Wednesday, April 3, 2019

Challenges And Prospects: Bangladeshi Foreign Policy

Challenges And Prospects Bangladeshi Foreign insuranceGlobalization has at present have a pervasive phenomenon of inter fountain relations, and in the figure place, is compelling developing countries interchangeable Bangladesh to assess its impact on its guarantor and foreign indemnity. The traditional style of trade ining with the warrantor measures (which is basically state-centric and emphasizes military security), appears to have rick myopic for the task of formulating a indemnity that would be commensurate of effectually tackling the prospects and contends of the propellent and technology-dominated milieu. The question is how much of traditional security concerns re chief(prenominal)s relevant to form _or_ system of government-making, how and what to pitch from the past to enable foreign policy successfully meet the opportunities and challenges of globalisation. art object globalization has, to approximately extent, eroded the power of the nation-state, the latter has non been rendered absolutely impotent. Bangladeshs security concerns leave behind occupy to be addressed finished conform policies, taking into account the feature that it is multi flavorted and comprehensive. In general, Bangladesh could expect to face problems in the following argonas military, policy-making, sparing, environmental and societal. Before embarking on the actual outline of Bangladeshs security and foreign policy, a brief review of the belief and adjoin of globalization and security will be provided. Its impact on Bangladesh will be studied, focusing on both(prenominal)(prenominal) haughty and veto aspects. eventually implications for policy will be discussed.GlobalizationThe term globalization has create a buzzword in the present-day valet. Although the term has attained prodigious popularity in recent years, it was in evidence even a snow years ago. In the last 25 years or so, the concept of global has transformed itself from a mere r eference to mean summate to an emphasis on the globe as a unit of analysis in its own right. Without claiming the world to have become a angiotensin-converting enzyme society or that it is bound to become one, globalization refers to a process or trend.1Simply, the term globalization describes the increased mobility of goods, serve, labor, technology and capital end-to-end the world.(http// dropadianeconomy.gc.ca/english/economy/globalization.html). Or it suffer be described as, individualism related to globalization processes seem unrelated to traditional boundaries of favorable groups, transcending territorial reserve reserve, apparitional and other boundaries.2It was actually in the 1980s and 1990s that the world witnessed the revolutionary impact of the process of globalization. It was primarily callable to unprecedented technological asylum in the fields of communication and transportation that inter internal relations became radically transformed, especially in the realm of trade and investment, and diffusion of information.Despite fact that in that respect is a growing concern somewhat dealing with the complexities and changes generated by the phenomenon of globalization, the term itself is still imprecise, and means different things to different spate. To simplify matters, globalization essentially refers to the process of worldwide spread of six kinds of objects and activities i) goods and services ii) people iii) ideas and information iv) money v) normative orientation and vi) behavioral patterns and practices.3Of these, the period of goods and services has had the most tangible impact it has been instrumental in raising the direct of material prosperity unprecedented in clement history. Besides, the free flow of information and ideas is making it practicable for the full flowering of human potentials. Proponents of globalization be optimistic that increase in global prosperity would template in a stable and peaceful world.Critic s of globalization however, argon non so convinced that it is an unmixed blessing. They dispute the argument that as a result of the process of globalization, the nation-state is losing it signifi peckce due to the erosion of its functions which ar forward motionively being performedby non-state actors like inter issue cooperations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). And it is the poor countries who faces the challenges of globalization much as, globalisation is non seen as transcending the grapheme of the state, exactly rather as a consequence of the powerful role of rich countries poor countries develop it difficult to devise policies to deal with the crisis, especially since none of them boasts strong multinational companies that whitethorn function as influential global players.4The focus of their objurgation is that the process of globalization seeks to promote the scotch at the cost of the social and governmental. They ar concerned about the deleteriou s effect of unbridled food market operations, which could destroy communal and social unity. Although globalization is very much a fact of life, it cannot be denied that the territorially organized nation-state continues to proceed significant and capable of providing the necessary (perhaps not all) services to its citizens.Again the resistance of globalization may assume the form of ultra-nationalism and racism. It is asserted that ethnic nationalism is much much than(prenominal) deep-rooted and less time-bound (than modernists prefer to believe), in that respectfore, better equipped to overcome the challenge of both globalization as well as regionalization.5Critics however, point out that, globalization contains the threat of a in the raw form of