Participant. The Participants also need to be assured of the anonymity of their participation, as the primary Data Collection Instrument is a Questionnaire. This ensures confidentiality of responses, and protection from any repercussion including but not limited to harm, embarrassment, discomfort or pain, for a response that may be deemed unsuitable. Finally, the Participants deserve to be treated with Respect, and with impartiality and objectivity by the Researcher, to ensure no bias or influence is experienced in the responses. Limitations The key limitation expected in this Research proposal is the access to those candidates who are not employed by the Organisation. The assumption is that the population of new employees will be representative of the total population of unselected recruits. A precautionary note needs to be made that the above assumption is countered by the fact that the Potential Recruits who choose not to engage with the Organisation will necessarily have a different perception of the organisations Employer Brand, and this data if captured will in likelihood have a considerable effect on the Final Results. Conclusion The Perception of Employer Brand, as observed in the various contributions of HR practitioners and Management Experts, plays an important role in the Recruitment and Selection of talent for an organisation. This Research is expected to produce a thorough and well documented analysis of the Perception of Employer Brand among Employees, the Impact of Employer Brand on Recruitment and Selection and the derivation of Appropriate Strategies to ensure that the Employer Brand enhances Recruitment and Selection. The Data collected and analysed as explained above will objectively enable the Organisation to draw appropriate and relevant conclusions.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The Sin of Dorian Gray The beauty of Dorian Gray lies within his youth, but ugly of sin. It is said that something is beauitful than it's not confined to realm of morality and immorality. He beautiful people are immoral. So he purse his curiosity of pleasure by using his body. As a temple of beauty his body it used for exotic pleasure for his twisted mind. Also he tried to evade other moral laws to the purse of pleasure. His soul is unclean of sin and ugliness of a pleasure life. Dorian Gray's innocence's of youthful mind is destroyed. To a corrupt failed life of virtue, but from downfall bad influences. Yet ideal influencing of passion counterbalanced him. There is a contrast in that of age and youth to good vs. evil. The author Oscar Wilde of the novel represents a theme of corruption. Dorian Gray's life goes back and forth of moral and immoral perspectives. Dorian Gray's life style and mind is corrupted as a result of a sinful life. The Picture of Dorian Gray presents the relationship of beauty and morality. Dorian Gray is beautiful and immoral to age that is corrupt together. The immoral body of Dorian Gray is beauty. For example, he is immorally beauitful, and the portrait morally ugly. From his prayer to tranform to the protrait which bears all, and forever remain young. In fact, his beauty is immoral from it ugliness of horror able trail of self-indulgences. On the other hand, his soul is immoral, but has a twist of innocence in the portrait. Dorian Gray is totally self-conscious about his beauty. So he lives by a philosophy of life. There is society it is all conventions from fidelity in marriage to charity toward the poor. To be hypocritical cover for people's selfish motives is his weigh. He is ridicules the goals of philanthripy and he's swept away by this logic. Dorian Gray is a complete aesthete, living his life in search of beauty and pleasure to the exclusion of all moral responsibility. He places no limits on the kinds of pleasures he allows himself. Every act he made was craven and selfish acts. These searches ensure his beauty. He is very aware that youth and beauty is all he is and has therefore he lives. There is a moral conflict between good and evil which result innocence temptation.
Friday, July 19, 2019
"We have no unknown soldier These are not forgotten men But cousins, uncles, neighbours Who will never laugh again. But they'll not be forgotten For the price they had to pay. For their children's children's children Will still march on Anzac Day No, they'll not be forgotten For the price they had to pay. For their children's children's children Will still march on Anzac Day." - Vic Macdonald 1988 Every year on the 25th of April Australia comes together to celebrate the bravery and extreme courage of those soldiers who risked and lost their lives while fighting for Australia in Gallipoli. But should it be celebrated? Should we cheer the men that returned when so many were killed and died of disease in the trenches at Gallipoli? Should we celebrate their bravery? Does this glorify war? Or should we mourn the waste of over sixty thousand brave men? Why has a day that commemorates death and defeat come to symbolise a national identity to the people of Australia? The ?modern? Anzac day does not only celebrate the Anzac?s (Australia New Zealand Army Corps) but all the wars that Australia has participated in. But why is the focus of Anzac Day on Australia?s defeat at Gallipoli while fighting someone else?s war, and not perhaps the victory at Milne Bay against the Japanese. What is it about the battle at Gallipoli that brings Australia together to commemorate? Or do they celebrate? This paper will be focussing on the texts from the play ?The One Day of The Year? by Alan Seymour. Which explores a war veteran and his son?s view of the meaning and reason of Anzac Day. The play ?The One Day of the Year? gives a very strong message about two very different views of the meaning of Anzac Day. The reader of the play is ... ... and the right to voice their opinion. Australia is a lucky country to have freedom of speech. So should Anzac day be celebrated? Commemorated? Or Mourned? It is all about opinion, just like Alf and Hughie settled there differences by agreeing to disagree. Australia should allow that freedom of opinion and speech. In summary if you personally believe that Anzac should be celebrated you should be free to do so. Likewise if you believe that the deaths and carnage that occurred at Gallipoli should be mourned and not celebrated. However whether you choose to celebrate or mourn, remember the sacrifice of the brave soldiers who fought and died in the name of Australia. They shall grow not old....as we that are left grow old Age shall not weary them, nor the years contemn At the going down of the sun, and in the morning, we will remember them - Laurence Binyon
