Friday, March 29, 2019

Colonoscope System to Avoid Loop Formation

Colonoscope system of rules to Avoid circle FormationEnclosed is my trace of Final Project pertaining to Design of freshly system proposed for a Procedure of Colonoscopy to outstrip a closed circuiting Problem. unlike factors relieve oneself been discussed and some approaches withdraw been lend oneselfd by dint ofout this report and have found this bea as full on interest, though intelligibly withal one of the intimately mandatory for practical life. Working on this bea has tremendously profitd my intimacy.These days Colonoscopy is a subject which is top of interest for every organization, especially for those who ar having an immense research in this argona think to innovation and enhancement and companies which mainly deals in health check Equipment Technologies and various processes.Thither atomic number 18 Designing and Electrical bea which are set in Colonoscopy Equipment to the teaching of Electrical System which contains a enigmatical level of area lin ked to Electrical Technology. Thus, reflecting the current value of growth/services among the consumers or how the value can be increased and as well as its scientific developmentMevery research firms are working globally related to development and innovation of Colonoscopy and are and also at that place are some companies which have the statistical data and are providing useful instruction for technical foul throng so they are plan and commercialize their origin correspondly and specially those areas which are a offset of Colonoscopy technology.Influencing the ways that mess act in their daily utilization lives is an anxiety for researchers in a number of disciplinary areas, including consumer Behaviour psychology, development, innovation, health research and grocery storeing.The ill-tempered linguistic context of the low-income consumer is one that is starting to emerge in the consumer and securities industrying policy writings as one of importance, particularly in t erms of ensuring that these consumers get their prefatorial demand met in their securities industryplace interactions.However, at that place is still go undered knowledge about the Colonoscopy patterns of low level of technical people mean they have less knowledge about Colonoscopy and in particular thither are very some studies that have examined attempts to influence or modify discredit knowledge for those technical people which dont have sufficient knowledge for this domain. nonify is composed of different areas, for a better idea the report is organize of areas which are descried as under.Necessary requirements of a reportBasic trigger of a Colonoscopy and its current summons, with some concepts of its medical application are conditions which are required onward whatever colonoscopy procedure or its application subject of a brisk equipment, role personateling and designing ruleology in club to get proper idea pertaining to new knowing procedure newfangled prod uct development procedure and approach, so once the procedure is designed a new equipment is produced what ordain be the activities related to costing factors, technical implementations, commercialization strategies etc.Conclusion and ReferencesThis couch is about the interface and a system which depart support secures and physicians to perform successful colonoscopy procedure without face up any looping occupation, if any problem occurs system leave alone help to identify problem. There are some New Product emergence areas which are also discussed in this report. Various aspects of Colonoscopy and its modelling has been discussed in this report and some introduction material is also applied to apply a defining light related to various conceptsColonoscopeColonoscopy is the endoscopic examination of the too large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD television camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a ocu lar diagnosis the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal pubic louse lesions. 1Figure 1 Gilo, Colonoscope, flesh adapted from, 2009Colonoscopy Colonoscopy is a procedure which helps doctor to examine the lining of the entire rectum and colon by using the endoscope having a camera with one of its end. Colonoscopy may be done for the undermentioned plans bank line in the StoolAnemiaAbdominal PainAreas of Inflammation that may indicate ulcerative colitisHelps to obtain biopsy tissue for examination refer of Invasive crab louseChanges in Bowels Habits, such as constipation or diarrheaComplete removal of large polypRecheck the colon following surgery for Colon CancerFigure 2 Colonoscopy Preparation, externalize adapted from American Gastroenterological association, April 2013Colonoscopy may be done for a variety of reasons, most of the time it is done to rise up out the cause of business in the stool, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and change in bow el habit or an freakishness found on colonic X rays or a Computed axile tomography scan. 2Individuals having previous history of polyps or colon malignant neoplastic disease and real individuals with a family history of some types of non-colonic cancers or colonic problems that may be associated with colonic cancer may be advised to have bimestrial colonoscopies because their risks are greater for polyps or colon cancer. 