hegemony, which would thus oblige social conditions conducive to new doctrines of civilizational superiority.6Thus, globalization tends to strengthen nation-states in more or less respects and weaken in others.Security- from ind ividual to diverse and comprehensive getSecurity itself is now regarded to have become comprehensive as farthermost as its meaning and definitions be concerned, as a result of which there is a tendency to over expand and widen the security agenda. Traditionally, a public issue is deemed to have been securitized when it is presented as an existential threat, requiring emergency measures and justifying actions away the normal bounds of political procedure.7But the non-traditional approach to security tends to birth it all inclusive and comprehensive, thereby, making it analytically unwieldy. Park defines comprehensive security in terms of policies designed to protecting the peoples life not however from traditional forms for military threat, just also from various other forms of threats such(prenominal) as hunger, poverty, environmental disaster, scarcity of energy, and so on8Or it can be viewed as Security measures that starts from the assumption that dialogues at the level of the state and elsewhere contri exactlye to the formulation of mutually acceptable definitions of common threats. The threats do not ineluctably emanate from rival states, but also comprise threats to inseparable stableness in the area of scotchs, social unrest, ethnic divisions, or real environmental damage.9Transnational economic and financial forces at work possesses the aptitude to wreak havoc with national economies- something that cannot be tackled by military means, but only with appropriate policies adopted primarily at the national level, but would also include international and regional cooperation. Hansen viewed it Now approaches towards security can only succeed with the cooperation of the of import actors on the global stage which includes not only governments, but companies, banks and, at the political level, national political parties as well.10So, in this era of globalization, to deal security measures, the most pressing quest for any country like Banglades h is to take cognizance of the magnitude and complexity of the changes now sweeping the world. Bowman describes, New technologies are making the world much more interdependent. These technologies are accelerating the movements of goods, services, ideas, and capital across national boundaries. They are displacing traditional security threats with nontraditional worries like international terrorism, organized crime, medicine trafficking, and environmental abjection while strengthening the capacities of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to influence policy.11Foreign Policy of BangladeshThe basic objectives of Bangladeshs foreign policy are to promote its security, protect its territorial virtue, achieve socio-economic development, uphold its ideology and maintain its heathen identity and national dignity (http//www.bssnews.net/about_foreign_policy.php) -remnants that are challenged in various forms by the process of globalization. The security interests of Bangladesh are said to lie in the consolidation of its hard-earned independence by accelerating the process of economic development and modernization. It is argued that the basic goal of its foreign policy should be the ensuring of diplomatic and economic cooperation and assistance from away sources. Bangladeshs foreign policy has been deeply informed by the dire acquire to achieve socio-economic progress by the optimum use of its abundant human and other resources, which, in turn, could be instrumental in maintaining national cohesion, as well as international prestige and influence.12Again the main constraints of Bangladeshs foreign policy are its geographical location, underdevelopment and overpopulation. In the era of globalization, Bangladesh, like other developing countries, is confronted with threats emanating from both external and congenital sources terrorism, drug trafficking, circulation of decrease weapons, poverty, political instability, environmental degradation, etc.The Security Age nda of BangladeshExternalThe geographical location of Bangladesh stirs it obvious that India and Myanmar are the two ready neighbors who are the potential threats to its territorial security. However, chances are that India (aware of political costs involved in such a move) would prefer not to threaten Bangladesh militarily, if its major strategic and economic interests are served without such efforts. Myanmar, alike could pose such a threat to Bangladesh, but so far it has been limited to the influx of Rohingya refugees13in the 1990s in the South-Eastern part of Bangladesh, Coxs bazar, that caused goodly security problem and socio-economic burden for the country.Although these two neighbors are potential threats to the territorial security of Bangladesh, the problematic question is how could minimize its vulnerabilities in this regard. Some analysts kick in suggestions, that Bangladesh does indeed possess strategic honour, which it can and should exploit14but humankind does not seem to support such an assessment. In this era of globalization, it appears unbelievable that either or both China and the United States would seriously appeal Bangladesh as ally against India, since both are now more enkindle in improving relations with India rather than antagonizing it. So, Bangladesh does have a deep concern as far as the external sources of threats to its security are concerned, but they can be best dealt with and neutralized through piercing diplomacy rather than the use of force, for which it is ill equipped. Bangladesh may resent the