Thursday, July 18, 2019
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) is today seen as one of the pillars of international trade and financial systems of the world alongside the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, despite being only sixteen years old. With what began as the succession to the previous guidelines and rules set out by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade back in 1948, it is now seen as the Ã¢â¬Ëmain unifying force of world trade todayÃ¢â¬â¢ a key player in both the conduct of trade relations and global governance. (Herman, 1999) Today, as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and its nations continue to change and grow together with the global business environment itself, the WTO has faced new challenges and perhaps its biggest challenges to date which question the relevance and future of the WTO. The essay will address such concepts through the analysis of the WTOÃ¢â¬â¢s main role, the importance and successes of the WTO to date, the challenges it currently faces and a look towards its pote ntial relevance in the future of world trade. The discussion will be aided through the use of published data, literature, online sources and journals. (WTO, Trading into the future 2011) Beginning with only 23 members, the WTO currently stands at 153 members representing a total of 97% of all world trade although this is set to increase following RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s accession into the WTO. This statistic details the importance of the WTO as the only international body that deals with the rules of trade between nations. (Hamilton, Webster 2009) The WTO was created as the previous system the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), needed an institutional and stronger framework to allow them to drive forward policies and advice. The WTOÃ¢â¬â¢s overriding principle is to help free trade,... ...ineffective with the growing number and diversity of members. Suggestions to overcome the problem include Ã¢â¬ËCritical-MassÃ¢â¬â¢ thinking and the creation of smaller groups of members based on similar trading characteristics may improve the system. In light of the recent financial crisis the role of the WTO is critical, in which its positive impact on world trade to date may become forgotten in light of recent criticisms. The WTO needs correct leadership to overcome the challenges today, to maintain its future survival and ensure it continues to be of success and further improve world trade. If change is not implemented successfully, the great negotiation forum it once was it will instead result in a forum in which the great members will struggle to compromise on trade issues thus harming the WTOÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose which is to encourage the growth of world trade.
All complement each other in understanding the client's needs and helping them reach their goals. Executive Coaching Theories Executive coaching is not a one-size fits all profession. There are a multitude of different approaches that one can take to help the client identify and reach his goals. However, one of the key commonalities of any good executive coach is to understand the human psyche. One has to know how to not only ask good, probing questions, one must also comprehend the psychological and situational barriers that prevent the client from reaching his goal.Then, he coach must be able to work with the client to identify action steps that will follow a path to reach the client's desired outcomes. There are many theories that abound with regards to executive coaching. No one approach is better than another. Some approaches are applied in compliment with others. The goal is to bring a toolkit of assorted and appropriate tactics to help the client understand barriers to success , and to assist the client with framing the goals necessary to move forward, and finally, to motivate the client to take specific action steps.The goal of this paper is to identify three of the theories that a coach might use to assist a client. These are not necessarily implemented mutually exclusive from each other, but are just several of the approaches that are available to a coach. Action Frame Theory This is a theory that was developed by two psychologists, Tracy Coverer and Steven Crossbow. Coverer is a leadership and organizational development consultant at Canadian, Tire in Canada (as of 2004, when this article was published). Crossbow is a professor of psychology at the university of Gullah in Ontario.They state that it is not intended to be a stand-alone new concept, UT is derived from the synthesis of existing theory, plus social action and functional analysis. The goal is to make the translation from generalities of Ã¢â¬Å"mediated focusÃ¢â¬ to specifics of executive behavior, which was an idea of R. R. Killing, who proposed a Ã¢â¬Å"holistic and integrated modelÃ¢â¬ within the executive coaching process. (Coverer & Crossbow, 2004) Action Frame Theory encompasses five specific processes to provide a deliberate approach for the coach to assist the client identify and achieve his desired end-state or goals.The processes include the following: conditions, means, action, result, and consequence. These steps help the client move from the generalities mentioned in the previous paragraph to a specific outcome for definitive results. (Coverer & Crossbow, 2004) Condition: The coach must first help the client identify his current status to be able to correlate where he is now with where he wants to be at the end of the journey. A coach must understand the current climate and atmosphere and conditions that the client exists within before he can evaluate how to move forward.Part of this assessment is to identify barriers that may be reverting the client from progress, or any organizational barriers as well as personal hindrances. This includes the organizational culture, as well as its management style and where the client fits within this. It includes those constraints where the client may not have any actual control to change. Means: This includes personal resources that the client possesses that he can employ to resolve the situation and/or reach his goal. Included within the means can be the client's interpersonal