2How often should one suffer colonoscopy depends on the degree of the risks and the abnormalities found at previous colonoscopies. It has been recommended that even red-blooded people at normal risk for colon cancer should undergo colonoscopy at age 50 and every 10 twelvemonths thereafter, for the purpose of removing colonic polyps before they become cancerous. 2Figure 3 Steven, Mark, Colon Cancer and Polyp characterisation adapted from Colonoscopy Preparation ProcessThe process of colonoscopy includes the cannulisation of a Colonoscope from the anus via th e colon to the cecum. Throughout a comprehensive colonoscopy procedure, the insertion radiation is inserted into the anus then pushed through the rectum, sigmoid colon, descending colon, transverse colon, and ascending colon through to the cecum. 3At point to perform the Colonoscopy there are twain methods which are avail commensurate and they are known as two soul and One Person Colonoscopy Procedure. 3In the single colonoscopy, the physician performs the inspection alone, managing the angulation dialog boxs and valves with one hand and inserting or twisting the shaft with the other hand. In one-woman(prenominal) colonoscopy, the physician customs the right hand to insert the scope and misrepresent the penchant of the distal end of the scope with the left hand. Thus, the one-person method typically creates a better coordination of the two operations during the procedure. 3In the two-person colonoscopy, a physician and an assistant perform the two-person colonoscopy, i.e., the physician cracks the orientation of the scope, and the assistant pulls and pushes the Colonoscope according to the physicians command. 3By contrast, in the two-person method, an assistant pushes or pulls the scope while the physicians control the scope orientation. In the latter method, good coordination often is hard to achieve. 3As a result, the two-person method often creates more procedure-induced abdominal pains than does the one-person method. 3Figure 4 Cole, Chrissie, Colonoscopy Procedure, anatomy adapted from Colonoscopy Cancer Screening Procedure, Octoberin the beginning having a colonoscopy, doctor must be aware if patient has any special medical conditions. Some of the conditions are mentioned as under 4 motherhoodLung conditionsHeart conditionsAllergies to any medicationsDiabetes or take drugs that may affect blood clotting. Adjustments to these medications may be required before the procedure.Some patients also subscribe tos to antibiotics before the colonoscopy . Some of the examples are described as under 4 check an artificial heart valveHave ever been told you need to take antibiotics before a dental or surgical procedureIn late(a) times a little amount of work has been done on colonoscopy contrivance and little advancement has been made but still there is a problem which is common to colonoscopy device and i.e. Loop In institution in colonoscopy when procedure is applied.Figure 5 Tudor, Alex, Loop Formation in Colonoscopy, Image adapted from Fundamentals Diagnostic Colonoscopy, JuneMost commonly, we speak of a backbreaking colonoscopy being one in which it was challenging or not likely to reach the cecum. Others might be inclined to measure demandingy base on the duration of time required, or the amount of physical feat involved or even the discomfort the patient experiences. 5For the fitting colonoscopies, a difficult colonoscopy might be one in which it is challenging to diligently examine each fold upon withdrawal. For the pu rposes of this discussion, we leave behind confine ourselves to viewing the difficult colonoscopy as one in which the endoscopies struggles or fails to reach the cecum. 5Figure 6 Steele, R.J.C, Perforation of the Bowel by Colonoscopy, United Kingdom, Image adapted from How I do it ColonoscopyResearch ObjectiveWhen we analyze different colonoscopy avail subject in the market then we realize that there are various colonoscopy procedures which has introduced in market and are adapted for medical examinations as well.Some of the types which are introduced in medical sector are mentioned as underVariable rigorousness ColonoscopeOver tube ColonoscopeCapsule EndoscopeSelf Propelled EndoscopeVirtual ColonoscopyAer O compassNeo Guide Endoscopy SystemImage Guided ColonoscopyIn this project we have mentioned new proposed equipment which is added in a Colonoscope device and volition be utilized in a procedure of colonoscopy and certain small equipment has also been added with Colonoscope which helps to oercome the loop problem associated with the Colonoscopy Procedure at present.Reason of a Loop FormationThe actual reason of a loop geological brass is self-locking utensil, it occurs when Colonoscope and Colon comes in contact