prepotency of India, but there seems to be very limited options available to it deal with it in a rightfully effective manner. No matter how dis goodd Bangladesh may be vis--vis its immediate neighbors, it must nonetheless be in a position to oppose policies on their part that could increase tension, bring out instability, or otherwise run against broad interests of Bangladesh.Prospects for the proliferation of the w eapons of mass destruction (WMD) in South Asia are another security concern of Bangladesh. With the testing of atomic devices by India and Pakistan in 1998, possibilities of nuclear war occurring in the region has become a possibility. So, Bangladeshs security has been adversely adverted by the development of nuclear devices and their delivery dodges in South Asia. Bangladesh should, therefore, strive to play an active role in regional forums since the development of WMD transcends the barrier of distance and could affect Bangladesh too.InternalMilitaryMilitary force, although being marginalized in the era of economic globalization, has not been rendered obsolete. Military forces continue to retain their coercive and deterrent power, functions that economic instruments are still unable to perform with as much as effectiveness15. Military power, it must be born in mind, is fungible, that is, can be used for purposes other than dealing with only internal and external threats. In th e Bangladesh context, apart from deterring external military aggression and tackling internal political threats, Bangladesh armed forces are of considerable help for reconstruction and rehabilitation in the aftermath of natural disasters which the country faces frequently.EconomicEconomic security is a term that is fraught with controversy, since in an interdependent global economic system it is difficult to achieve absolute security. In this era of globalization economic security is an inseparable element of comprehensive security, and the impact of both snobbish sector economic activities and governmental economic diplomacy are tempered as two sides of the same coin.16As a least highly- certain country (LDC) Bangladesh has certain in-built problems, (the most glaring being wide-spread poverty), that severely constrain the effective and independent conduct of its foreign policy. At present, the country is bring forward disadvantaged by the stiff competition that it has to face in the impertinent world especially with India. As has just been discussed, the globalization process offers both opportunities and poses challenges for the world, particularly for the developing countries. But Bangladesh, although poor in most respects, is not entirely without resources it has manpower (cheap labor), water resources, and mineral resources (coal, oil and gas). If mobilized effectively, its vast but homogeneous and resilient population could take advantage of the information technology. The patient of international trade has led to an increase in the level of usage creating about 1.5 million jobs in the export sector. Therefore, there is an urgent need for Bangladesh to conduct its economic diplomacy, with vigor and vision.Among the challenges being faced by Bangladesh are how to promote its economic prosperity in the dynamic, complex and highly agonistical world, and domestically to provide the foundation for the satisfactory performance of its economy. And how to attain this goal in an environment where major decisions affecting national life are often determined by the international market. For instance, interest rates are determined more by global trends than by national ones.another(prenominal) salient feature of the globalization phenomenon involves migration. So, it becomes imperative that Bangladesh make diplomatic efforts to make it possible for Bangladeshi people to work in other countries where there are better opportunities. In this era of competition, Bangladesh will not necessarily get what it deserves, but only what it can negociate. Bangladesh needs to take the advantage of the opportunities that globalization offers through the free flow of information and the use of side of meat as an international language. This would help produce a better apt workforce capable of competing at the international level.It also has to negotiate invidious access to the markets of the Western countries, as well as those of India and China. I n the case of India, asymmetry in the bilateral trade relations has to be redressed. It would, to some extent, depend on the negotiating skills of Bangladesh officials, as, to what extent they can ensure market access.(c)EnvironmentIn the environment sector Bangladesh faces a number of challenges concerning the control of the flow of the aggroup waters by India, desertification, deforestation, global warming, etc. Most of these problems originate or are caused by factors that are external to Bangladesh. Global warming, for instance, is a truly globalized phenomenon. It is estimated that a sea-level rise of 1 meter could lead to the immersion of as much as one-third of the coastal areas of Bangladesh, and in the process, may give rise to what is called the problem of environmental refugees, and threaten the territorial integrity of Bangladesh.Although the above-mentioned problems do not appear to pose any immediate threat to security of Bangladesh, these may do in the long run. by and by all, it must be borne in mind that, The environment, modified by human interference, sets the conditions for socio-political-economic life when these conditions are poor, life is poor.17(d) Socio-PoliticalA major focus of the new thinking in security studies is the socio-political conditions of the nation. Societal security is basically about identity of a group or