IntroductionThe first three to six months of a woman?s maternal quality is considered to be a critical consequence be build during this conclusion external stimuli bathroom start a devastating dissemble on the organic evolution of the fetus. Since amaze and child be interlink and have a vulgar carnal knowledgeship for the next cardinal months the fetus is very new and at risk to near(prenominal) dangers the obtain faces. The placenta non precisely provides nutrients and oxygen and it to a fault provides protection from everything that could suffering an unhatched child. Teratogens ar curiously detri noetic in the embryonic stage be date it is a critical power point in prenatal development beca purpose this is when the ?foundations for all body split be be laid down? (Berk, 2008, p.106). Teratogens digest be easy classified into different categories which allow prescription and non-prescription drugs, unlawful drugs, alcohol, tobacco, infective disease and environmental factors such as shaft of readable and pollution that could potential droply produce harm to an unborn child. in that location are terms when teratogens such as chemicals and viruses can spend a penny the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm or step in with the development sometimes do birth defects or even so a miscarriage plainly they are most ? endangered to damage when they are exploitation most rapidly? (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2006, p.91) which principally occurs within the first trimester of stickhood. condition OverviewThe article I chose discussed the solvent of pregnancies after the fetus was unfastened to atomic number 3 during the first trimester of pregnancy. According to Jacobson, Jones, etc., there are .1% of enceinte women that are estimated to use atomic number 3, which is utilize in the ?treatment or prophylaxis of bipolar dis prescribe or mania? (Dictionary.com). The article discussed how in-uter o icon to atomic number 3 may be associate! d with ?an increased risk of cardiac malformations, oddly the rare Ebstein?s anomaly? (Jacobson, Jones, & et al., 1992) which causes the ?tricuspid valve of the tender flavouredness to be abnormally formed? (American Heart association, 2009) and increases the risk of heart failure. The employment consisted of 148 women who had requested information from teratogen information services regarding the ?potential risks of healthful drugs during pregnancy? (Jacobson, Jones, & et al., 1992). The women were interviewed by a doctor where they let on information about the drugs or other chemicals that were taken during pregnancy a massive with the ?indication, dose, nephrotoxicity of the drug and its toxic effectuate, and monitoring? (Jacobson, Jones, & et al., 1992). The women also split upd their medical, obstetric, and family history a hanker with any occupational icons which could cause complications to the fetus as well. Through the information that was obtained the pregnant women were offered advice on what to do as well as being referred to the withdraw person who could provide them with the appropriate treatment and care during their pregnancy. by and by the delivery of the baby, the mothers received a phone foresee from researchers where they were to disclose further details of their pregnancies including the ?outcome, perinatal complications, birth weight, corporal findings, and developmental milestones? (Jacobson, Jones, & et al., 1992) of the babies. The doctors overseeing the care for the babies were also asked to confirm the information provided by the mothers as well as the health status of the babies involved. The research visual aspected that some of the babies were affected by their mother?s use of lithium causing congenital malformations, neural-tube defects, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and ill-timed deliveries which ended in death where others experienced no ill affects from their mother?s use of lithium. Limitations and implic ations of the studyThe implications to the study impl! ied that even though lithium is non a major human teratogen that there is a adventure for it to become hazardous to the fetus if too more than is taken at a specific time during the development of the fetus. eve though the study mentioned that women who take lithium are honest to conceive a baby there is establish that does show that the use of lithium can be defamatory to the unborn fetus.
The risks may be greater for someone depending on ?exposure and drug dosage? which are critical pieces of information that is necessitate in order to ?assess any causative relation between any xenobiotic and outcome? (Ja cobson, Jones, & et al., 1992). However the show did raise that malformations of the fetus are more susceptible during the time when the fetus is developing at a rapid judge but there is non enough evidence to suggest that the fetus will develop normally with no complications for mother?s who do use lithium. The study did not include how they positive over time and if they experienced any mental or emotional delays during their development. Conclusion critiqueThe study concluded that lithium is not considered to be a major human teratogen since ?lithium has a very narrow therapeutic window? (Jacobson, Jones, & et al., 1992) where toxic effects could occur. However they do believe that the ?teratogenicity of lithium business leader be dose-related? (Jacobson, Jones, & et al., 1992). Since they are not sure whether or not the use of lithium is a teratogen there has to be long term effects that the child will experience because of this drug being in their system for such a long p eriod of time over their development in their mother?! s womb. Since unborn babies depend on their mother for excerption anything that could potentially cause birth defects or malformations should be only used after a doctor confirms no harm can come to the unborn child. References:American Heart Association (2009). Retrieved shocking 22, 2009 fromhypertext transfer protocol://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=11075Berk, L. (2008). Infants, children, and adolescents. (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson. Jacobson, S. J., Jones, K, & et al. (1992). Prospective Multicentre exact of PregnancyOutcome after Lithium photo during First Trimester. TheLancet, 339(8792), 530. Retrieved August 21, 2009, from investigate Library. (Document ID: 1694906). lithium. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved August 23, 2009, fromDictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/lithiumPapalia, D, Olds, S, & Feldman, R. (2006). A Child?s World: infancy throughAdolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill If you want to get a full essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com
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