skills, leadership talents, and ability to resolve issues.The author also mentions integrity in the case that they illustrate where the client was dealing with a troublesome employee who was spreading rumors. This is, in essence, self-reflection of one's personal tool kit. Action: These are the voluntary action steps that the coach helps the client agree upon to take to work toward attaining the end-goal. These should be a set of defined processes that had deliberate purpose and correlation toward a forward motion to ward the desired result. Similar to the F. O. C. U. S. Del, (Harms, 201 1) (Ellis & Bernard, 2006) the coach must ensure the steps are meaningful and have validity toward a specific outcome. Especially with a emitted coaching contract, it is important to maximize these action steps to avoid wasting precious time. This also involves mentally focusing the client toward defined action steps so that he sees a clear roadman toward reaching his destination. There is nothing worse than wandering aimlessly without direction. Result: This is the end-state that the client hopes to achieve through the result of the actions.The authors state that there are actually two results: the starting result and the end result. Although the end result is the ultimate final goal, there is what are known as milestones whereby the client achieves mailer results on the path to the larger goal. Consequence: The consequence is the normal evaluation of the result that is present over an extended period of time. It is what becomes the new current status, or also known as the condition, which was the first component of the Action Frame Theory. This essentially becomes that new normal state as a result of achieving the set-out goals. Coverer & Crossbow, 2004) Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Theory This is a more widely known theory that was developed by Albert Ellis, who developed this based upon inspiration of teachings of Asian, Greek and Roman philosophers. Ellis originally began a career in clinical psychology in the 1 adds. During the course of his progress toward earning his doctorate in clinical psychology, he leaned toward and practiced psychoanalysis. In the early sass, he transitioned from psychoanalysis toward his new approach of a more proactive and direct form of psychotherapy, which he called Rational Therapy (ART).His goal was to help the client adjust their thinking and behavior to lead more positive and productive lives. (Ellis & Bernard, 2006) Ellis' premise is that people are rarely affected emotionally by external influences; UT, rather by their personal perceptions, attitudes, or internal thoughts about outside things or events. He states that people get upset and are affected by how they construct their views of reality through language, beliefs, meanings, and philosophies about the world, their self, and others.By understanding these meanings, people can learn to identify the issues and challenge and question them to work toward a more constructive outcome. (Hag & Davison, 1 993) The assumption that this theory incorporates is that people have both rationale and irrational tendencies and learning. Rational Emotive Behavioral Theory places emphasis on changing the current thinking and helping the individual to behave how they wish to be. The theory postulates that people unconsciously construct their own emotional pitfalls such as self-pity, blame, etc. That prevent them from achieving their goals. The goal of imparting REST is to assist the clie nt how to identify these self- defeating tendencies so that they can achieve what they wish to do. (Ellis & Bernard, 2006) (Ellis & Bernard, 2006) A major process for the REBUT therapy is to help the client overcome these self-defeating thought processes so that hey can see that they have a choice not to be fearful or scared or the like. This is critical in the coaching process because executives may feel that they are alone at the top of the food chain and have nowhere to turn.When they have these fears, they may simply internalize them without actually dealing with the feelings for fear of appearing human in their role as a senior leader. This may prevent the executive from being able to be successful in leading the organization, and can lead to self-defeat. Although the coach is generally not a therapist, understanding Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy concepts s key to working with these executives that may show signs of needing this assistance. The primary tactic for assistin g clients through this process is to help them see their fears that are prohibiting them from being successful or moving forward.Ellis said that people cannot move forward and get better except through continual work and practice in finding their core beliefs and irrationality. Then, they need to replace them with healthy, positive feelings that will enable them to move forward and succeed. (Ellis & Bernard, 2006) Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy is one of the most widely studied harries in the field of psychotherapy. From the time of his inception of this theory through his death in 2007, his work laid the groundwork for much Of today's modern cognitive therapy approaches.Cognitive therapy is a direct outcome of the results of Ellis' theory'. Counselors or coaches use cognitive theory to help clients identify the negative thoughts that occur automatically and teach them to replace these with happy, positive thoughts. Since the premise of REBUT is that people?s negative and irrat ional thoughts to these situations are automatic, cognitive therapy teaches clients to alter their thinking. Coaches or therapists teach the clients to consider a variety of alternative ideas for why things occur. They then teach them to restate things in terms of ways they can control the situation. Rational emotive behavior therapy, 2011) Adult Development Theory Being an executive coach means that we have the power to influence and develop our clients. A key component of being able to achieve this is to understand human development theory. People at different stages Of life construct their understanding of the world and self, which shapes their interpretation of their surroundings and how they will react or make decisions. Adult Development Theory involves areas such as moral, intellectual, emotional, relational, and spiritual development. Demoded, 2007) All of these factors have an impact on how an executive sees the world and makes