community, and the political security is more about institutions and organizational security of the state. There can be a number of ways in which societal security could be threatened, for example, through migration and horizontal competition.18In the case of Bangladesh, its heathen identity could be thin out through the powerful cultural influence from foreign sources, especially from close set(predicate) neighbor India. Bangladesh faces a dilemma in this regard, since modernization involves adopting ideas and practices from more developed societies, while at the same time protecting its own cultural values an d identity.Political threats like terrorism, which is becoming increasingly lethal, for instance, could pose a serious challenge to the viability of a nascent democracy like Bangladesh, which is already assailed by a host of other problems.19This is a particularly negative aspect of globalization that is having a damaging impact on the security of Bangladesh, which may be subjected to what is termed as cultural militarization-that is, to the transformation of culture in ways that rather render violent responses to social problems normal and unexceptional. cultural militarization marginalizes non-violent strategies for conflict resolution, ultimately leading to the brutalization of society and the alter of human security institutions.20Bangladesh is also moving in that direction. Terrorism and the proliferation of light weapons are a dangerous combination, the incidence of which is increasing in Bangladesh due to the free flow of goods and porous borders.Poverty is another source o f risk for Bangladesh. But whether globalization as such would alleviate poverty is debatable. In the final analysis, it depends on the capacity of the government to mobilize resources in an optimum way. That is something that can be achieved is there is political stability inside the country. inability to achieve political stability would not only result in Bangladesh failure to take advantage of the incontrovertible aspects of globalization, but its foreign and economic policy agenda would be set outside the country.Discussion Globalization- Prospects and Challenges?It is fully clear that Bangladesh has vulnerabilities in practically all areas territorial, economic, environmental, and socio-Political. Bangladesh appears to be constrained as far dealing with its immediate neighbors are concerned, which means that it will need to cooperate with them despite the fact that its internal security and stability could be adversely affected by them. However this is not to deny the valu e of military power, which can always act as a deterrent. No matter how remote the possibility of aggression from the outside, Bangladesh should formulate a unplumbed defense policy. While there are both external and internal sources of threats, on balance the latter are perceived to be pose more serious challenges for the security, stability and prosperity of the country. The main objectives of Bangladeshs foreign policy, viz., upholding its sovereignty, cultural identity, ideology are challenged by the forces of globalization. At the same time, while these factors do pose threats, it is difficult to determine exactly when and how they will evolve into threats to national security.The most pressing task before Bangladesh is to achieve political stability otherwise, it will not be possible for its diplomats to project a positive image of the country. Foreign policy is, after all, is an extension of its domestic policy therefore, as long as Bangladesh is domestically not in order, it would not be realistic to expect it to have a credible and effective foreign policy.Despite the challenges confronting the security and foreign policy of Bangladesh, it is yet possible to hope for a prosperous future. The tragedy would be that, if it cannot compete and negotiate with the outside world from a position of strength, if cannot take advantage of the positive aspects of globalization, and if it fail to peacefully resolve its own domestic social and political problems, the process of development would be retard- taking perhaps several more costly decades, instead of one.Bangladesh needs to deal with challenges like transnational economic and financial forces, cross-border terrorism, arms and drug trafficking, climate change and environmental degradation through cooperation and coordinated efforts at both regional and international levels. The main purpose of Bangladeshs foreign policy in the present era should be minimizing the degree of vulnerabilities and reducing thr eats to its security, as well as possessing the ability to organise its security environment through an effective and realistic assessment of its national interests, and the production thereof through pragmatic and active diplomacy.ConclusionIt can therefore be argued that despite globalization, the real sources of Bangladeshs insecurity would continue to remain mainly domestic (which could be exacerbated and exploited by external sources), that requirement attention from within the state. The basic challenge facing Bangladesh is to comprehend the reputation of changes taking place in the international economy and to deal with them through creating conditions and institutions necessary for coping with a dynamic environment. Only the constructive efforts of a dynamic and modern state could achieve success in eliminating the main sources of insecurity. Otherwise, chances are that, widespread and endemic social and political conflict would take down it to the status of a failed stat e, with people becoming more concerned with individualized security than with national security.MAP OF BANGLADESH

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