two states occurs which is Stick carry and Slip State.Slip state occurs when tangential array is greater than the limit of static friction suck, this friction string can be rigid by the multiplication of dynamic frictional coefficient and normal applied force to the point.Stick state is the displacement of two contact points when both of them are equal to zero. This stick state usually occurs in sigmoid colon. automatic mechanism generally occurs when driving force angle is less than the friction angle and this state is known as stick state.So remote to ward off loop formation the principle has been shown up but there is no such equipment which can support this principle.In further part of this report we allow for be discussing wha t equipment and design can help to avoid the problem and support the idea which has been generated.Figure 13 Colon Perforation, Image adapted fromMedical Demonstrative Evidence, USA 1999Idea Generation/ opinionAfter analyzing various concepts and types of colonoscopy procedures available in medical field it has been observed that loop formation is a very vast and common problem available in this area which created problem for doctor to perform the procedure.To oercome this problem equipment is suggested in this report which will be a scoop out fit for the current principle of colonoscopy that helps to everyplacecome the looping error and problem.The suggested equipment here will be incorporated with the Colonoscope and will help measuring the force angle and also compares it with the friction angle so if the driving force will be greater than the friction force the loop formation will be avoided.Benefits of the new integrated equipment are described as underAdvanced Indication of Loop formation guide on sequence MechanismForces and Parameters in an march panel so Doctors can be informed during procedureSmooth ProcedureBasic Idea in a Block diagram (Flowchart 1) ensampleling of a New SystemThere are various stages defined below but head start we will start with the Block diagram of this new model.Block Diagram of a System (Flowchart 2)Explanation of a seat/SystemModel discussed above consist of various sensors and devices which will help physicians to use a system which will give result as a Loop free Colonoscope procedure.Colonoscopy Force Monitor CFM is a device that continuous measures, displays and stores the reading. It is a preferred method to screen for colorectal cancer.Figure 14 CFM Device, Image adapted from Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, USA 2014It is a handheld force-measuring attachment attach on the Colonoscope shaft that provides a physician with a real-time feedback on the force and torque applied during colonoscopy.The CFM is designed to improve training of people which operated endoscopy and establish best practices for performing colonoscopy by quantitative characterization of expert skill.Control UnitControl unit plays a vital single-valued function to avoid loop formation. It has two knobs i.e. Knob A and Knob B and both of them are controlled by Doctor. When doctor controls the knob the consequence gets particular orientation. present we will use both Models which were proposed by Wubin Cheng. His first Model was to give the information to Doctor about the contact force and arrangement on tip in the colon so if there is any chance for the self-locking to occur so doctors should get warning in advance through the display system.Second model describes relation sur declamatoryed by two knobs and the tip in order to compute the tip orientation information.Interface through a Block Diagram (Flowchart 3)ResultBy applying this new system Medical doctor will be able to identify current situation of a colonoscop y procedure. If there will be any loop problem or a self-locking mechanism will occur then doctor will be able to overcome it because information will be coming from CFM which is connected right(prenominal) human body and doctor will be able to follow force exerted to the tip of insertion tube and if it is not reject so they will be change the orientation of the tip.System Flow in case of Loop Formation (Flowchart 4)It will be a network based application which will be showing different informationThere will be a live monitoring of a procedure so doctors will be able to examine the procedure on run timeInterface will be integrated to the CFM which will be providing the information of torque and force so if there will be an extra torque or force that doctors will be applying then they will receive a message on interface that Loop formation can occurInterface will be integrated to the Knob which will be receiving the message of the Tip of the orientation so if there will be any req uirement for the change of the orientation of the tip then doctors will be able to change it. For the change of orientation doctors will able receive a message on the live inteferaceEvaluation of a Model Here we will be doing evaluation of a proposed model of this project. The parameters defining the model as a Good or a Bad model is