decisions. For a coach to be effective, he nee ds to have a basic understanding of this Adult Development Theory. One of the most exciting elements of coaching is being able to have an influence upon an individual, and to help them achieve success and improve their situation at work. A key to the success is the relationship between the coach and client, which is contingent upon the coach asking the right questions, and also understanding where the client is coming from.One of the most overlooked elements to success is the personal life development stage that the client might be at in their adult development. This correlates to the modern Adult Development Theory by Robert Egan. He states that as people develop through life, they have gained insight through learning. This learning content does not change, but the context in which we see the world does change. (Hope, 2007) As coaches, we need to understand how people develop so that We can impart better listening skills and impression to better understand where people are coming f rom.For the coach, one of the critical tools that we have is understanding of the client's way of thinking, his challenges, his situation, and the context in which he interprets things. This is where the understanding of adult development is crucial. Egan first presented his theory of adult development or social maturity in his book Ã¢â¬Å"The Evolving Self' in 1982. He then wrote a follow-up to this in 1994 called Ã¢â¬Å"In Over Our Heads: The Demands of Modern Life. Ã¢â¬ In these books, he posits that people progressively become more socially mature as they go wrought life.This affects how they interpret life's events and how they react at different stages of the game. (Hope, 2007) (Ellis & Bernard, 2006)Being a good coach means understanding how people evolve and can interpret life's events based upon their social maturity and place in the organization. One of the factors that new coaches may need to learn is that not everyone will see the world as you do. In Ã¢â¬Å"Evidence B ased Coaching,Ã¢â¬ the author states that it is human tendency for people to expect that everyone will see things that way you do.The authors claim that if coaches have a better understanding of human development that it enables them to be better listeners, and identify connections that one otherwise might not have done. The author describes four types of clients: the prince or princess, journeyman, chief executive officer and the elder. Understanding each personality in an executive will make the coach have a higher likely. Prince or Princess The princess and prince have very ego-centric personalities that are focused on them.They don't have a comprehension that other's viewpoints are valid, and only see things from their perspective. These people are not great team layers, and will only follow the organization rules to the extent that they meet their needs. Journeyman Transitioning from princess or prince to journeyman usually occurs once the client begins to understand that it is not all about them, and they take into account the interests of others and the organization. This is the person who realizes that they and the organization need each other to be successful.It brings about a sense of loyalty in the journey. A coach can work with a client who was originally in the prince or princess realm and bring them more in- tune with the organization to be a team player. The approach with the person in the journeyman stage is to help him form a commitment that helps to benefit the organizational as a whole. CEO Working with the Coos is much different because they are more likely to have a very definitive concept of how the organization should function, and will have plans for how to achieve this.They don't necessarily need direction, but are looking for professional development to help them become better leaders. They are at the top where they often don't have the luxury of bouncing ideas off of others. Elder The elders are very in-tune to all elements of the organization, and are very enforceable with interpreting the feedback from all levels. The difference from the elder to the CEO is that this person is less ideological, and is more focused on the leadership process. So, where does this adult development theory fit into the executive coaching process?The coach who understands this theory and the dynamics can better focus the questions, suggestions, and be more in-tune with the client's form of understanding. Each coaching relationship is unique based upon specific personalities and developmental stages. Along with AEGON's four stages is another aspect of adult development hurry which ranges from people moving from dependent, to independent to inter-dependent. The further people develop and evolve from the former to the latter; they ultimately become able to be transformational thinkers. Hopper 2007) The dependent level is similar to the prince or princess, where they only see things from their perspective. These clients tend to see things through their lenses and apply their values, traditions, and practices without regard to other. They perceive difference from their views as confrontational. The independent levels are those who have learned from their experiences, ND are more willing to be open to growth. They become curious about others' thoughts and perspectives. These are like Coos who are willing to listen to staff to develop process improvement that benefits the entire organization.The inter-dependent clients are those who are most comfortable with their positions and look for the global vision, and make decisions based upon the greater good. They embrace fresh ideas and concepts and seek continuous improvement. A coach who understands where the client is at in this path of development will have a better opportunity to help the executive on the right ND most appropriate path. Each client is unique. AEGON's theory of adult development has been the leading research as of recent years.However, he bases muc h of his premise off of the work off Swiss psychologist, Jean Pigged, who invented modern developmental psychology. Essentially, the adult development theory of Egan evolved from Piglet's descriptions of how children developed from early childhood through adulthood. His theory was that kids go through various stages of psychological development that affect how they adapt, learn and react to situations. (Hope, 2007) Conclusion An executive coach must bring myriad skills to the table with a client.