taken from Zhang Lin FCBPSS modelling presentation.Validity Upon receiving the information over a display panel of a CFM if doctors follow the procedure as per defined over a display panel so process can be performed smoothly and validity of a system will remain as designed i.e. output will be accomplished in a perfect way.Utility Information coming from CFM will be sinless it will be dependent of medical staff on how they very perform a process. Otherwise, it will be a perfect emolument to give required output.Reliability Process applied on a same patient multiple times in regular breakup for a particular day, the results will always be obtained a s same. pretension Colonoscope is only required to be integrated with different companies of display panel or control unit, this is only area for the comprehensiveness. The system will be designed in such a way the integration will remain uniform whenever it combines with any other device.Ease of use (Usability) it will be a user friendly device uses will be designed as easy for the use of staff.Product Screening and BenefitsSince the new proposed system will be capable to overcome many problems which were occurring in past therefore this will be a top get ahead of the new designed procedure.There is a huge market present for users which will be able to use this new design procedure, soon there is a big market which are in need to use the process of a colonoscopy but they are unable to utilize it because of a looping problem. There are many medical facilities round the world which are looking to utilize the best procedure of a Colonoscopy.There are some facts and figures which hav e been mentioned in a website related to Colorectal Cancer and that describes requirement of this product in a market with desperate measures630,000 deaths pass judgmentHighest rates in Japan, Korea and Asia in generalRisks increase with age, with 90% of cases being people over 50Screening reduces death rate since it can detect cancer at archaeozoic stage. 5 year increases to 90% from 64%Many countries are adopting screening programs for people over 50Current tests available FOBT (fecal occult blood test), sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, atomic number 56 enema 6Expected Market SizeThe new procedure of a colonoscopy will be able to capture a huge market size. Globally a gigantic level of market is available for this device by making this new technology with software integration will be able to huge market immensely.Routine colorectal cancer screening is something that tens of millions in the United States go through every few years. After the age of 50 patients are encouraged to h ave a colonoscopy every 5-10 years. Between these colonoscopies, they can use non-invasive tests that can sometimes adjust the presence of cancer or even pre cancers. 7Currently, there are tercet main types of tests that are used fecal occult blood tests (FOBT), Fecal immunochemical tests (FIT), and stool DNA tests (sDNA). 7Of these three, fecal occult blood tests are used the most frequently probably because they are quite bum (The number of virtual colonoscopy procedures performed in the United States is expected to increase through 2014. Growth in the over-50-years-of-age demographic will drive procedure volumes in this market. In addition, public awareness of colon cancer and the importance of early detection are encouraging people to receive regular screenings. 9As the number of virtual colonoscopy procedures increases, the market for virtual colonoscopy software is also expected to increase, with companies such as General Electric (GE) leading the change. However, prices a re estimated to pass as competition within the virtual colonoscopy software market intensifies. 9 only as inconvenient as it is, CRC screening saves lives. A little over 50,000 US patients die of this disease each year, making it the second deadliest cancer in the United States. About 20-40% of patients are diagnosed with the disease in the later stages, when surgical removal is not curative. However, the majority of screens that catch polyps will find them while they are still adenomas. Adenomas are typically asymptomatic, meaning that patients would not have been able to detect them without a colonoscopy. 10Figure 7 Herrick, Devon, Colonoscopy Market, Image adapted fromThe Emerging Market for Medical CareConcept Development of a ProcedureConcept development of this new equipment initiates from the new features which will be embedded in it. For example CFM, bundle Integration and Run Time information of a Loop Formation during a Colonoscopy so the Doctor can be informed and nece ssary actions can be taken in order to make it a perfect Colonoscopy Procedure.CharacteristicsBenefitsSoftware IntegrationRun Time or alive(p) InformationLive DisplayParameters showing up on Display Panel for correct forces or torquesLoop Formation AlertsEarly indication of Loop formation in case of extra force etc.Table 1 Product Benefits, Type of Table adap

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